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* Information on 40 different countries, including the United States
• Includes job sources, Internet sites, work permit/visa requirements, interviewing, and cultural advice
"Until The Global Resume and CV Guide, there has not been any information regarding country-specific job application guidelines for candidates who want to take the international job search into their own hands . . . The Global Guide is an outstanding resource."
-Daniel Mensch, Associate Partner, Andersen Consulting, Sweden
MASTER THE RULES OF THE GLOBAL JOB MARKET COUNTRY BY COUNTRY
Did you know that in Japan, the job application or rirekisho is a handwritten two-page form that is purchased from the local stationery store? That in the US, attaching a photo to your resume/cv is a faux pas that tells the employer you do not know the rules? That in Sweden, your resume/cv should be signed by someone who can attest that what you wrote is true? That in Korea, it is important to state on your resume/cv if you are the eldest child in the family?
Commerce has gone global, and so have careers. If you want to capitalize on rapidly expanding opportunities outside your native land, this unique, comprehensive guide gives you the knowledge you need to make your very best impression anywhere in the world. Experts from more than forty countries-from Argentina and the Baltics to Saudi Arabia,Thailand, the UK, and the US-share cultural do's and don'ts, business practices, and job-hunting tips and help you create a winning resume tailored to the specific requirements of your target nation.
How to Get the Job You Want in Any Country
• Country-by-country overviews of 40 countries in North and South America, Asia, Europe, the Baltics, and more
• How to match your resume/cv to the country
• Cover letters
• Job sources
• Internet sites
• Work permits and visas
• Interview tips
• Cultural advice
|Product dimensions:||8.50(w) x 10.93(h) x 0.79(d)|
About the Author
Mary Anne Thompson is an author and lecturer throughout Europe on a wide range of topics crucial to developing global employment strategies. Her career advice is featured in numerous publications, including Jobline, Europe's largest online employment network. In addition, she provides market research, strategic planning, and intercultural business communication training for companies interested in global market expansion.
An American, Ms. Thompson is also a lawyer and government relations specialist, with fourteen years' experience working with the federal government and private industry in Washington, DC. She served as an attorney and advisor to President Ronald Reagan in the White House and for Secretary of Transportation Elizabeth Dole. Her Web site is www.globalcareerguide.com
Read an Excerpt
Employment Advice by Country
Dr. José M. Llaberia, PricewaterhouseCoopers
The continental area of Argentina is approximately 2,800,000 square kilometers. It is the second largest country (in population and area) in South America, after Brazil. It is divided into 23 provinces and the federal district, Gobierno Autónomo de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires. Argentina comprises six major regions: northwestern, northeastern, western (Cuyo), central (Pampeana), southern (Patagonia), and the metropolitan area (city of Buenos Aires and environs). The climate ranges from tropical in the north to subantarctic in the south.
Almost 40 percent of the country's population live in Buenos Aires and the city's massive, sprawling suburbs. About 85 percent of the population are of European descent, primarily Spanish or Italian. Mestizos (people of mixed American Indian and Spanish ancestry) and blacks together make up a small percent of Argentina's 36 million people. Probably the best-known manifestation of the Argentine popular culture is the tangoa dance and music that have captured the imagination of romantics worldwide.
Despite its turbulent political history, Argentina has been a democracy since 1983 and has remained one of Latin America's most prosperous nations. The economy has been stabilized, and inflation is currently not a problem; gross domestic product (GDP) is US$ 283 billion. Government-owned companies have become privatized and the economy is now open to foreign investment. Nevertheless, the unemployment rate is around 18 percent.
It is hard to determine a social class among Argentineans. There is an upper class, a middle class, and a lower class. The middle class has grown weaker, resulting in a smaller upper-middle class. Today, there is a noticeable difference in income distribution between the higher and lower social classes.
In presenting your academic qualifications, start with a description of your college/university education. State the name of the educational institution, graduation year, major, title of the degree, and grade point average (in Argentina, 10 points is the maximum). Briefly describe any student internship or diploma work (thesis), including length of time and subject. Continue with a description of any postgraduate or master's degree. State the name of the institution, your graduation year, grade point average, and if you have studied abroad.
Note: After high school (secondary school) in Argentina, one may go on to earn a college degree at the university or an intermediate-level degree (terciario), which may be obtained either at the university or at a special institute.
After describing your college/university studies, briefly review your high school education. List the name of the school, your graduation year, grade point average, and whether you studied abroad.
Note: In Argentina, high schools allow different specialization areas for study. These may be industrial (industrial), commercial (comercial), or humanities (bachiller).
You may describe the extracurricular activities in which you participated, such as arranging different types of student activities, working within the student administration, and so on.
List any awards or honors received for scholastic achievement.
Additional Education/Specialized Training
Any additional college or university courses should be mentioned in this context. Also, include courses or training in specialized areas. Specify the institution where you attended the course, and the title. State the period of time in which you performed each activity and/or the number of hours that the activity demanded (for example, "from June 1999 to August 1999: 60 hours").
Start by listing the name of your current (or most recent) employer. Describe some characteristics of the company, such as: principal activities or products, sales, turnover, headquarters, and country of origin. Specify the employment dates and your job title. If you have held different positions within the same company, it is important that you list them all, mentioning the period of time corresponding to each one, starting with the most recent.
Give the details of your work and your field of responsibility, number of people under supervision and their positions, type of tasks you perform(ed), as well as principal achievements. Emphasize information that is relevant to the position for which you are applying. You may add information about the contractual relationship with the company and whether it was a full-time or part-time job.
Shorter periods of employment performed prior to your professional career should not be mentioned if they are not relevant. If there are any gaps in your employment history, or if you have held different positions in several companies for brief periods of time, it is important that you explain the reasons for the situation.
Any awards or special recognition received during employment should be highlighted.
Proficiency in foreign languages and knowledge of specific computer skills should be noted. Depending on the position, it may be important to mention if you have participated in the implementation of an ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning).
List any professional affiliations relevant to your focus area. Include information about your involvement with special activities within the organization or any leadership roles.
It is not necessary to include information in your resume/CV about your military service (which is no longer mandatory in Argentina).
You are not expected to include this kind of information, although it could be mentioned during a personal interview. Nevertheless, you may include a brief list of activities with associations, clubs, or areas of personal interest (connected to sports, charities, etc.).
You must include your date and place of birth, marital status (in Argentina, "civil" status refers to marital status), and personal identification number. You may include the number of children you have and their ages, although it is not necessary. You are not expected to describe your personal interests.
Note: Never mention religious or political beliefs, views, or interests.
Provide a list of references connected to your professional experience, such as previous employers. Those people should be well acquainted with your work performance and be rather recent in time.
Format and Layout
Your resume/CV should present a clear picture of what you are able to do and what type of job you are interested in. You may include information about your personal interests or hobbies; however, it is better to mention this information in a personal interview.
Note: In Argentina, if you are not applying for a specific position, it is very common to include, after the name and address data, a section entitled "Objectives." In that part you explain the types of activities you are interested in pursuing.
Begin your resume/CV by describing either your educational background or your professional experience. It is better to begin with your most recent experience (reverse chronological order). Use a business letter format.
Your resume/CV should be no longer than three pages.
Copies of your grades, certificates, and letters of reference will be requested when necessary. Do not include them with your CV. You may include a small photo to personalize your application.
It is highly appreciated by Argentinean employers to receive information and have the ability to contact applicants through e-mail.
An application should always include a personalized cover letter, and preferably two copies of a complete resume (one in Spanish and the other in English). The cover letter should be brief and specific.
Note: A typed application in letter format is preferred, but you may be requested to send a handwritten letter as well. In Argentina, some companies perform graphological studies of handwritten documents.
If you are responding to an employment ad, your response should be sent as soon as possible. An instantaneous response shows the future employer your strong interest in the position and the company.
Your cover letter should start with a phrase stating the position for which you are applying. The content of the letter should present a clear picture of your personality. It also provides a good opportunity to show your special interest in the position and the particular company. Your letter should be concise and clear.
Begin by describing your education, job title, years of experience in comparable positions, and the companies where you have been performing similar activities. Also include a description of key achievements. Continue by explaining why you are interested in this particular position. Describe what experiences, characteristics, or skills you have that may be valuable to the company. Although it is important to appear to be self-confident and to catch the reader's attention, do not overstate the facts. You should not use colors or features that will distract the reader.
If it is required, include details concerning your ability to relocate and your availability for travel, and so on. Please note: Often the applicant's salary preference is requested in the employment advertisement. If so, you are expected to mention that information in the cover letter. End your letter by stating you are very interested in scheduling an interview so that you can describe your experiences and interests in more detail.
JOB INFORMATION SOURCES
The main daily papers that contain employment ads are Clarín and La Nacíon. Both of them cover the entire country and have complete recruitment supplements that are published on Sunday. At times, it is possible to find ads published in different languages (e.g., English, German, Portuguese, etc.). Recruitment ads are also published in the economical supplements. You may also find some employment ads published on the papers' web sites.
Phone: (05411) 4348-7746
Web site: www.clasificados.clarin.com.ar
Phone: (05411) 4318-8888
Web site: www.lanacion.com.ar
Chambers of Commerce
Argentino Británica (British Chamber of Commerce in Argentina)
Fax: (54-11) 4312-9001
Argentino Brasilera (Brazilian Chamber of Commerce in Argentina)
Fax: (54-11) 4812-9466
Argentino Austríaca (Austrian Chamber of Commerce in Argentina)
Fax: (54-11) 4394-2168
AmCham (American Chamber of Commerce in Argentina)
Fax: (54-11) 4371-8400
Franco Argentina (French Chamber of Commerce in Argentina)
Fax: (54-11) 4331-2494
Italiana (Italian Chamber of Commerce in Argentina)
Fax: (54-11) 4816-5902
Suizo Argentina (Swiss Chamber of Commerce in Argentina)
Fax: (54-11) 4312-8573
It is not common for companies to advertise open positions on their web sites. However, if you are interested in a particular company, you could send your resume by e-mail. There are several new employment web sites in Spanish:
Telephone Directory/Industry Directories
In the telephone directory Yellow Pages, you will find companies listed under the relevant trade headings. There is also a compact disc (CD) version. This can be a fruitful way to start looking for companies in your field of interest. There are also different directories for various industries where you can find data related to the companies in a particular industry.
Expatriate employees with long-term assignments in Argentina, and any accompanying family, require at least a temporary visa, which represents a work permit valid for one to three years. The temporary visa may be renewed for one-year periods. In addition, after the first visa has expired, the expatriate may also apply for a permanent visa. Temporary and permanent visas are obtained by filing identity papers, good conduct certificates, and health certificates issued by the Argentine consulate in the country of origin and a written petition to the Argentine Immigration Authority. For further information, see the web site: www.migraciones.gov.ar.
Residence and Work Permits
Residence and work permits are required for all foreign citizens who want to work in Argentina. The company that wants to hire you is in charge of applying for the work permit after you have signed an employment contract. A written offer of employment must accompany the work permit application. Work permits are processed and approved by Dirección Nacional de Migraciones (National Directorate of Migration). The telephone number is (54-11) 4317-0200, and the e-mail address is info@ migraciones.gov.ar.
Note: All persons employed in Argentina are required to pay income tax. Depending on your country of origin, there might be a special arrangement to avoid double imposition of the social security tax. If you are a director of a firm, you have to pay into the pension fund as an "autonomous" (independent) worker.
- Many important international companies from all over the world have been established in Argentina. You should be aware that their management styles, values, and cultural characteristics are quite different from one another.
- Other international companies, in order to set up branches in Argentina, have acquired local companies in recent years. Those acquired companies, which used to have vertical structures, are now initiating change programs to modernize their processes and structures to remain competitive. Therefore, you should be prepared to face a changing business environment.
- It is rare that an employment advertisement mentions a specific person to contact. The person in charge of recruiting (an internal or external recruiter or headhunter) will get in touch with you if you fulfill the position requirements. Nevertheless, if the name of a person is listed in the advertisement, you may contact him or her after sending your resume, to introduce yourself or ask for additional information. However, do not persistently telephone to check the status of the recruitment process.
- Once the personal interview is set up, it is important to be punctual. Informal attitudes, incorrect vocabulary, and casual clothing are not appropriate.
- Express your ideas in a clear and concise way. Explain in detail what you consider relevant. Always respond directly, but not aggressively, to the questions. If you do not understand a question, it is better to ask the interviewer to rephrase the question than to change the subject or not answer what you are asked. You are expected to appear self-confident, but not dominant. In competitive environments, aggressive and ambitious characteristics are appreciated. Nevertheless, one should not exceed what is considered to be appropriate behavior.
- It is common that interviewers ask for personal information during the meeting. Some people from other countries may consider the requested information to be too confidential or private. In this case, you should explain that you feel uncomfortable with that type of question, but never do so in a manner that faults or blames the interviewer.
- Bank, government, and other business offices are open from Monday through Friday, usually during the morning and to some extent in the early afternoon.
- Business offices sometimes close for lunch for one to two hours, between 1:00 and 3:00 P.M.
- Dinner often begins at 9:00 or 10:00 P.M. Argentines are accustomed to working overtime (although they may not receive extra payment). It is not unusual to leave the office at 7:00 or 8:00 P.M.
- Annual vacation (two to five weeks) is taken between December and March. This period is a difficult time for conducting new business.
- While Argentines dress casually for most recreational activities, informal dress is normally inappropriate for conducting business, dining at some restaurants, and formal events. Earrings or long hair on men could be considered informal and not appropriate for a business setting.
- Women were not expected to assume high positions in business several years ago. Today, they are performing key managerial functions in many important companies. Their contributions to the development of business have risen dramatically. However, in some traditional industrial companies the old concept remains.
Table of Contents
Introduction: Give the World a Twirl.
EMPLOYMENT ADVICE BY COUNTRY.
The Baltic States: Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia.
China by: PricewaterhouseCoopers.
China by: Amrop International.
Republic of Korea.
Spain and Portugal.
Interviewing across Cultures.
RESUME/CV SAMPLES FROM AROUND THE WORLD.
AIESECGrowing Tomorrow's Global Leaders.
The Global Experts in Executive Search and Recruitment.
About the Contributors.
About the Author.