Global Weirdness summarizes everything we know about the science of climate change, explains what is likely to happen to the climate in the future, and lays out, in practical terms, what we can do to avoid further shifts. In fifty easy-to-read entries, Climate Central tackles basic questions such as:
-Is climate ever “normal”?
-Why and how do fossil-fuel burning and other human practices produce greenhouse gases?
-What natural forces have caused climate change in the past?
-What risks does climate change pose for human health?
-What accounts for the diminishment of mountain glaciers and small ice caps around the world since 1850?
-What are the economic costs and benefits of reducing carbon emissions?
Illustrated throughout with clarifying graphics, Global Weirdness enlarges our understanding of how climate change affects our daily lives, and arms us with the incontrovertible facts we need to make informed decisions about the future of the planet, and of humankind.
|Publisher:||Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group|
|Product dimensions:||5.13(w) x 7.96(h) x 0.66(d)|
About the Author
This book was produced collectively by scientists and journalists at Climate Central, a nonprofit, nonpartisan science and journalism organization. The book was written by Emily Elert and Michael D. Lemonick; prior to external scientific peer review, it was reviewed by staff scientists Philip Duffy, Ph.D. (Chief Scientist), Nicole Heller, Ph.D. (ecosystems and adaptation), Alyson Kenward, Ph.D. (chemistry), Eric Larson, Ph.D. (energy systems), and Claudia Tebaldi, Ph.D. (climate statistics).
Read an Excerpt
In February 2010, Thomas Friedman made the following plea in his New York Times column:
Although there remains a mountain of research from multiple institutions about the reality of climate change, the public has grown uneasy. What’s real? In my view, the climate-science community should convene its top experts—from places like NASA, America’s national laboratories, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Stanford, the California Institute of Technology and the U.K. Met Office Hadley Centre—and produce a simple 50-page report. They could call it “What We Know,” summarizing everything we already know about climate change in language that a sixth grader could under- stand, with unimpeachable peer-reviewed footnotes.
We couldn’t agree more. It’s quite remarkable that despite the steady growth in scientific understanding about the causes and effects of climate change, and the growing confidence of climate scientists that it poses a potentially serious threat to people, property, and ecosystems, the public seems more confused than ever. Is climate change really happening? If so, and if it’s happened due to natural causes in the past, why should we think it’s our fault this time? Haven’t scientists been wrong before? They can’t even predict the weather a week in advance; how can they possibly say anything about what the climate will be like fifty years from now?
A big part of the problem is that climatology is a relatively young and evolving field. Scientists are still learning about Earth’s climate system—about how the land, oceans, and atmosphere absorb heat from the sun and move that heat around, and about how heat drives storms, droughts, sea-level rise, heat waves, and more.
But just because they don’t know everything about the climate doesn’t mean they know nothing. Far from it. They know for certain (and they’ve known for more than a hundred years) that carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere traps the sun’s heat. They know that burning fossil fuels including coal, oil, and natural gas adds extra CO2 to the atmosphere beyond what’s already there naturally. They know that humans have been burning more and more fossil fuels since the Indus- trial Revolution and that, as a result, levels of CO2 in the atmosphere are more than a third higher than they were a couple hundred years ago. No responsible scientist, including most of those who have been labeled “climate skeptics,” argues with any of this.
There’s also very little argument over what the broad effects of an increase in CO2 should be. The planet should get warmer. Sea level should begin to rise as warming ocean waters expand and as the warmer air melts glaciers and ice caps. That is exactly what both ground-based and satellite measurements have shown. On average, the oceans are about eight inches higher than they were in 1900, and the temperature is about 1.3°F hotter.
Things get more complicated when scientists try to predict what’s likely to happen in the future. The reason is that Earth doesn’t just respond passively to increasing temperatures: it can react in all sorts of ways that might boost the temperature rise or hold it back—and scientists haven’t yet unraveled all of these possibilities. Increasing cloud cover could reflect extra sunlight back into space. Decreasing ice cover in the Arctic could do the opposite. Melting Arctic permafrost might release extra carbon that has been in a deep freeze for hundreds of thousands of years. It’s also not clear precisely how the changes in temperature will translate into changes in local conditions, although it’s very likely that familiar weather and climate patterns will change, perhaps in surprising ways. That’s why this book isn’t titled “Global Warming,” but rather “Global Weirdness,” since warming is only part of what we can expect.
These uncertainties are one reason the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, or IPCC, could only narrow the likely temperature rise by 2100 to between 3.2ºF and 7.2ºF above what it was in 2000. Another reason is that we don’t know if fossil-fuel use will keep going up, or level off, or decline over that period.
This isn’t to say that literally every climate scientist agrees with these findings. Some think that the temperature rise will be less than 3.2ºF, while others think it could be more than 7.2ºF. But there’s no field in science, from genetics to evolutionary biology to astrophysics, where agreement is absolute. The reports issued periodically by the IPCC are meant to be snapshots of what climate scientists generally agree on at a given time (the most recent report came out in 2007; the next one is due out in 2013 or 2014). And despite some very public criticisms about the organization and its procedures, several independent investigations have shown only a tiny handful of scientific errors in the thousands of pages that make up the reports themselves. The same is true of the so-called Climategate episode, in which a few scientists said intemperate things in private e-mails and were somewhat sloppy in their record keeping. Outside investigators have found them guilty of carelessness but didn’t find anything to cast doubt on the science itself.
Responsible scientists also know that it’s important to keep questioning their own results. “The first principle,” the physicist Richard Feynman once said, “is that you must not fool yourself—and you are the easiest person to fool.” He meant that scientists need to consider all plausible explanations for what they observe, not just the most obvious or conventional. If Earth is warming, it’s probably due to greenhouse gases, but it could instead be that the sun is putting out more heat. Scientists have looked carefully at that possibility, and it doesn’t seem to hold up. They’ve also looked at the role of volcanoes and other natural factors that have caused warming or cooling in the past, and so far nothing explains the warming as well as greenhouse gases do.
Finally, the public has undoubtedly been confused by statements about climate change that sound authoritative but are simply false. Take the often-repeated assertion that global warming stopped in 1998. If you look at a graph spanning the years 1998–2010, that might appear to be close to the truth. But 1998 was an unusually warm year, so it’s a misleading starting point. If you start in 1997 or 1999, things look very different. And if you zoom out to look at a graph spanning the years 1900–2010, it’s clear that the first decade of the twenty-first century is warmer than any decade during that 110-year period.
All of this wouldn’t matter very much if we were talking about a field like astrophysics. It ultimately doesn’t matter whether there’s a black hole in the center of the Milky Way or not. But if the effects of climate change are going to be truly disruptive, the problem would be dangerous to ignore. If they’re not, we risk diverting a lot of resources for no reason. The difficulty is that if we wait until scientists are absolutely certain about every detail, it will be impossible to undo the damage, whatever it turns out to be.
So it’s crucial for the public and for policy makers to understand what we do know about climate change; what we strongly suspect to be true, based on the available evidence; and what we’re still uncertain about. Such knowledge is necessary to make informed decisions.
This book is an attempt to do just that: to lay out the current state of knowledge about climate change, with explanations of the underlying science given in clear and simple language. It’s not exhaustive, but it covers the essentials. Since many aspects of the climate system are interconnected, so are many of the chapters: some of the information in the book appears in some form in more than one chapter.
In order to be as credible as possible, we’ve taken great care to avoid bias. We acknowledge that some aspects of the problem can’t yet be addressed with certainty. We also make clear what climate scientists do know with a high degree of confidence.
To ensure technical accuracy, each chapter has been carefully reviewed internally by Climate Central scientists and revised in response to their comments. The chapters have then been reviewed again by eminent outside scientists who have particular expertise in the relevant subject areas—and then, if necessary, revised again.
The result, we believe, is an accurate overview of the state of climate science as it exists today.
A final note: we can’t promise that all sixth graders will understand every word of this book. But we’ve tried to keep the language as simple, straightforward, and jargon-free as possible. We hope you find it useful.
Table of Contents
I What the Science Says
1 "Normal Climate" Meant Something Different to the Dinosaurs and the Woolly Mammoths than It Does to Us 13
2 The Climate Has Changed Dramatically in the Past 15
3 Our Ancestors Survived Climate Change. But It Wasn't Always Pretty 18
4 Dinosaurs Didn't Drive Gas-Guzzlers or Use Air-Conditioning 21
5 Carbon Dioxide Is Like a Planetwide Sweat Suit (Sort Of) 25
6 "Global Warming" or "Climate Change"? Doesn't Matter, It's All the Same 27
7 Weather Is Not Climate. Climate Is Not Weather. Except They Kind of Are 29
8 On Venus, the Greenhouse Effect Makes It Hot Enough to Melt Lead 31
9 Carbon Dioxide Is Only Part of the Problem 33
10 Once We .Invented the Steam Engine, Climate Change Was Pretty Much Inevitable 37
11 The Ozone Hole Is Not Global Warming. Global Warming Is Not the Ozone Hole 39
12 The Northern Hemisphere Has Heated Up More in the Past Half Century than in Any Similar Period Going Back Many Hundreds of Years 41
13 Coal Alone Churns Out 20 Percent of Human Greenhouse Emissions 44
14 A Quarter of the CO2 in the Atmosphere Comes from Fossil Fuels, and It's on the Way Up 46
15 If We Stopped Burning Fossil Fuels, We'd Keep Emitting Greenhouse Gases 49
16 No Natural Force Has Been Able to Explain the Recent Warming 51
17 CO2 Could Stay in the Air for Hundreds or Thousands of Years, Trapping Heat the Whole Time 54
18 Extra CO2 Going into the Sea Is Making the Ocean More Acidic 56
19 Cutting Down Forests Means More CO2 Stays in the Atmosphere 59
20 Stop All Greenhouse Emissions and the Temperature Will Keep Going Up 61
21 Want an Exact Number for How Warm It Will Get? Sorry, Scientists Don't Have One 63
22 Melting Ice Makes the Ocean Rise-but It's Not the Only Factor 66
23 Nobody Ever Said Global Warming Means Every Year Will Be Hotter than the Last 70
24 Nobody Ever Said the Whole World Will Warm Up at the Same Rate 72
25 The Poles Are Warming Faster than Other Places. That's Just What Climate Scientists Predicted 75
II What's Actually Happening
26 The Atmosphere Now Holds a Record Amount of CO2-Unless You Go Back Half a Million Years or More 81
27 Sea Level Is Eight Inches Higher than It Was in 1900 83
28 Earth's Temperature Is About 1.4°F Higher than It Was in 1900 85
29 The Continental United States Had Twice as Many Record-High Temperatures During the First Decade of the Twenty-First Century as Record Lows 87
30 Glaciers and Ice Caps Have Been Shrinking Since About 1850 89
31 Greenland Is Losing Ice Faster All the Time 91
32 Polar Bears Will Suffer as Sea Ice Continues to Melt 95
33 The Growing Season in the Continental United States Is Two Weeks Longer than It Was in 1900 98
34 Ecosystems Around the World Are Already Seeing Big Changes as the Climate Warms 103
35 Some Species Can Adapt to Changing Climate a lot Better than Others 107
36 The Arctic Has Been Losing Ice Much Faster than the Antarctic. That's Just What Scientists Expected 110
37 Arctic Sea Ice Has Been on a Mostly Downward Spiral for the Past Thirty Years 112
38 Droughts, Torrential Rains, and Other Extreme Weather Are Happening More Often than They Used To 116
39 Rising Ocean Temperatures Are Causing a Major Die-Off in Corals 120
III What's Likely to Happen in the Future
40 Computer Models Aren't Perfect. This Isn't a Big Surprise 125
41 Since We Don't Know Whether and How Much People Might Cut Greenhouse-Gas Emissions, It's Hard to Know Exactly How High the Temperature Will Go by 2100 128
42 An Imperfect but Still Pretty Good Prediction: Sea Level Will Rise Two to Six Feet by 2100. But That Could Change 132
43 The Effects of Greenhouse Gases Won't Magically Stop in 2100 135
44 Best Guess About Atlantic Hurricanes in the Future: Fewer, but More Powerful 138
45 Whatever Happens with Hurricanes, Higher Sea Level Will Make the Storm Surges They Cause More Destructive 141
46 Climate Change Will Force People to Move, but Whether It's a Million People or a Hundred Million Is Hard to Say 143
47 Climate Change Can Be Bad for Your Health 145
48 Climate Change Can Be Bad for the Health of Entire Species, and Even for Their Survival 149
49 Freshwater Will Become Scarcer 153
50 Droughts Will Probably Come More Often 157
51 Climate Change Is Likely to Destabilize the Food Supply 159
IV Can We Avoid the Risks of Climate Change?
52 Who Says a 2°C Temperature Rise Won't Bring Really Bad Consequences? Not Scientists 165
53 Using Ethanol in Your Car Can Reduce Emissions-but Not Always by a lot 168
54 Burning Coal Doesn't Necessarily Mean Emitting Greenhouse Gases 171
55 Wind Energy Can't Solve Our Emissions Problem by Itself. Neither Can Other Renewables 174
56 Energy Costs Are Likely to Rise in the Short Term if We Limit Carbon Emissions 180
57 Nuclear Energy Is Essentially Carbon-Free. That Doesn't Mean It's Without Issues 183
58 Even If We Can't Reduce Emissions, Futuristic Technology Could Save Us. Maybe. And It Could Be Risky 186
59 If We Made It Easier for Plants and Animals to Relocate, We Might Prevent Some Species from Going Extinct 190
60 Reducing Emissions Has Benefits and Costs. But It's Hard to Pin Down Exactly What They Are 193
Epilogue: The IPCC Is What, Exactly? 197
List of Outside References 213
What People are Saying About This
“Without talking down to readers, the authors do a masterful job of clarifying all aspects of a complicated and alarming topic, making it that much more difficult for global-warming denialists to keep their heads in the sand.” –Booklist
"With quippy titles, helpful summaries, and a jargon-free writing style, Climate Central integrates scientific, historical, and sociological facts in an appealing and informative manner.... A great starter text on climate-change issuesfans of Bill McKibben will enjoy this work and then pass it along to skeptical friends." –Library Journal
“An ideal introduction to the facts about global warming . . . Lucidly written and thoughtful.”
“An easily digestible read, with most chapters less than three pages long. Divided into four sections (‘What the Science Says,’ ‘What’s Actually Happening,’ ‘What’s Likely to Happen in the Future,’ and ‘Can We Avoid the Risks of Climate Change?’), the book covers all the basics, including descriptions of Earth’s previous climates and how hard it is for different cultures to adjust to changes; the difference between weather and climate; the greenhouse effect; and how climate scientists’ predictions are coming true.”
“Slim and elegant…written in the kind of plain English of which Strunk and White would approve, that lays out what we know about climate change while hewing to the facts and taking great care to avoid bias and hysteria.”
—The New York Times
“Written in straightforward prose and fact-checked by the world’s eminent climate scholars, Global Weirdness reads like the 9/11 Commission Report: all of the facts, none of the hyperbole. In four succinct sections, its authors detail the truth about climate change.”
—CBS Smart Planet
“a breath of fresh air: just the facts, efficient and easy to understand. It’ll be within arm’s reach of my own desk.”
“Global Weirdness is probably the weirdest book about global warming you’re going to read…because it’s nonpartisan, making absolutely zero attempts to agitate for legislation.”
—Time Out Chicago
“so welcome…explains climate change in simple, easy-to-understand language and ultrashort chapters.”
—Mark Bittman, The New York Times
“This primer on the science of global warming provides a fact-filled explanation of how climate change impacts, and will continue to impact, our daily lives. The 60 concise and easily digestible chapters tackle such questions as: Is climate ever ‘normal’? What risks does climate change pose for human health? What are the economic costs and benefits of reducing carbon emissions? The authors are up-front about the potential downfalls of alternative energy and technological fixes.”
“Written in language that most people can understand, with nine pages of supporting scientific references, the book probably comes as close as possible to satisfying journalist Thomas Friedman’s 2010 public plea in The New York Times for a report ‘summarizing everything we already know about climate change in language a sixth grader could understand, with unimpeachable peer-reviewed footnotes’…A concise summary for anyone who wants a better understanding of what is happening to the planet and the possible actions that can be taken.”
—Santa Fe New Mexican’s Pasatiempto
Most Helpful Customer Reviews
Michael D. Lemonick is a co-author. He was a writer for TIME magazine on science for many years and he knows how to take complicated material and make it easy, actionable and understandable. This is a terrific asset when it comes to writing about the topic of climate change where people see it as too complicated and want to throw up their hands. Buy a hardcover of this book, read it and then pass it around, especially to folks who "don't know if climate changes are really happening." Do that and you'll be doing something about climate change. . .
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