Glossing the Psalms: The Emergence of the Written Vernaculars in Western Europe from the Seventh to the Twelfth Centuries
Glossing the Psalms: The Emergence of the Written Vernaculars in Western Europe from the Seventh to the Twelfth Centuries

Glossing the Psalms: The Emergence of the Written Vernaculars in Western Europe from the Seventh to the Twelfth Centuries

by Alderik H. Blom

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Overview

This study proposes a new view of glossing as a universal phenomenon. Starting from the Psalter, a centrepiece of devotion and education in early medieval Europe, it combines historical sociolinguistics, comparative philology, manuscript studies and cultural history in order to assess and compare the interface of Latin with Old Irish, Old English, Old Frisian, Old Saxon and Old High German within the context of its multilingual and textual culture.

The close study of thirteen glossed manuscripts, such as the Anglo-Saxon Vespasian Psalter and the Old Irish Milan Glosses, reveals when and why scribes switched from Latin into the vernacular, how the vernacular was used in studying Latin, how glosses interact with construe marks and punctuation, and how such manuscripts were intended to be read in a period covering the seventh to the twelfth centuries and in an area stretching from Ireland to Central Europe.

The book is an essential textbook for specialists in the growing field of glossing, and also reaches out to scholars of early medieval liturgy, education, palaeography and Christian literature.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9783110500370
Publisher: De Gruyter
Publication date: 05/08/2017
Pages: 338
Product dimensions: 6.10(w) x 9.06(h) x (d)
Age Range: 18 Years

About the Author

Alderik Blom, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Table of Contents

Acknowledgements vii

Table of Contents ix

List of Abbreviations xv

Part I

Chapter 1 Introduction and Scope 3

1.1 Introduction 3

1.2 Structure of the Book 5

1.3 Summary 6

Chapter 2 Glosses and Glossing 9

2.1 What is meant by the Word 'Gloss'? 9

2.2.1 Glosses and Glossators 12

2.2.2 'Paratextual Networks': Glosses, Glossaries and Commentaries 14

2.3 Glossing, Glosses and Glossaries in the Medieval West 16

2.4 Functions and Types of Glossing 26

2.4.1 Introduction 26

2.4.2 Formal Aspects of Glossing: Script, Form and Location 27

2.4.3 Functional Aspects of Glossing 29

2.4.3.1 Substitution Glosses 29

2.4.3.2 Supplement Glosses 32

2.4.3.3 Commentary Glosses 34

Chapter 3 The Psalms 37

3.1 The Psalms in Monastic Life 37

3.2 The Text of the Latin Psalter 38

3.2.1 Spread and Use of the Different Psalter Versions 40

3.2.2 The Canticles 42

3.3 Psalm Commentaries 42

3.3.1 Introduction 42

3.3.2 The Latin Fathers 44

3.3.3 The Early Middle Ages 46

3.4 Psalm Headings (tituli), Collects and Prefaces 48

3.5 Manuscript Presentation: Layout and Punctuation 50

Chapter 4 Two Psalters with Text Glossing: The Southampton and St Caimín Psalters 55

4.1 Introduction 55

4.2 The Southampton Psalter 55

4.2.1 The mise-en-page 56

4.2.2 Analysis 58

4.2.2.1 Latin Glossing 58

4.2.2.1.1 The First Stratum (G1) 59

4.2.2.1.2 The Second Stratum (G2) 62

4.2.2.2 Irish Glossing 64

4.2.2.2.1 The First Stratum (G1) 65

4.2.2.2.2 The Second Stratum (G2) 69

4.2.2.2.3 A Sample Analysis of Ps 77:46-47 73

4.3 The Psalter of St Caimín 76

4.3.1 The mise-en-page 76

4.3.2 Analysis 79

4.3.2.1 Latin Glossing: Principal Text 79

4.3.2.2 Irish Glossing: Principal Text 82

4.3.2.3 Irish Glossing: Paratext 85

4.4 Conclusion 87

Chapter 5 Two Glossed Commentaries: The Milan and Vatican Commentaries 91

5.1 Introduction 91

5.2 Milan, Biblioteca Ambrosiana, C.301 inf 91

5.2.1 Text and mise-en-page 92

5.2.1.1 Principal Text 92

5.2.1.2 Paratext 93

5.2.2 Analysis 95

5.2.2.1 Example 1 95

5.2.2.2 Example 2 98

5.2.2.3 Example 3 101

5.2.3 Irish Glossing 104

5.2.3.1 Form 104

5.2.3.2 Function and Typology 108

5.2.4 Latin Glossing 110

5.3 Vatican City, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, Pal. lat. 68 112

5.3.1 PrincipalText 113

5.3.2 Analysis 114

5.3.2.1 Example 1 115

5.3.2.2 Example 2 117

5.3.3 Latin Glosses 118

5.3.4 Old English Glosses 120

5.3.5 Old Irish Glosses 122

5.3.5.1 Substitution Glosses 123

5.3.5.2 Commentary Glosses 126

5.4 Conclusion 127

Part II

Chapter 6 Introduction to interlinear Versions 131

6.1 Introduction 131

6.2 West Germanic Interlinear Versions 132

6.3 Layout, Structure and Function of Interlinear Versions 135

Chapter 7 The Old Alemannic Psalter Fragments 141

7.1 Manuscript and Principal Text 141

7.2 Dialectal Affiliation, Date and Provenance 143

7.3 Historical Background 145

7.4 Analysis 146

7.5 Punctuation 154

Chapter 8 The Vespasian Psalter 161

8.1 Manuscript and Principal Text 161

8.2 Dialect, Date and Provenance 162

8.3 Analysis 164

8.3.1 Substitution Glossing and Agreement 164

8.3.2 Supplement Glossing 168

8.3.3 Structure and Glossing Strategy 169

8.4 Conclusion 172

Chapter 9 The 'Lublin/Wittenberg' Fragments 175

9.1 Manuscript and Principal Text 175

9.2 Script, Dialect and Provenance 177

9.3 Analysis 180

9.3.1 Types of Glossing and Agreement 180

9.3.2 Structure and Glossing Strategy 185

9.4 Conclusion 187

Chapter 10 The Regius Psalter 189

10.1 Introduction 189

10.2 Script and Text 190

10.3 Analysis 192

10.3.1 Layout, Substitution Glossing and Agreement 192

10.3.2 Other Types of Glossing 197

10.3.2.1 Supplement Glosses 197

10.3.2.2 Commentary Glosses 199

10.3.3 Structure and Glossing Strategy 200

10.4 Conclusion 202

Chapter 11 The Paderborn Fragment 205

11.1 Introduction 205

11.2 Analysis 206

Chapter 12 The Lambeth Psalter 209

12.1 Introduction 209

12.2 Text and mise-en-page 210

12.3 Analysis 213

12.3.1 Construe Marks in the Principal Text 214

12.3.2 Construe Marks in the Paratext 217

12.3.3 Types of Glossing 221

12.3.3.1 Substitution Glosses 221

12.3.3.2 Supplement Glosses 223

12.3.3.3 Commentary Glosses 226

12.3.4 Structure and Glossing Strategy 226

12.4 Conclusion 229

Chapter 13 The Old Frisian Psalter Fragment 231

13.1 Introduction 231

13.2 Analysis 233

Chapter 14 Interlinear Versions: Conclusion 241

Part III

Chapter 15 Glossaries 245

15.1 Introduction 245

15.2 The Leiden/Rz Family and the Mondsee Glossary (M) 246

15.3 The Relationship between Manuscripts Clm 19440 and Clm 18140 250

15.3.1 Introduction 250

15.3.2 The Manuscripts 252

15.3.2.1 Clm 19440 (BStK 665) 252

15.3.2.2 Clm 18140 (BStK 637) 255

15.3.3 Treatment of Material taken from Clm 19440 257

15.3.3.1 General 257

15.3.3.2 Glosses from Clm 10440 Altered in Transmission 260

15.3.4 Material Not Derived from Clm 19440 267

15.3.4.1 Substitution Glosses 267

15.3.4.2 Other Additional Entries 268

15.3.4.3 Commentary Glosses 270

15.3.5 Latin and Old High German in Clm 19440 and Clm 18140 273

15.3.6 Conclusion 281

Chapter 16 Glossing the Psalms: Comparisons and Conclusions 285

16.1 Processes of Glossing: Compilation, Copying and Transmission 285

16.2 Paratextual Networks 287

16.3 Glossing: A Formal and Functional Analysis 288

16.4 The Uses of Glossed Manuscripts and Glossaries 292

16.5 Epilogue 293

Appendix: Functions and Types of Glosses 295

Bibliography 297

Manuscript Index 323

Subject Index 327

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