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Glucose Syrups: Technology and Applications / Edition 1

Glucose Syrups: Technology and Applications / Edition 1

by Peter Hull


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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781405175562
Publisher: Wiley
Publication date: 03/29/2010
Pages: 388
Product dimensions: 7.00(w) x 9.70(h) x 1.10(d)

About the Author

Peter Hull has worked in the glucose industry for over forty years, mainly in process development and customer applications. During this time he has worked with major companies in the UK, continental Europe, Russia and Australia. He has also acted as a syrup consultant to the food industry and is a member of the Institute of Food Science and Technology.

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Table of Contents


A note on nomenclature


Chapter 1 History of glucose syrups

1.1 Historical developments

1.2 Analytical developments

1.3 Process developments

Chapter 2 Fructose containing syrups

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Commercial development

2.3 Europe and the HFGS (isoglucose) production quota

2.4 Inulin

Chapter 3 Glucose syrup manufacture

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Reducing sugars

3.3 Starch

3.4 Enzymes

3.5 The process

3.6 Acid hydrolysis

3.7 Acid enzyme hydrolysis

3.8 Paste Enzyme Enzyme hydrolysis (PEE)

3.9 Crystalline dextrose production

3.10 Total sugar production

3.11 Enzyme enzyme hydrolysis (E/E)

3.12 Isomerisation

3.13 Syrups for particular applications

3.14 Summary of typical sugar spectra produced by differentprocesses

Chapter 4 Explanation of glucose syrup specifications

4.1 Introduction

4.2 What specification details mean?

4.3 Dry products

4.4 Syrup problems and their possible causes

4.5 Bulk tank installation

4.6 Bulk tank design

Chapter 5 Application properties of glucose syrups

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Summary of properties

5.3 Bodying agent

5.4 Browning reaction

5.5 Cohesiveness

5.6 Fermentability

5.7 Flavour enhancement

5.8 Flavour transfer medium

5.9 Foam stabilisers

5.10 Freezing point depression

5.11 Humectancy

5.12 Hygroscopicity

5.13 Nutritive solids

5.14 Osmotic pressure

5.15 Prevention of sucrose crystallisation

5.16 Prevention of coarse ice crystal formation

5.17 Sheen producer

5.18 Sweetness

5.19 Viscosity

5.20 Summary of properties

5.21 Differences between glucose syrups and sucrose

Chapter 6 Syrup applications: an overview

6.1 Introduction

6.2 42 DE Glucose Syrup

6.3 28 and 35 DE Glucose Syrup

6.4 Glucose syrup solids

6.5 Maltose and high maltose syrups

6.6 63 DE Glucose Syrup

6.7 95 DE Glucose Syrup

6.8 Dextrose monohydrate

6.9 HFGS and fructose syrups

6.10 Maltodextrins

Chapter 7 Trehalose

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Production

7.3 Properties

7.4 Applications

Chapter 8 Sugar alcohols: an overview

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Production

8.3 Overview of polyol properties

8.4 Applications overview

Chapter 9 Glucose syrups in baking and biscuitproducts

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Fermented goods

9.3 Non-fermented goods

9.4 Biscuits

9.5 Biscuit fillings

9.6 Wafer fillings

9.7 Bakery sundries

9.8 Reduced calorie products

9.9 Breakfast cereals

Chapter 10 Glucose syrups in brewing

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Brewing process

10.3 Historical use of glucose syrups

10.4 The role of glucose syrups

10.5 Low-alcohol and low-calorie beer

10.6 De-ionised glucose syrups

10.7 High-gravity brewing

10.8 Brewer’s extract – cost calculations

10.9 Chip sugar

Chapter 11 Glucose syrups in confectionery

11.1 Introduction

11.2 What can glucose syrups offer the confectioner?

11.3 Which glucose syrup to use?

11.4 Typical glucose syrup inclusion rates

11.5 Some basic confectionery recipes 161

11.6 Calorie-reduced products

Chapter 12 Glucose syrups in fermentations: anoverview

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Choice of substrate

12.3 Basic fermentation process

12.4 Products of fermentation

Chapter 13 Glucose syrups in ice creams and similarproducts

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Ingredients and process

13.3 Glucose syrups – freezing point and relativesweetness values

13.4 Quick process checks

13.5 Soft serve ice creams

13.6 Other types of frozen dessert

13.7 Yogurts

13.8 Sorbet

13.9 Mousse

13.10 Ice lollies

13.11 Fruit lollies

13.12 Ripple syrups

13.13 Topping or dessert syrup

13.14 Reduced calorie products

Chapter 14 Glucose syrups in jams

14.1 Introduction

14.2 Effects of boiling

14.3 Use of glucose syrups

14.4 Domestic jam

14.5 Jelly jams

14.6 Honey type spread

14.7 Chocolate spread

14.8 Peanut spread

14.9 Industrial jams

14.10 Diabetic and reduced calorie products

14.11 How to calculate a recipe?

Chapter 15 Glucose syrups in tomato products and other typesof dressings and sauces

15.1 Introduction

15.2 Which glucose syrup to use?

15.3 Tomato products

15.4 Other dressings

15.5 Other sauces, marinades and pickles

15.6 Reduced calorie products

Chapter 16 Glucose syrups in soft drinks

16.1 Introduction

16.2 Ingredients

16.3 Effect of process inversion

16.4 Use of glucose syrups

16.5 Quality considerations

16.6 Laboratory evaluation of glucose syrups in soft drinks

16.7 Soft drink recipes

16.8 Powdered drinks

16.9 Reduced calorie drinks

Chapter 17 Glucose syrups in health and sports drinks

17.1 Introduction

17.2 The energy source

17.3 Classification of health drinks

17.4 Osmotic pressure of health drinks

17.5 Sucrose in sports or health drinks

17.6 Formulating a sports drink

17.7 Energy values

17.8 Oral rehydration

17.9 Geriatric drinks and liquid foods

17.10 Slimming foods

Chapter 18 Carbohydrate metabolism and caloric values

18.1 Introduction

18.2 Human digestive system

18.3 Carbohydrate absorption

18.4 Summary of carbohydrate metabolism

18.5 Carbohydrate metabolic problems

18.6 Caloric values

Chapter 19 Caramel – the colouring

19.1 Introduction

19.2 Process

19.3 Properties

19.4 Applications


Appendix A Simple analytical information

A.1 Introduction

A.2 The ingredient declaration panel

A.3 Does it contain glucose syrup?

A.4 What HPLC sugar analysis can tell?

Appendix B Simple calculations

B.1 Introduction

B.2 Adjusting syrup solids

B.3 Altering the sugar spectra of a glucose syrup blend

B.4 How to calculate equivalent sweetness values?

B.5 Relationship between density, volume and weight of glucosesyrups

B.6 How much syrup is required to obtain a given weight of syrupsolids?

B.7 Brix, RI and RI Solids, % Solids and Baumé

B.8 Recipe costings

B.9 Colligative properties

Appendix C Sugars data

C.1 Approximate % sugar spectra of different glucose syrups

C.2 Theoretical molecular weights

C.3 Sweetness values

C.4 Approximate sugar spectra of domestic sweeteners

C.5 Typical particle size for different grades of sucrose

C.6 Melting points

C.7 Solubility – grams per 100 ml

Appendix D Tables

D.1 Temperature conversion

D.2 Viscosity of glucose syrups at different DextroseEquivalents and temperatures. Reproduced by courtesy of The CornRefiners Association

D.3 Maize starch Baumé tables. Reproduced by courtesy ofThe Corn Refiners Association

D.4 Sucrose Brix table – Brix – % sucrose w/w,specific gravity and Baumé (145 modulus)

D.5 Sucrose Brix – refractive indices at 20◦C

D.6 Glucose syrup tables – commercial Baumé, DE, %solids – at 60◦C (140◦F)

D.7 Sieve specifications



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“And has written a most readable and practical reference book for anyone working in the food and brewing industries ”. (Chemistry & Industry, 27 September 2010)

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