Grade Level 7: Teacher Edition: Grammar and Writing

Grade Level 7: Teacher Edition: Grammar and Writing

Other Format(Spiral Bound - Revised, Teacher Edition)


Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780829428261
Publisher: Loyola Press
Publication date: 08/01/2010
Series: Voyages in English 2011
Edition description: Revised, Teacher Edition
Pages: 656
Product dimensions: 10.88(w) x 12.25(h) x 1.50(d)
Age Range: 7 - 13 Years

About the Author

Patricia Healey, IHM BA, Immaculata University MA, Temple University
20 years teaching; 20 years in administration

Anne B. McGuire, IHM BA, Immaculata University MA, Villanova University MA, Immaculata University
16 years teaching; 14 years as elementary principal; 10 years staff development

Irene Kervick, IHM BA, Immaculata University MA, Villanova University
46 years teaching

Adrienne Saybolt, IHM BA, Immaculata University Pennsylvania State Board of Education, professional certification MA, St. John’s University
40 years teaching

Read an Excerpt

Welcome to Voyages in English, a core English language arts curriculum that has been an outstanding success in elementary and middle schools since 1942. From the time of first publication, Voyages in English (Voyages) has focused on providing students with the tools necessary to become articulate communicators of the English language. For over 65 years, those who wrote, published, and used Voyages for classroom instruction never abandoned the belief that communication skills are crucial for opportunities and success in education and eventually in employment.
With these expectations in mind, Voyages has advanced the best values of the past to meet the demands of communication in the twenty-first century. The curriculum meets the following goals:

  • Enable children to master grammar through direct instruction, rigorous practice, written application, and ongoing assessment.
  • Guide children to experience, explore, and improve their writing through the in-depth study of unique writing genres, writing skill lessons, and the implementation of the writing process.
  • Give children the speaking and writing practice and tools they need to communicate with clarity, accuracy, and ease.
  • Provide children and teachers with opportunities to use technology as a means to learn, assess, apply new skills, and communicate outside the school setting.
  • Provide master and novice teachers with support and straightforward, practical lesson plans that can be presented with confidence.

When learning is presented as a positive opportunity and a challenging adventure, children respond. Voyages in English subscribes to this idea, just as previous editions have. Regular, consistent use of Voyages helps create successful communicators in school and—eventually—in society. So welcome to Voyages in English: Grammar and Writing—enjoy the journey!

Complete and Comprehensive

Voyages in English: Grammar and Writing for grades 3 through 8 fully prepares students to become literate masters of the written and spoken word. The components and lessons in this program are the result of decades of research and practice by experts in the field of grammar and writing. The result—better writers, readers, listeners, and speakers as well as happy teachers, principals, and parents!

Student Editions

Teacher Editions

Practice Books Grades 3–8

Assessment Books Grades 3–8

Additional Student Practice

Optional Customizable Assessment Grades 3–8
ExamView® Assessment Suite Test Generator

Additional Teacher Support

Program Overview

Two Core Parts—One Cohesive Program

 Voyages in English is organized into two distinct parts: grammar and writing. The student books are divided in this way to help teachers tailor lesson plans to student needs and differentiate instruction. The benefits of this type of organization include the following:

  • Grammar lessons have greater depth, giving students the tools needed to learn the structure of language.
  • Writing instruction is relevant to students’ lives, to the literature they read and enjoy, and to writing that they experience every day.
  • Integration opportunities are built into the program, allowing teachers to show the relationship between grammar and writing.
  • Flexible planning becomes simple, allowing for adaptations based on students’ developmental levels.
  • Long-range and thematic planning is effortless, allowing teachers to cover required standards.

Part I: Grammar
The Structure of Language

  • Parts of speech
  • Usage
  • Mechanics
  • Agreement
  • Punctuation/capitalization

Part II: Written and Oral Communication
Written Expression

  • Traits of effective writing
  • Genre characteristics
  • Sentence structure
  • Word and study skills
  • Seven-step writing process

Integration Opportunities
Throughout the program, ample integration opportunities are built in to provide a systematic review of essential concepts.

Part I: Grammar
Writing Integration

Part II: Written and Oral Communication
Grammar Integration


Student Edition: Grammar

An excellent education in the acquisition and application of language has never been exclusively about memorizing parts of speech in isolation or diagramming a sentence as an end in itself. Because of this, Voyages in English takes grammar further, helping students become polished, articulate, and intelligent communicators.
The grammar portion of the Student Edition focuses on the needs of the students and in building their confidence so that when they speak, others listen, and when they write, others understand their message and want to read more. In other words, Voyages in English has what it takes to help students succeed: more practice, more rigor, more application, more integration.

  • Thorough explanations and clear examples are provided for every grammar topic.
  • Ample practice ensures skill mastery.
  • Grammar in Action features challenge students to spot the importance of grammar in real-life writing.
  • Tech Tips offer suggestions for practical, simple ways to integrate technology.
  • Apply It Now features present solid skill application to demonstrate comprehension.
  • A Grammar Review for every grammar section helps build student confidence and offers two full pages that can be used as review or informal assessment.
  • A Grammar Challenge follows each Grammar Review to extend the learning or offer another opportunity for informal assessment.
  • Sentence Diagramming at every grade level helps students analyze, visualize, and unlock the English language.
  • The Grammar and Mechanics Handbook provides a quick reference tool for grammar, usage, and mechanics topics.


Teacher Edition: Grammar

The core values and competencies that fortify Voyages in English have always been focused on high-level instruction that challenges the most able of students and supports those who struggle. Therefore, the Teacher Edition of Voyages in English is crafted with an easy-to-use, flexible format that includes support for teachers of all experience levels who serve children at all levels of development.

Background and Planning Support

  • An at-a-glance skills list provides focus for each grammar section.
  • Clear and straightforward grammar essentials provide all the background teachers need to teach the grammar topic.
  • Detailed materials lists allow for easy planning.
  • Ideas for literature invite teachers to show grammar skills in context.
  • Common Errors features alert teachers to errors students often make and advise how to correct them.
  • Diagramming basics review concepts so teaching is easier.
  • Grammar Expert questions and answers offer even more support to bring teachers up to speed on grammar.


  • Daily Maintenance features help maintain proficiency in grammatical concepts that have already been taught and assessed.
  • Warm-Ups offer relevant, practical ideas for introducing each grammar concept in a way students can understand.
  • Systematic, direct instruction is provided for each grammar concept.
  • An easy four-step teaching approach is implemented in every lesson: Teach, Practice, Apply, Assess.
  • Teaching Options allow teachers to tailor instruction to student needs through Reteach, Multiple Intelligences, English-Language Learners, and Diagram It!
  • Writing Connections help teachers transition easily and naturally between the writing and grammar sections.
  • Diagram It! features highlight sentence diagramming opportunities throughout the year.


Student Edition: Writing

Writing Lessons
A truly excellent writing program always sets its sights on lifetime communication competence. Voyages in English is rooted in its tradition of excellence by helping students employ writing concepts, skills, and strategies that have stood the test of time.

  • Link features demonstrate a writing concept or skill within the context of real-life writing or literary works.
  • Easy-to-follow, practical explanations and examples make writing relevant and engaging.
  • Grammar in Action features offer grammar application that happens naturally within the context of writing.
  • Ample practice encourages writing mastery.
  • Tech Tips provide simple, natural ways to integrate technology in the classroom or at home.
  • Writer’s Corner experiences offer skill application for each writing concept.

Writer’s Workshop
In the span of one year, students work through a seven-step writing process to develop and publish eight written pieces that span eight distinct writing genres, including research reports. The systematic and evolutionary development of each piece sets in motion the goal of producing reflective, creative, critical, and articulate communicators.

  • Step-by-step practice is led by a model student.
  • Traits of effective writing are integrated in natural, relevant ways.
  • Complete coverage of writing skills and the writing process can increase standardized test-taking success.

The seven-step writing process mirrors the process often used by professional writers:

  • Prewriting
  • Drafting
  • Content editing
  • Revising
  • Copyediting
  • Proofreading
  • Publishing

Complete coverage of genres includes

  • Personal narratives
  • Research reports
  • Persuasive writing
  • Descriptions
  • Expository writing
  • How-to articles
  • Formal letters
  • Friendly letters
  • Multiple forms of creative writing


Teacher Edition: Writing

Since all students deserve a strong, interesting, and challenging curriculum with high-level results, Voyages in English not only raises the bar for expected outcomes but also provides strong and consistent instructional steps and support for teachers. A clear, easy-to-follow format gives new teachers and seasoned professionals the tools and confidence they need to guide students.

Background and Planning Support
In the Genre Planner, teachers are provided with clear definitions of the elements and characteristics of the specific writing genres they will present, allowing them to teach with confidence and consistency.

  • Detailed materials lists allow for at-a-glance planning.
  • A genre summary explains the fundamentals of the writing genre.
  • Literature lists offer ideas for additional genre demonstration and exploration.
  • Helpful ideas are presented to enhance and extend the Writer’s Workshop.
  • Grammar connections provide relevant ways to incorporate grammar into the Writer’s Workshop.
  • Rubrics guide instruction and allow for a clear, easy grading process.


  • Read, Listen, Speak features offer small-group discussion of the writing assignment.
  • Grammar Connections allow seamless integration between writing and grammar.
  • Systematic, direct instruction is provided for each topic.
  • Link offers ways that popular writing can be used as a model.
  • A simple four-step teaching approach: Teach, Practice, Apply, Assess
  • Activities in a variety of learning styles: Reteach, Multiple Intelligences, and English-Language Learners
  • For Tomorrow features provide practical writing assignments and additional practice for homework or in-class study.

The Teacher Editions provide reproducible rubrics for students and teachers.


Practice book: Practice Makes Perfect

Research shows that the more exposure and practice students have using newly introduced skills, the more likely they are to internalize and master them. That’s why Voyages in English provides ample opportunity for additional practice.

Grammar Section Practice
Each grammar section of the Practice Book begins with Daily Maintenance opportunities that are described in each Teacher Edition lesson. Every grammar topic receives at least one page of additional practice.

  • Easy-to-understand directions
  • Plenty of practice
  • Point-of-use reminder and reference tool
  • A clear explanation of the grammar skill
  • Quick daily practice opportunities help students maintain grammar proficiency.

Writing Chapter Practice
The writing portion of the Practice Book is in one-to-one correspondence with the Student Edition and the Teacher Edition.

  • A concise definition of the lesson topic
  • Targeted practice
  • Handy reference for review
  • Clear directions


Assessment book: The Key to Informed Instruction

Effective assessment helps teachers note progress, guide instruction, and reveal opportunities for differentiation. Each day, in various ways, Voyages in English offers a variety of assessment opportunities that help teachers obtain targeted information about their students’ development.

Assess Grammar
Each grammar assessment challenges students to display their knowledge of previously taught content.

Assess Over Time
Summative assessments offer teachers the ability to assess over time—combining two or more grammar sections into one test.

Assess Writing
The writing assessments ask students to show their knowledge of specifically taught skills as well as use the writing process to craft a written piece. Writing-process assessments help prepare students for standardized tests.

Assess According to Class Needs ExamView® Assessment Suite Test Generator
Today’s teachers need flexibility to customize assessment to meet the needs of all students, offer assessment in a variety of formats, and analyze results quickly and easily. Therefore, Voyages in English is proud to offer the ExamView® Assessment Suite Test Generator, “a complete toolset in three seamless applications.”
Voyages in English Test Generator is available for separate purchase. With this CD, teachers can build comprehensive tests with the Test Generator, administer customized tests with the Test Player, and analyze results with the Test Manager.

Each grade-level CD provides teachers with the following:

  • Preformatted yet customizable assessments that correspond with the Assessment Book while offering 25% new test items for each test
  • Alignment to key national and state standards
  • The ability to save questions in Question Banks for compilation into multiple study guides and assessments
  • Wide variety of question-selection methods and question types
  • Question-scrambling capability for multiple test versions and secure test conditions
  • Multiple test-delivery methods: printed, LAN, or export the test as an HTML file to be manually posted to a Web site
  • Grade assessments through a variety of scanning methods, track progress, and generate reports
  • On-screen help

Contact your sales representative at 800-621-1008 for more information or visit us online at

Students: Technology Integration

In the Book
Students are invited to communicate, collaborate, research, and problem-solve using technology. Online resources and digital tools are suggested to enhance writing and reinforce grammar topic application.

  • Tech Tips invite students to creatively apply their grammar skills, using a variety of technologies.
  • Direct technology instruction embedded into student lessons
  • Students explore ways to publish their work using technology.

On the Web
Find additional opportunities for students to strengthen and polish their grammar and writing skills at

  • Grammar and Mechanics Handbook for at-home use
  • Additional writing activities expand learning.
  • Interactive games for more practice


Teachers: Technology Integration

In the Book
Easy, practical tips allow teachers to make technology a natural part of the language-arts classroom.

  • Tech Tips offer teachers techniques to get the most out of technology.
  • Many For Tomorrow activities invite students to use technology as part of their homework.
  • Teaching Options include technology to enhance learning.

For the Computer

  • Optional ExamView® Assessment Suite Test Generator (see page OV-17)

On the Web
Plenty of online support, including professional development and planning.

  • Ask An Expert provides additional teacher background to common questions.
  • Research document explains how Voyages is based and anchored in research.
  • Lesson Plan Charts show how to integrate the grammar and writing sections.

Creating a Plan That Works for You

Voyages in English provides a consistent, systematic teaching plan for student success and excellence in writing and grammar proficiency—with room for individual adaptation. The program can be used in many ways, supporting each teacher’s personal style.

Integrated Approach
Many teachers follow the integration suggestions that are provided in the book. To do this, teachers follow the Teacher Edition step by step. This is especially helpful to new teachers. Teachers build their plans based on the suggestions in the wrap-around text, leading them to toggle between the grammar and writing portions of the textbook. They cover the grammar lessons, writing skills, and the Writer’s Workshops.

Focus on Grammar Approach
Some teachers choose to separate the book sections and focus on grammar for direct instruction. They teach grammar as part of a grammar/language arts block every day, and then have students work through the writing portion of the book at a different time, such as during reading time as seatwork. They may also choose to teach writing less often than grammar.

Focus on Writing Approaches
Some teachers provide direct instruction throughout the writing chapters and have students work through the grammar portion of the book during their reading time. Or they assess students’ grammar skills and teach only the sections in which students need further development, freeing up time to focus on the writing chapters.
Other teachers follow the writing lesson plans, but as soon as the students have a grasp of the genre characteristics, they begin the Writer’s Workshop. The teacher continues teaching the writing skills lessons as needed only. This allows students more time to work on their final piece while they learn how to improve their writing and grammar skills.

Mixed-Order Approach
Teachers who integrate grammar and writing instruction into their set reading curriculum schedule often teach the grammar sections and writing chapters in an order that suits the stories that students are experiencing. For example, if students are reading an autobiography in reading class, teachers may choose to have students experience the personal narrative writing chapter and the pronouns grammar section.


Lesson Plans for the Integrated Approach
If you choose to implement the integrated approach, then use the following as a guide for how each grammar section and writing chapter work together.

Grade 3

Sentences Nouns Pronouns Verbs Adjectives Adverbs and Conjunctions Punctuation and Capitalization Diagramming

Personal Narratives How-to Articles Descriptions Personal Letters Book Reports Persuasive Writing Creative Writing Research Reports

Grade 4

Sentences Nouns Pronouns Adjectives Verbs Adverbs and Conjunctions Punctuation and Capitalization Diagramming

Personal Narratives Formal Letters Descriptions How-to Articles Persuasive Writing Creative Writing Expository Writing Research Reports

Grade 5

Nouns Pronouns Adjectives Verbs Adverbs Prepositions, Conjunctions, and Interjections Sentences Punctuation and Capitalization Diagramming

Personal Narratives How-to Articles Business Letters Descriptions Book Reports Creative Writing Persuasive Writing Research Reports

Grade 6

Nouns Pronouns Adjectives Verbs Adverbs Sentences Conjunctions, Interjections, Punctuation, and Capitalization Diagramming

Personal Narratives How-to Articles Descriptions Persuasive Writing Expository Writing Business Letters Creative Writing Research Reports

Grade 7

Nouns Adjectives Pronouns Verbs Verbals Adverbs Prepositions Sentences Conjunctions and Interjections Punctuation and Capitalization Diagramming

Personal Narratives Business Letters How-to Articles Descriptions Book Reviews Creative Writing Expository Writing Research Reports

Grade 8

Nouns Adjectives Pronouns Verbs Verbals Adverbs Prepositions Sentences Conjunctions and Interjections Punctuation and Capitalization Diagramming

Personal Narratives How-to Articles Business Letters Descriptions Expository Writing Persuasive Writing Creative Writing Research Reports


Lesson Planning Made Easy
Each grammar section provides a developmentally appropriate study of a part of speech that includes grammar lessons with ample practice, a review lesson, and a challenge lesson. The Writing Connection that culminates each grammar lesson leads to the writing portion of the book to create an opportunity for integration between the two main parts. Each writing chapter in Voyages in English is a study of a single genre—a chapter opener, six lessons, and the genre’s Writer’s Workshop. Here are the main instructional elements for each grammar section and writing chapter.

Part I: Grammar

  • Daily Maintenance
  • Warm-Up
  • Practice
  • Review
  • Challenge

Part II: Written and oral communication

  • Literature excerpt
  • Student model
  • Genre lessons
  • Writing skills lessons
  • Writer’s Workshops

If You Teach Grammar and Writing Three Days a Week,

  • condense Voyages into a three-day-a-week plan.
  • complete two of the activities and exercises shown in each grammar section and writing page span.

1.1 Sentences
1.2 Declarative & Interrogative Sentences
Personal Narratives Introducing the Genre, pp. 210–211

1.3 Imperative & Exclamatory Sentences
What Makes a Good Personal Narrative?, pp. 212–215

1.4 Complete Subjects & Predicates
Introductions and Conclusions, pp. 216–219

If You Teach Grammar and Writing Every Day,

  • apply this five-day-a-week plan throughout the program.
  • complete all the activities and exercises shown in each grammar section and writing page span.

Day 1
1.1 Sentences
Personal Narratives Introducing the Genre pp. 210–211
Reading the excerpt and student model

Day 2
1.2 Declarative & Interrogative Sentences
What Makes a Good Personal Narrative?, pp. 212–213

Day 3
1.3 Imperative & Exclamatory Sentences
What Makes a Good Personal Narrative?, pp. 214–215

Day 4
1.4 Complete Subjects & Predicates
Introduction, Body, & Conclusion, pp. 216–217

Day 5
1.5 Simple Subjects & Predicates
Introduction, Body, & Conclusion, pp. 218–219

Day 6
1.6 Compound Subjects
Study Skills: Time Lines, pp. 220–221

Day 7
1.7 Compound Predicates
Study Skills: Time Lines, pp. 222–223

Day 8
1.8 Direct Objects
Writing Skills: Exact Words, pp. 224–225

Day 9
1.9 Subject Complements
Writing Skills: Exact Words, pp. 226–227

Day 10
1.10 Compound Sentences
Word Study: Contractions with Pronouns, pp. 228–229

Day 11
1.11 Run-on Sentences
Word Study: Contractions with Pronouns, pp. 230–231

Day 12
Sentence Review
Speaking & Listening Skills: Oral Personal Narrative, pp. 232–23

Day 13
Sentence Challenge
Speaking & Listening Skills: Oral Personal Narrative, pp. 234–235
Writing Skills Assessment

Day 14
Sentence Assessment

Day 15

Writer’s Workshop: Prewriting, pp. 236–237


Day 16
Writer’s Workshop: Drafting, pp. 238–239   

Day 17
Writer’s Workshop: Content Editing, pp. 240–241   

Day 18
Writer’s Workshop: Revising, pp. 242–243   

Day 19
Writer’s Workshop: Copyediting and Proofreading, pp. 244–245   

Day 20
Writer’s Workshop: Publishing, pp. 246–247
Genre Assessment

Go to to find sample lesson plans for the whole year—one for each grammar section and writing chapter in the program.


Introducing the Program on Day One

As a class, work together to write a three-sentence “text message” about a favorite book. Challenge students to use common text abbreviations, such as LOL, and convey the message in as few words and letters as possible. Write student ideas on the chalkboard. Read aloud the message two ways: literally and as it is intended. Together, note the differences in how the message sounds.
Explain to students that as technology moves us away from using standard English grammar and writing, it is even more important to learn, master, and use them correctly. Tell students that using grammar and writing correctly will help them be better readers, writers, listeners, and speakers as well as better students and workers when they are adults.

Guide students on a book walk through the textbook. Review the Table of Contents and the book’s organization and contents. Explain that students will be using Voyages in English in their journey to master English grammar and writing.

Provide students with a minute or two to review the book’s contents. Tour the room, pointing out interesting book features to individual students.

Have students go on their first Voyages in English scavenger hunt. Ask students to find features such as a grammar lesson, writing lesson, Writer’s Workshop, Link, Grammar in Action, and Tech Tip. Award points or prizes to the students who are first to find the features.

Ask students the following questions: Why is it important to study grammar and writing? What is one thing we will be learning this year? Which skill or topic might be most challenging for you? What do you think will be easiest to learn?

Have students study their book covers. Say: We know that words are powerful. When words are used carefully and correctly, they can take us where we want to go in life. Look at your cover. Choose a person in it. Where do you think he or she is going in life? Take a few minutes to jot some ideas.
Invite student volunteers to share their ideas. Close by saying: Now we’re going to go on a voyage together—to learn about words and writing so that we can go where we want to go. Let’s get started!


Section 1 Planner


Section focus

  • Singular and plural nouns
  • Nouns as subjects and subject complements
  • Nouns as objects and object complements
  • Appositives
  • Possessive nouns

Support Materials
Practice Book
Daily Maintenance, pages 1–2
Grammar, pages 3–12
Assessment Book
Section 1 Assessment, pages 1–2
Test Generator CD
Writing Chapter 1, Personal Narratives
Customizable Lesson Plans

Connect with Literature
Consider using the following titles throughout the section to illustrate the grammar concept:

Here in Harlem: Poems in Many Voices by Walter Dean Myers
Holes by Louis Sachar
The Misfits by James Howe

Grammar for Grown-ups Understanding Nouns
The word noun comes from the Latin word nomen, meaning “name.” A noun is a word that names a person, a place, a thing, or an idea.

A singular noun names one person, place, thing, or idea. A plural noun names more than one person, place, thing, or idea.

writer writers          woman women

A noun can be the subject of a sentence. The subject tells what the sentence is about.

Yogurt is my favorite snack.

A noun can be a subject complement. A subject complement renames the subject and follows a linking verb.

My favorite snack is yogurt.

A noun can be used as a direct object. The direct object tells whom or what after the verb.

Her friends played field hockey.

A noun can also be used as an indirect object. An indirect object tells to whom or for whom, or to what or for what, the action is done.

The trombonist played the audience his favorite piece.

A noun can function as an object of a preposition.

The audience talked about the trombonist’s piece.

A noun can be an object complement. An object complement renames the direct object.

The teacher appointed Mary class secretary.

An appositive is a word that follows a noun and helps identify it or adds more information about it.

Sid’s brother, Sam, made the varsity team.

“I find it quite interesting. A noun’s a person, place, or thing.”
School House Rock

Common Errors
Misplaced Apostrophes When Showing Possession
Apostrophes are often misused or misplaced when showing possession. To form the possessive of plural nouns ending in s, add the apostrophe only. To form the plural possessive of a proper name, add the apostrophe to the plural of the name.

Error: cowboys’s hats
Correct: cowboys’ hats

Error: the Adams’es dog
Correct: the Adamses’ dog

TIP: A trick for remembering that the apostrophe signifies the plural is that possessive means “having,” and the possessive form of the word “has” an apostrophe.

Sentence Diagramming
You may wish to teach nouns in the context of diagramming. Review these examples. Then refer to the Diagramming section or look for Diagram It! features in the Nouns section.

Birds like nuts.
    Birds        like        nuts
    subject        verb        direct object

Sara plays violin, and Dave plays flute.
    Sara        plays        violin
    Dave        plays        flute
    subject        verb        direct object
    subject        verb        direct object

Ask an Expert Real Situations, Real Solutions

To: Grammer Geek Subject: Subject: Anxious Over Abstract Nouns Dear Grammer Geek,
My students need help identifying abstract nouns. How can I de ne the intangible?
Full of Angst (angst being an abstract noun, of course)

To: Full of Angst Subject: Re: Anxious Over Abstract Nouns Dear Angst,
Draw a two-column chart with the following headings: Character Traits, Feelings. Have students brainstorm both positive and negative words that fall in these categories, such as self-confidence, greed, love, and hate. Explain that although these things cannot be touched, the words are nouns because they name things that are real.
Abstractly concrete,
Grammar Geek


To: Grammar Geezer Subject: In Need of Direction Dear Grammar Geezer,
My students sometimes have trouble differentiating between direct and indirect objects. Can you help?
Directly yours,
Jenny Sparks

To: Jenny Sparks Subject: Re: In Need of Direction Dear Jenny,
Try using the following chart to help students tell the difference between direct and indirect objects.

Does the word answer the question whom or what after the verb?
     V If it does, then it is a direct object.
     V Does the word tell to whom or for whom or to what or for what the action is done?
     V If it does, then it is an indirect object.

Smooth Sailing,
Grammar Geezer




1.1 Singular and Plural Nouns
1.2 More Singular and Plural Nouns
1.3 Nouns as Subjects and Subject Complements
1.4 Nouns as Objects and Object Complements
1.5 Appositives
1.6 Possessive Nouns
     Noun Review
     Noun Challenge

1.1 Singular and Plural Nouns


  • To identify and use singular nouns and plural nouns
  • To form the plurals of regular nouns and irregular nouns

Daily Maintenance
Assign Practice Book page 1, Section 1.1. After students finish,

  1. Give immediate feedback.
  2. Review concepts as needed.
  3. Model the correct answer.

Pages 4–5 of the Answer Key contain tips for Daily Maintenance.

Distribute to each of five groups one of the following cards:

Grocery store, Toy store, Department store, Sporting goods store, Hobby shop

Have students work together to list everything they might find in their store. Ask them to circle all the words that name one person, place, or thing. Have them respell those words to refer to more than one person, place, or thing.
Read from a piece of writing that the class is currently reading. Emphasize the singular and plural nouns.

Read aloud the definition of a noun. Discuss the difference between a singular noun (one) and a plural noun (more than one). Remind students of the activity they just completed and the singular nouns and plurals nouns they listed. Invite volunteers to read aloud the first four ways of forming plurals and to give examples. Remind students that some words ending in y require the y to be changed before adding -s. Have a student circle this letter in each word. Ask students to form the plurals for all the words on the list.

Exercise 1
Ask volunteers to read the first two sentences. After each sentence has been read, have students identify all the nouns that appear. As each noun is cited, ask whether it is singular or plural. Have students complete the exercise on their own.
Exercise 2
Have students divide into pairs to complete the exercise. Ask students to discuss and decide the plural of each noun and then look it up in a dictionary to confirm the answer. Advise students to use a dictionary whenever they are in doubt about the spelling of a plural noun. Recommend that students keep a list of plural nouns to memorize.

Apply It Now
As students work, remind them that they should check a dictionary if they are uncertain of a word’s plural form. After students finish writing, ask volunteers to read their notes. Students should be able to identify singular nouns and plural nouns and to form the plurals of regular nouns and irregular nouns.
Encourage students to use either a classroom, library, or home computer to send the note they wrote as an e-mail.

Note which students had difficulty with singular nouns and plural nouns. Assign Practice Book page 3 for further practice.

Writing Connection
Use pages 222–223 of the Writing portion of the book. Be sure to point out nouns in the literature excerpt and the student model.

Have students search through magazines for a large, colorful photo that shows an active scene and then cut it out and glue it to the top of a half sheet of poster board. Instruct students to write three sentences under the picture that are related to the scene. Each sentence should contain at least two plural nouns. Have students underline all the plural nouns in the sentences.

English-Language Learners
The primary language spoken by some English-language learners may have rules for forming plurals that differ from English. You may want to ask these students to give the class examples of plural forms in their primary language. For English-language learners who find the English plural forms confusing, reassure these students that they may consult a dictionary to find the correct forms of irregular plurals.

Meeting Individual Needs
Challenge Have each student write one example of each of the five kinds of singular nouns described on page 2 on five note cards. Collect the cards and place them in a container. Have each student select a card and write a paragraph that uses the plural forms of all the words on the card. Encourage students to share their paragraphs with the class.


Part 2: Written and Oral Communication


1 Personal Narratives
2 Business Letters
3 How-to Articles
4 Descriptions
5 Book Reviews
6 Creative Writing: Fantasy Fiction
7 Expository Writing
8 Research Reports

Chapter 1 Planner

Personal Narratives

Chapter Focus
Lesson 1: What Makes a Good Personal Narrative?
Lesson 2: Introduction, Body, and Conclusion

  • Grammar: Nouns and Adjectives
  • Writing Skills: Revising Sentences
  • Word Study: Exact Words
  • Study Skills: Graphic Organizers
  • Speaking and Listening Skills: Oral Personal Narratives
  • Writer’s Workshop: Personal Narratives

Support Materials
Practice Book
Writing, pages 130–134
Assessment Book
Chapter 1 Writing Skills, pages 45–46
Personal Narrative Writing Prompt, pages 47–48
Student, page 259y Teacher, page 259z
Test Generator CD
Section 1, pages 1–16
Section 2, pages 17–30
Customizable Lesson Plans

What Is a Personal Narrative?
A personal narrative is a true story written about a particular event by the person who experienced it, using the personal pronouns I and me. At its best, a personal narrative is revealing and relevant to others.
A good personal narrative includes the following:

  • A suitable topic with a clear focus
  • A structure that includes an engaging introduction, a cohesive body in chronological order, and a conclusion that leaves a sense of resolution
  • An authentic voice that shows the writer’s personality and provides a sense of authority
  • A tone geared toward the intended audience
  • Exact words and natural language
  • A variety of sentence styles and lengths that avoids run-on and rambling sentences

Use the following titles to offer your students examples of well-crafted personal narratives:

The Land I Lost: Adventures of a Boy in Vietnam by Huynh Quang Nhuong
Red Scarf Girl: A Memoir of the Cultural Revolution by Ji-li Jiang
Soul Surfer: A True Story of Faith, Family, and Fighting to Get Back on the Board by Bethany Hamilton and Rick Bundschuh

Writer’s Workshop Tips
Follow these ideas and tips to help you and your class get the most out of the Writer’s Workshop:

  • Review the traits of good writing. Use the chart on the inside back cover of the student and teacher editions.
  • Explore many different forms of personal narratives, including autobiographies, magazine or newspaper personal essays, and journals.
  • Encourage students to keep a journal to record important or interesting personal experiences.
  • Invite students to bring in photo albums, scrapbooks, or other memorabilia to share information about their lives.
  • Locate a guest speaker who has experienced a significant event. Have the speaker come to class to tell about his or her experience. Encourage students to listen for clarity, tone, word choice, and vivid description. Invite students to ask the guest speaker questions. After the speaker has left, discuss which questions might have been addressed by the speaker but were not.
  • Discuss how the following people relate personal narratives: songwriters, comedians, and job applicants.

Connect with Grammar
Throughout the Writer’s Workshop, look for opportunities to integrate nouns and adjectives with writing personal narratives.

  • Discuss how choosing precise nouns can help students write more engaging personal narratives.
  • Have students use both a dictionary and thesaurus to find more precise nouns.
  • Review the definition of an appositive. Provide three sentences without appositives. Then ask students to revise the sentences by adding appositives.
  • Ask students to explain how the choice of adjectives can affect a personal narrative.
  • Discuss the differences between adjective phrases and clauses. Invite volunteers to give examples. Encourage students to use a variety of adjective phrases and clauses in their personal narratives.

Scoring Rubric Personal Narrative

Point Values
0 = not evident
1 = minimal evidence of mastery
2 = evidence of development toward mastery
3 = strong evidence of mastery
4 = outstanding evidence of mastery

Ideas                                                                             Points
a suitable topic   
a clear focus   
an introduction that engages the reader   
a graphic organizer for planning    
chronological order   
a sense of resolution in the conclusion   
an identifiable writer’s personality   
a sense of authenticity   
an appropriate tone    
Word Choice   
exact words    
no redundant words   
natural language   
Sentence Fluency   
a variety of sentence lengths   
a variety of sentence types   
no run-on and rambling sentences   
correct grammar and usage   
correct spelling, punctuation, and capitalization   
easy to read, typed or neatly handwritten   
a title page   
Additional Items   


Full-sized, reproducible rubrics can be found at the end of this chapter.

Chapter 1
Personal Narratives

Introducing the Genre
Ask students to tell what they know about personal narratives. Discuss personal narratives students encounter in their lives, such as telling a parent about a day at school. Emphasize that students may need to write personal narratives in the future, whether in school, at work, or in their private lives.
Explain that the word personal means “relating to someone’s life.”
Tell students that personal narratives contain specific elements and characteristics.

  • The personal narrative is written in the first person.
  • The events are told in chronological order.
  • There is an engaging introduction, a detailed body, and a satisfying conclusion.
  • The events are related in exact words to help the reader have a clear idea of the experience of the writer.

Reading the Literature Excerpt
Have volunteers read aloud the literature excerpt. Ask students to point out reasons why this piece would be considered a good example of a personal narrative. Ask students to name similar book excerpts or articles they have read.
Discuss what makes this writing a personal narrative. Ask students to find examples of how they know the writer is describing an event that happened in his life.

Reading the Student Model
Tell students that they are going to read an actual student personal narrative about meeting a new friend. Then have volunteers read aloud the model.
Ask students to find examples of how they know the writer is describing an event that happened in her life. (She uses I, our, and my.)
Point out that the introduction of “Meeting Becca” states the purpose and catches the reader’s attention. Be sure that students understand that the personal narrative is arranged in chronological order, taking the reader step-by-step through the events leading up to Becca setting a time to meet Ellie again.
Explain that because the class assignment was intended for a teacher and other students, it was written in a specific way (casual language used, personal details included, the writer’s feelings expressed). Ask how the writing might have been different had it been intended for a different audience such as parents (more formal language used, focused on more information for adults).

The Land I Lost
The excerpts in Chapter 1 introduce students to relevant, real, published examples of personal narratives. The Land I Lost is a strong example of a personal narrative because it does the following:

  • Tells a true story that happened to the writer
  • Moves in chronological order
  • Is written in the first person

As students encounter the different examples throughout the chapter, be sure to point out the characteristics they share. Also take this opportunity to point out the grammar skills that students have been learning, such as writing correct plural nouns and possessive nouns, and identifying different kinds adjectives.

Scavenger Hunt
Challenge students to look through the written material in the classroom to find examples of personal narratives. Be sure that students understand that a personal narrative is not fiction but an account of something that actually happened to the writer.

For Tomorrow
Have students find e-mails or letters that include short personal narratives. Tell students to be prepared to share these e-mails or letters with the class and discuss why they are personal narratives. Bring in your own e-mails or letters that include personal narratives to share with the class.

LESSON 1 What Makes a Good Personal Narrative?


  • To understand the characteristics of a personal narrative
  • To arrange personal narratives in chronological order
  • To identify appropriate topics for personal narratives

Warm-Up Read, Listen, Speak
Share your examples of e-mails or letters from yesterday’s For Tomorrow homework. Model for students by saying “These are examples of personal narratives because they tell a true story that happened to me, are written in the first person, and are in chronological order.”
Invite students to point out the characteristics of a personal narrative in their examples.

Grammar Connection
Take this opportunity to talk about singular and plural nouns. You may wish to have students point out singular and plural nouns in their Read, Listen, Speak examples.

Ask a volunteer to read the first two paragraphs of “Meeting Becca.” Explain that school essays can be one type of personal narrative. Ask students to name some others (telephone conversations, journal entries, and e-mails).
Have volunteers read aloud the section. Explain that writers consider the audience before beginning a narrative, and choose details of interest to the reader. Remind students that good writers list events in order, which helps the narrative to flow logically and to read more easily.

To introduce the activity, suggest that students identify the introduction and conclusion before they order the remaining sentences. Ask a volunteer to read aloud the rewritten personal narrative and to explain his or her decisions for ordering the sentences.
Activity B
Ask partners to review the personal narrative on page 222 and to use it as a model. As partners select details to include, encourage them to consider their audience. Remind students to begin with an introduction, to end with a conclusion, and to explain what happened in chronological order.

APPLY Writer’s Corner
Ask students to select a topic and choose an audience. Then ask students to list in chronological order possible events for that topic. Encourage students to eliminate any events that do not move the narrative forward. Students should demonstrate an understanding of topic, audience, and chronological order.

Note which students had difficulty understanding the characteristics of a personal narrative. Use the Reteach option with those students who need additional reinforcement.

Read the following passages to students. Have them explain whether each passage might be from a personal narrative.

A. I never thought I’d see a movie star in my hometown! There he sat, at a corner booth in Burger World, munching on french fries and reading a newspaper.
B. The abacus is an ancient counting device. Some consider it to be the first computer. The abacus uses beads, coins, or pebbles as placeholders.
C. My day was off to a terrible start. First, I slept through my alarm. Then I saw that my dog had chewed my shoes during the night.

Guide students to understand why A and C could be personal narratives. (The writer tells a story about himself or herself. The events could have happened to him or her. The excerpts are written from the writer’s point of view. The passages are organized in chronological order.)

For Tomorrow
Challenge students to find a piece of writing in which the writer tailors the writing to a particular audience. Have students bring the piece to class. Ask students to be prepared to tell who the intended audience is and how they know. Bring in your own example to share with students.

Warm-Up Read, Listen, Speak
Share your examples of writing tailored to a particular audience from yesterday’s For Tomorrow homework. Model for the students by telling who the audience is and how you know.
Have small groups take turns reading the audience-focused writing examples they found as homework. Ask students what clues about the audience are present in each example.

Grammar Connection
Take this opportunity to talk about nouns as subjects and subject complements. You may wish to have students point out nouns as subjects and subject complements in their Read, Listen, Speak examples.

Ask a volunteer to read aloud the section Choosing Your Topic. Remind students that during brainstorming they should write every idea that occurs to them. Help students understand that the narrowing process is not limited to a specific number of ideas. Ask students to brainstorm possible topics for a personal narrative. Invite students to talk about their experience using brainstorming.
Have a volunteer read the Tone section. Explain that writers decide the tone they will use by considering their audience. Ask students when a humorous tone might be inappropriate in a narrative. Challenge students to support their responses with examples. Invite volunteers to suggest appropriate and inappropriate tones for specific audiences.

Point out words or sentences in the The Land I Lost excerpt that help set the tone. (It took me a long time . . . her face always appeared clearly to me . . .) Have students explain what tone is being conveyed (sadness, mourning).

Review with students the way language in a personal narrative helps set the tone. After students have completed the activity, ask them to explain their answers and to identify the words or phrases that helped them determine tone.
Activity D
After students have completed the activity, ask them to explain why each potential topic would or would not be appropriate for a personal narrative. Ask them to change inappropriate topics to appropriate ones. (How our neighbor’s house was built might be changed to watching my neighbor’s house being built.)
Activity E
Explain to students that the appropriate link of tone to audience reinforces the writer’s message and shows respect for the reader. When students have finished the activity, have volunteers share their new e-mails. Point out the formal tone used with the teacher and the informal tone used with the friend.

APPLY Writer’s Corner
To emphasize the importance of tone, point out that in the personal narrative on page 223, the writer was remembering an event that occurred when she was six. Encourage students to use language more appropriate for a seventh grader as they revise several sentences. Ask volunteers to share and explain their revisions. Students should demonstrate an understanding of audience and tone.

Tech Tip
Discuss that students can express tone in an e-mail by using all capital letters (HELP), exclamation points (Yikes!), emotional graphics such as the smiley face symbol or the sleepy face, and emoticons such as:
:)  :0  :^)

Note which students had difficulty identifying suitable personal narrative topics. Use the Reteach option with those students who need additional reinforcement.
Practice Book page 130 provides additional practice with understanding of audience and tone in a personal narrative.

Write these topics on the board:

How to organize a school dance Learning to ride my bike How to get to school My father’s childhood The day I lost my dog My science fair disaster Good science fair projects

Remind the students that a personal narrative should be about a single event experienced by the writer. Invite volunteers to circle clues, such as the use of the first-person pronouns I and my in the topic list. Have volunteers mark which topics involve a single event. Then ask students to decide whether each topic is appropriate for a personal narrative and have students defend their positions.

English-Language Learners
Other languages have special words to convey formality or informality. Invite students whose primary language is other than English to share these words.

For Tomorrow
Write this sentence on the board: Today I was tested. Have students copy the sentence. For tomorrow, have students use the sentence in two short paragraphs, one that has an excited tone, and one that has a worried or nervous tone. Write your own two paragraphs to share with students.

Table of Contents


Introduction    Welcome to Voyages in English    OV-1
        Program Overview    OV-2
        How to Use This Program    OV-21


Part 1: Grammar

        Nouns Teacher Preparation    1a–1b

Section 1    Nouns    1
    1.1    Singular and Plural Nouns    2
    1.2    More Singular and Plural Nouns    4
    1.3    Nouns as Subjects and Subject Complements    6
    1.4    Nouns as Objects and Object Complements    8
    1.5    Appositives    10
    1.6    Possessive Nouns    12
        Noun Review    14
        Noun Challenge    16

        Adjectives Teacher Preparation    17a–17b

Section 2    Adjectives    17
    2.1    Descriptive Adjectives, Position of Adjectives    18
    2.2    Demonstrative, Interrogative, and Indefinite Adjectives    20
    2.3    Comparative and Superlative Adjectives    22
    2.4    Few and Little    24
    2.5    Adjective Phrases and Clauses    26
        Adjective Review    28
        Adjective Challenge    30

        Pronouns Teacher Preparation    31a–31b

Section 3    Pronouns    31
    3.1    Person, Number, and Gender of Pronouns    32
    3.2    Subject Pronouns    34
    3.3    Object Pronouns    36
    3.4    Pronouns After Than or As    38
    3.5    Possessive Pronouns and Adjectives    40
    3.6    Intensive and Reflexive Pronouns     42
    3.7    Agreement of Pronouns and Antecedents    44
    3.8    Interrogative and Demonstrative Pronouns    46
    3.9    Relative Pronouns     48
    3.10    Indefinite Pronouns    50
    3.11    Agreement with Indefinite Pronouns    52
        Pronoun Review     54
        Pronoun Challenge     56

        Verbs Teacher Preparation    57a–57b
Section 4    Verbs    57
    4.1    Principal Parts of Verbs    58
    4.2    Transitive and Intransitive Verbs     60
    4.3    Troublesome Verbs    62
    4.4    Linking Verbs     64
    4.5    Active and Passive Voices    66
    4.6    Simple, Progressive, and Perfect Tenses    68
    4.7    Indicative, Imperative, and Emphatic Moods    70
    4.8    Subjunctive Mood     72
    4.9    Modal Auxiliaries     74
    4.10    Agreement of Subject and Verb—Part I    76
    4.11    Agreement of Subject and Verb—Part II    78
        Verb Review    80
        Verb Challenge    82

        Verbals Teacher Preparation    83a–83b

Section 5    Verbals     83
    5.1    Participles    84
    5.2    Placement of Participles    86
    5.3    Gerunds as Subjects and Subject Complements    88
    5.4    Gerunds as Objects and Appositives    90
    5.5    Possessives with Gerunds, Using -ing Verb Forms    92
    5.6    Infinitives as Subjects and Subject Complements    94
    5.7    Infinitives as Objects    96
    5.8    Infinitives as Appositives    98
    5.9    Infinitives as Adjectives    100
    5.10    Infinitives as Adverbs    102
    5.11    Hidden and Split Infinitives     104
        Verbal Review    106
        Verbal Challenge     108

        Adverbs Teacher Preparation    109a–109b

Section 6    Adverbs     109
    6.1    Types of Adverbs     110
    6.2    Interrogative Adverbs and Adverbial Nouns    112
    6.3    Comparative and Superlative Adverbs    114
    6.4    Troublesome Words    116
    6.5    Adverb Phrases and Clauses     118
        Adverb Review    120
        Adverb Challenge     122

        Prepositions Teacher Preparation    123a–123b

Section 7    Prepositions     123
    7.1    Single and Multiword Prepositions     124
    7.2    Troublesome Prepositions    126
    7.3    Words Used as Adverbs and Prepositions    128
    7.4    Prepositional Phrases as Adjectives    130
    7.5    Prepositional Phrases as Adverbs     132
    7.6    Prepositional Phrases as Nouns     134
        Preposition Review     136
        Preposition Challenge     138

        Sentences Teacher Preparation    139a–139b

Section 8    Sentences     139
    8.1    Kinds of Sentences    140
    8.2    Adjective and Adverb Phrases     142
    8.3    Adjective Clauses     144
    8.4    Restrictive and Nonrestrictive Clauses    146
    8.5    Adverb Clauses     148
    8.6    Noun Clauses as Subjects    150
    8.7    Noun Clauses as Subject Complements    152
    8.8    Noun Clauses as Appositives     154
    8.9    Noun Clauses as Direct Objects     156
    8.10    Noun Clauses as Objects of Prepositions    158
    8.11    Simple, Compound, and Complex Sentences    160
        Sentence Review     162
        Sentence Challenge     164

        Conjunctions and Interjections Teacher Preparation    165a–165b

Section 9    Conjunctions and Interjections    165
    9.1    Coordinating Conjunctions    166
    9.2    Correlative Conjunctions    168
    9.3    Conjunctive Adverbs    170
    9.4    Subordinate Conjunctions    172
    9.5    Troublesome Conjunctions    174
    9.6    Interjections     176
        Conjunction and Interjection Review     178
        Conjunction and Interjection Challenge     180

        Punctuation and Capitalization Teacher Preparation    181a–181b

Section 10    Punctuation and Capitalization    181
    10.1    Periods and Commas    182
    10.2    Exclamation Points, Question Marks, Semicolons, and Colons    184
    10.3    Quotation Marks and Italics    186
    10.4    Apostrophes, Hyphens, and Dashes    188
    10.5    Capitalization     190
        Punctuation and Capitalization Review     192
        Punctuation and Capitalization Challenge    194

        Diagramming Teacher Preparation    195a–195b

Section 11    Diagramming    195
    11.1    Simple Sentences    196
    11.2    Appositives     198
    11.3    Compound Sentences    200
    11.4    Compound Sentence Elements     202
    11.5    Participles     204
    11.6    Gerunds    206
    11.7    Infinitives    208
    11.8    Adjective Clauses    210
    11.9    Adverb Clauses     212
    11.10    Noun Clauses     214
    11.11    Diagramming Practice    216
        Diagramming Review     218
        Diagramming Challenge    220

Part 2 Written and Oral Communication

    Personal Narratives Teacher Preparation    222a–222b

Chapter 1    Personal Narratives    222
    Lesson 1    What Makes a Good Personal Narrative?    224
    Lesson 2    Introduction, Body, and Conclusion    228
    Lesson 3    Writing Skills: Revising Sentences    232
    Lesson 4    Word Study: Exact Words     236
    Lesson 5    Study Skills: Graphic Organizers    240
    Lesson 6    Speaking and Listening Skills: Oral Personal Narratives     244
        Writer’s Workshop: Personal Narratives    248
        Rubrics    259y–259z

        Business Letters Teacher Preparation    260a–260b

Chapter 2    Business Letters    260
    Lesson 1    What Makes a Good Business Letter?    262
    Lesson 2    Purpose, Audience, and Tone    266
    Lesson 3    Writing Skills: Adjective Clauses    270
    Lesson 4    Word Study: Roots     274
    Lesson 5    Literacy Skills: Writing Tools    278
    Lesson 6    Speaking and Listening Skills: Job Interview    282
        Writer’s Workshop: Business Letters     286
        Rubrics    297y–297z

        How-to Articles Teacher Preparation    298a–298b

Chapter 3    How-to Articles    298
    Lesson 1    What Makes a Good How-to Article?    300
    Lesson 2    Relevant Details     304
    Lesson 3    Word Study: Transition Words    308
    Lesson 4    Writing Skills: Adverb Clauses    312
    Lesson 5    Study Skills: Dictionary     316
    Lesson 6    Speaking and Listening Skills: How-to Talks    320
        Writer’s Workshop: How-to Articles    324
        Rubrics    335y–335z

        Descriptions Teacher Preparation    336a–336b

Chapter 4    Descriptions    336
    Lesson 1    What Makes a Good Description?    338
    Lesson 2    Organization     342
    Lesson 3    Writing Skills: Noun Clauses    346
    Lesson 4    Word Study: Adjective and Adverb Suffixes    350
    Lesson 5    Study Skills: Thesaurus     354
    Lesson 6    Speaking and Listening Skills: Oral Descriptions    358
        Writer’s Workshop: Descriptions    362
        Rubrics    373y–373z

        Book Reviews Teacher Preparation    374a–374b

Chapter 5    Book Reviews    374
    Lesson 1    What Makes a Good Book Review?    376
    Lesson 2    Writing a Book Review     380
    Lesson 3    Writing Skills: Expanding and Combining Sentences    384
    Lesson 4    Study Skills: Outlines     388
    Lesson 5    Word Study: Prefixes     392
    Lesson 6    Speaking and Listening Skills: Oral Movie Reviews    396
        Writer’s Workshop: Book Reviews    400
        Rubrics    411y–411z

        Creative Writing: Fantasy Fiction Teacher Preparation    412a–412b

Chapter 6    Creative Writing: Fantasy Fiction    412
    Lesson 1    What Makes Good Fantasy Fiction?    414
    Lesson 2    Plot Development    418
    Lesson 3    Writing Skills: Dialogue     422
    Lesson 4    Word Study: Figurative Language    426
    Lesson 5    Poetry: Limericks     430
    Lesson 6    Speaking and Listening Skills: Storytelling     434
        Writer’s Workshop: Fantasy Fiction    438
        Rubrics    449y–449z

        Expository Writing Teacher Preparation    450a–450b

Chapter 7    Expository Writing    450
    Lesson 1    What Makes Good Expository Writing?    452
    Lesson 2    Fact and Opinion    456
    Lesson 3    Word Study: Noun and Verb Suffixes     460
    Lesson 4    Writing Skills: Quotations     464
    Lesson 5    Study Skills: Library and Internet Sources     468
    Lesson 6    Speaking and Listening Skills: Destination Guides    472
        Writer’s Workshop: Expository Writing    476
        Rubrics    487y–487z

        Research Reports Teacher Preparation    488a–488b

Chapter 8    Research Reports    488
    Lesson 1    What Makes a Good Research Report?    490
    Lesson 2    Gathering and Organizing Information    494
    Lesson 3    Study Skills: Citing Sources    498
    Lesson 4    Writing Skills: Varied Sentences    502
    Lesson 5    Word Study: Denotation and Connotation     506
    Lesson 6    Speaking and Listening Skills: Oral Science Reports     510
        Writer’s Workshop: Research Reports    514
        Rubrics    525y–525z

Proofreading Marks     526
Grammar and Mechanics Handbook     527
Index     561
Acknowledgments    567
Test Preparation    T-569
Scope and Sequence    T-578
Proofreading Marks    inside back cover
Writing Traits    inside back cover


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