Sediment contamination, primarily caused by industrialization in the Midwest, has been a problem in the Great Lakes for several decades. Historically, Great Lakes stakeholders have pursued sediment remediation through a variety of mechanisms, such as enforcement agreements and voluntary partnerships. It has been reported that polluted sediment is the largest major source of contaminants entering the food chain from Great Lakes rivers and harbors. This includes most of the areas of concern designated by the United States and Canada, the parties to the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement. The Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement was first signed in 1972 and renewed in 1978. The agreement expresses the commitment of each country to restore and maintain the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the Great Lakes Basin Ecosystem. EPA's Great Lakes National Program Office (GLNPO) was established in 1978 to oversee U.S. efforts to implement the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement. Congress passed GLLA to expedite the remediation of contaminated sediment sites and improve the ability of the United States to meet its commitments under the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement. GLLA established an innovative approach to conducting sediment remediation in that it uses partnerships with nonfederal sponsors to accomplish the work. Project agreements under these partnerships require that the nonfederal sponsor provide a minimum of 35 percent of the effort in cash or in-kind contributions to the project.