Late in the summer of 1880, a wave of odors enveloped large portions of Paris. As the stench lingered, outraged residents feared that the foul air would breed an epidemic. Fifteen years laterwhen the City of Light was in the grips of another Great Stinkthe public conversation about health and disease had changed dramatically. Parisians held their noses and protested, but this time few feared that the odors would spread disease.
Historian David S. Barnes examines the birth of a new microbe-centered science of public health during the 1880s and 1890s, when the germ theory of disease burst into public consciousness. Tracing a series of developments in French science, medicine, politics, and culture, Barnes reveals how the science and practice of public health changed during the heyday of the Bacteriological Revolution.
Despite its many innovations, however, the new science of germs did not entirely sweep away the older "sanitarian" view of public health. The longstanding conviction that disease could be traced to filthy people, places, and substances remained strong, even as it was translated into the language of bacteriology. Ultimately, the attitudes of physicians and the French public were shaped by political struggles between republicans and the clergy, by aggressive efforts to educate and "civilize" the peasantry, and by long-term shifts in the public's ability to tolerate the odor of bodily substances.
|Publisher:||Johns Hopkins University Press|
|Product dimensions:||6.00(w) x 9.00(h) x 0.85(d)|
|Age Range:||18 Years|
About the Author
David S. Barnes is an associate professor of the history and sociology of science at the University of Pennsylvania.
Table of Contents
1. "Not Everything That Stinks Kills"
2. The Sanitarians' Legacy, or How Health Became Public
3. Taxonomies of Transmission
4. Putting Germ Theory into Practice
5. Toward a Cleaner and Healthier Republic
6. Odors and "Infection," 1880 and Beyond
What People are Saying About This
Barnes argues convincingly that the development of public health in nineteenth-century France is best understood in terms of the integration of scientific hypotheses within broadly accepted cultural frameworks. His insightful reading of the literature on disgust offers new insights into the social and economic history of Third Republic France.
Donald Reid, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill