Environmental crimes are primarily driven by financial motives. The combined financial value of illicit trade in protected wildlife, illegal logging and waste trafficking is estimated to come directly after counterfeiting, the narcotic drugs trade and illegal gambling. Logically, the proceeds of these crimes must also be laundered. Goods, however, are not the only money maker for environmental criminals. Corporations may also try to ‘save’ costs by not complying with environmental regulations and thus commit crimes of omission rather than commission. From an enforcement and compliance perspective focusing on the proceeds of crime may therefore be an effective strategy.
This book brings together different perspectives on the financial aspects of environmental crime and harm from a green criminological viewpoint. It addresses the role of economic systems, the value of environmental performance for corporations, money laundering in the context of environmental crime, financial investigation and questions of regulation and penalties.
Discussing these topics from the view of green criminology, sociology and governance, this book will be of great interest to all those concerned about the financial dimensions of crime and the environment.
About the Author
Toine Spapens is Full Professor of Criminology at Tilburg University, the Netherlands.
Rob White is Professor of Criminology at the University of Tasmania, Australia.
Daan van Uhm is Assistant Professor of Criminology at the Willem Pompe Institute for Criminal Law and Criminology, University of Utrecht, the Netherlands.
Wim Huisman is Professor of Criminology and Chair of the Department Criminology at VU University Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
Table of Contents
Introduction - Toine Spapens, Rob White, Daan van Uhm and Wim Huisman
Part I: Systemic drivers of green crimes
1. Destruction and the philosophy of desire - Vincenzo Ruggiero
2. Environment, Conflict and Profit: Harmful resource exploitation and questionable revenue generation - Avi Brisman and Nigel South
3. Eco-mafia and Environmental Crime in Italy: Evidence from the Organised Trafficking of Waste - Anna Rita Germani, Antonio Pergolizzi and Filippo Reganati
4. Supply and demand: Regulation and the trade in illegal wildlife - Amy Couper and Reece Walters
Part II: Corporations, environmental violations and the money
5. The ‘Dieselgate’scandal: a criminological perspective - Toine Spapens
6. Environmental Responsibility and Firm Value - Nadja Guenster and Jakob Koegst
7. Too big to deter, too small to change? Profitability and environmental compliance in the waste and chemical industry in the Netherlands - Karin van Wingerde and Marieke Kluin
8. Waste crime from three criminological perspectives. Implications for crime control and harm prevention - Lieselot Bisschop and Wim Huisman
Part III: Financial regulation and enforcement
9. Green with Envy: Environmental Crimes and Black Money - Michael Levi
10. Wildlife and laundering: interaction between the under and upper world - Daan van Uhm
11. The limits of ecological modernisation to effectively manage greenhouse gas emissions. A case study of carbon market crime - Ruth McKie
12. Financial investigation in environmental crime cases in the Netherlands - Rudie Neve and Nanina van Zanden
13. Sentencing Environmental Offenders: It is Not Just About the Money - Rob White