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Ground-based Wireless Positioning / Edition 1

Ground-based Wireless Positioning / Edition 1


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Ground-based Wireless Positioning / Edition 1

Ground Based Wireless Positioning provides an in-depthtreatment of non-GPS based wireless positioning techniques, with abalance between theory and engineering practice. The book presentsthe architecture, design and testing of a variety of wirelesspositioning systems based on the time-of-arrival, signal strength,and angle-of-arrival measurements. These techniques are essentialfor developing accurate wireless positioning systems which canoperate reliably in both indoor and outdoor environments where theGlobal Positioning System (GPS) proves to be inadequate. The bookcovers a wide range of issues including radio propagation,parameter identification, statistical signal processing,optimization, and localization in large and multi-hop networks. Acomprehensive study on the state-of-the-art techniques andmethodologies in wireless positioning and tracking is provided,including anchor-based and anchor-free localisation in wirelesssensor networks (WSN). The authors address real world issues suchas multipath, non-line-of-sight (NLOS) propagation, accuracylimitations and measurement errors.

Presenting the latest advances in the field, Ground BasedWireless Positioning is one of the first books to cover non-GPSbased technologies for wireless positioning. It serves as anindispensable reference for researchers and engineers specialisingin the fields of localization and tracking, and wireless sensornetworks.

  • Provides a comprehensive treatment of methodologies andalgorithms for positioning and tracking
  • Includes practical issues and case studies in designing realwireless positioning systems
  • Explains non-line-of-sight (NLOS) radio propagation and NLOSmitigation techniques
  • Balances solid theory with engineering practice of non-GPSwireless systems

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780470747049
Publisher: Wiley
Publication date: 08/24/2009
Series: Wiley - IEEE Series
Pages: 450
Product dimensions: 6.80(w) x 9.80(h) x 1.20(d)

About the Author

Dr Kegen Yu received a BEng degree from JilinUniversity, China, a MEng degree from the Australian NationalUniversity, Australia, and a PhD degree from the University ofSydney, Australia, in 1983, 1999 and 2003 respectively. From 1983to 1997 he worked as a practicing engineer and later a lecturer atNanchang University, China. From 2003 to 2005 he was employed as aPostdoctoral Fellow at the Centre for Wireless Communications,University of Oulu, Finland, researching on wireless positioningand communications theory. Since November 2005 he has served as aResearch Scientist at CSIRO working on ad hoc wireless positioningsystems, wireless sensor networks and reconfigurable radio. Kegenhas published three book chapters, and over 40 refereed journal andconference papers.

Ian Sharp is a Senior Consultant on wireless positioningsystems. He has over 30 years of engineering experience in radiosystems. His initial involvement in positioning technology was inaviation and later, in the 1980s, with the Interscan microwavelanding system (MLS). In the later 1980s to the early 1990s, Ianwas the R&D manager for the Quiktrak covert vehicle trackingsystem. This system is now commercially operating worldwide. Fromthe mid 1990s to 2007 Ian worked at the CSIROmainly on developingexperimental radio systems. Hewas the inventor and architectdesigner of CSIRO’s precision location system (PLS) forsports applications. The PLS has been successfully trialed inAustralia and the USA. Ian holds a number of patents relating topositioning technology.

Professor Y Jay Guo is the Director of theWireless Technologies Laboratory and Theme Leader of Broadband forAustralia in the CSIRO ICT Centre, Australia. Prior to thisappointment in August 2005, Jay held various senior positions inthe European wireless industry managing the development of advancedtechnologies for the third-generation (3G) mobile communicationssystems. Jay has over 20 years of industrial and academicexperience in antennas, signal processing and wireless networks. Hehas published three technical books and over 100 scientific papersin top-tier research journals and at international conferences. Heholds 12 patents in wireless technologies. He is a Fellow of IET,Adjunct Professor at Macquarie University, Australia, and GuestProfessor at the Chinese Academy of Science (CAS).

Table of Contents

About the Authors.



1 Introduction.

1.1 Introduction to Radio Positioning.

1.2 Short and Medium-range Radiolocation Technologies.

1.3 Overview of the Book.


2 Radio Propagation.

2.1 Statistical Multipath Theory.

2.2 Radio Propagation Characteristics at Different DistanceScales.

2.3 Measurements.

2.4 Excess Delays in Radio Propagation.

2.5 Antenna Effects.


3 Signal Detection by Correlation.

3.1 Transmitter Signal.

3.2 Receiver Signal Processing.


4 Bandlimited Time-of-Arrival Measurements.

4.1 Wideband Multipath Theorem.

4.2 Bandlimited Correlogram Characteristics.

4.3 Model of Bandlimited Correlogram.

4.4 Peak-Tracking Algorithm Performance.

4.5 Leading-edge Projection Tracking Algorithm.

4.6 Leading-edge Ratio Algorithm.

4.7 Multipath Phase.

4.8 Performance Summary of Tracking Algorithms.


5 Fundamentals of Positioning Systems.

5.1 Navigation Systems and Tracking Systems.

5.2 System Architecture.

5.3 Overview of Position Determination.

5.4 Indoor Performance Issues.


6 Noniterative Position Determination.

6.1 Basic Positioning Methods.

6.2 Linearization-Based Least-Squares Methods.

6.3 Spherical Interpolation Approach.

6.4 Quasi-Least-Squares Solution.

6.5 Linear-Correction Least-Squares Approach.


7 Iterative Position Determination.

7.1 Iterative Algorithms.

7.2 Filtering-based Methods.

7.3 Data Smoothing.


8 Positioning Accuracy Evaluation.

8.1 Accuracy Measures.

8.2 Cramer–Rao Lower Bound in Line-of-SightConditions.

8.3 Derivation of Cramer–Rao Lower Bound inNon-Line-of-Sight Conditions.

8.4 Approximate Variance of Linear Least-Squares Algorithm.

8.5 Accuracy Comparison.

Annex 8.A: Components of the Fisher Information Matrix.


9 Geometric Dilution of Precision Analysis.

9.1 Geometric Error Analysis.

9.2 Statistical Error Analysis.

9.3 Calculation of Geometric Dilution of Precision.

9.4 Accuracy Probabilities.

9.5 Special Cases: Analytical Solutions to Geometric Dilution ofPrecision.

9.6 Geometric Dilution of Precision Performance.


10 Multipath Mitigation.

10.1 Residual-Weighting-based Method.

10.2 Filtering-based Method.

10.3 Constrained Optimization.

10.4 Scatterer-based Method.

10.5 Error Statistics.

10.6 Propagation-Model-based Method.

10.7 Pattern Matching.

10.8 Performance Analysis.

Annex 10.A: Sequential Quadratic Programming Algorithm.

Annex 10.B: Equation Coefficients.


11 Anchor-based Localization for Wireless Sensor Networks.

11.1 Characteristics of Wireless Sensor Networks.

11.2 Coarse Localization Methods.

11.3 Global Localization Methods.

11.4 Localization with Unknown Internal Delays and ClockOffsets.


12 Anchor Position Accuracy Enhancement.

12.1 Impact of Anchor Location Accuracy on Sensor NodeLocalization.

12.2 Line-of-Sight and Non-Line-of-Sight Propagation Models.

12.3 Anchor Position Accuracy Bound.

12.4 Accuracy Improvement Based on Distance and AngleEstimates.

12.5 Accuracy Improvement Based on Distance Estimates.

Annex 12.A: Definition of Matrix and Vector in Line-of-SightConditions.

Annex 12.B: Definition of Matrix and Vector in Non-Line-of-SightConditions.


13 Anchor-free Localization.

13.1 Robust Quads.

13.2 Multidimensional Scaling Method.

13.3 Mass–Spring Model.

13.4 Hybrid Approach.

13.5 Graphical Model.

13.6 Clustering and Stitching.

13.7 Referent Coordinate System Establishment.

13.8 Cramer–Rao Lower Bound.

13.9 Accuracy of Location Estimates.

13.10 Distance-Error-based Accuracy Measure.

13.11 Accuracy Evaluation.


14 Non-Line-of-Sight Identification.

14.1 Data Smoothing.

14.2 Distribution Tests.

14.3 Calculating Level Crossing Rate and Fade Duration.

14.4 Estimating the Rician Factor.

14.5 Generalized Likelihood Ratio Test.

14.6 Nonparametric Method.

14.7 Using Intermediate Location Estimation.

14.8 Neyman–Pearson Test.

14.9 Joint Time-of-Arrival and Received Signal Strength-basedApproaches.

14.10 Angle-of-Arrival-based Methods.

Annex 14.A: Proofs of Theorems and Corollary.

Annex 14.B: Derivation of the Probability of Detection.


Appendix A: Hyperbolic Navigation.

A.1 Analytical Equations of a Hyperbola.

A.2 Solution to Hyperbolic Navigation.

A.3 Solution to Example Problem.

Appendix B: Radio Propagation Measurement Techniques.

B.1 Measurements with a Network Analyzer.

B.1.1 Measurements with a Reference Cable.

B.1.2 Calibration of Antennas.

B.1.3 Propagation Measurements.

B.2 Time-Domain Measurements.


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