Over the last 20 or so years, there has been a profound step-change in land use and transport planning in Australian and North American cities. Most recently, this has been driven by climate change considerations and the fossil fuel price crisis of 2008. Smart Growth advocates, New Urbanists and practitioners of Transit Oriented Development are at the forefront of this change, generally advocating for better connected, compact communities where there is a range of housing alternatives and transport choices available to members of the community. However, there are myriad challenges to implementing the principles espoused by these practitioners and significant urban retrofit issues to overcome. This book explores the planning history of the conventional Australian city with particular reference to Perth, noting many parallels with the North American experience. After considering the key implications of this planning legacy, a blueprint for change and solutions to overcome some of the more significant barriers to implementation are offered. The book, as the name implies, is about 'Growing Up' in all senses of the term.