Guia Bilingue Legal Para Todos =: Bilingual Legal Guide for All: Spanish-English, English-Spanish

Guia Bilingue Legal Para Todos =: Bilingual Legal Guide for All: Spanish-English, English-Spanish

by Yolanda J. Izurieta M. Ed

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ISBN-13: 9781490728001
Publisher: Trafford Publishing
Publication date: 03/03/2014
Pages: 600
Sales rank: 849,886
Product dimensions: 6.00(w) x 9.00(h) x 1.33(d)

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BILINGUAL LEGAL GUIDE FOR ALL


By Yolanda J. Izurieta

Trafford Publishing

Copyright © 2014 Yolanda J. Izurieta M. Ed.
All rights reserved.
ISBN: 978-1-4907-2800-1



CHAPTER 1

THE SPANISH ALPHABET

/ ELALFABETO ESPANOL


Spanish uses practically the same alphabet as English. The Spanish alphabet consists of thirty letters. The names of the letters are feminine: la be, (the) b; la eme, (the) m; la jota, (the) j; etc.

El español usa practicamente el mismo alfabeto que el ingls. El alfabeto en español consiste de treinta letras. Los nombres de las letras son femeninos: la be, la eme, la jota, etc.


Notice:

That in addition to the twenty-six letters of the English alphabet, the Spanish alphabet includes ch, ll, ñ, and rr.

That the compound letters ch, ll, and rr represent single sounds and are treated as one letter—that is, they are never divided.

That the ñ is treated as a separate letter.

That in vocabulary lists and dictionaries, words which begin with ch, ll, and ñ follow words that begin with c, l, and n—while the compound letter rr, which never begins a word, is alphabetized as in English.

That the letters k and w are used only in words of foreign origin.

That since b and v sound alike, Spanish speakers distinguish between the two as be grande (big b) and be chica (small b).

That in general, the Spanish vowels are clearer, and the Spanish consonants are softer than those in English.


NOTE:

Que además de las veinte y seis letras del alfabeto ingls, el alfabeto español incluye ch, ll, ñ, y rr.

Here is the complete Spanish alphabet with approximate English sounds, remarks, and illustrative words:

Aquí está el alfabeto en español complete con sonidos que se parecen al ingls, notas y ejemplos:

a like a in father: mano, alta, cama, Ana

b like b in boy at the beginning of a word, and after m or n: bien, buenas, también, un baile; otherwise like the b sound above, except that the lips are not quite closed: saber, Cuba, libro, muy bien


Note: The letters b and v are pronounced exactly alike in Spanish.


c like s in sent before e or i: nación, decir, ciencia, fácil; otherwise like c in cat: campo, oscuro, clase, actor ch like ch in church: mucho, noche, muchacho, coche

d like d in dull: del, día, cuando, saldré; between vowels and at the end of a word like th in they: nada, todo, estado, usted

e like e in they: mesa, leer, señor, eso; if followed by a consonant in the same syllable, like e in set: cerca, verdad, ochenta, viven

f pronounced exactly like the English f

g like hard g in go: pagar, agosto, grande, vengo; before e or i like h in halt: general, ligero, página, region

h in Spanish, h is always silent—that is, it has no sound at all: hacer, ahora, hablo, hoy

i like i in machine: ir, libre, principal, Francisco

j like h in hey or hawk: jardín, julio, lejos, Juan

k like k in kill: kilómetro, kilo, Kodak, kilociclo


Note: In Spanish, the letter k occurs only in words borrowed from another language.


l like l in love: lista, algo, possible, final

ll like y in yes: llegar, ella, amarillo, calle

m like m in man: mano, tomar, momento, mismo

n like n in name: noche, junio, nunca, pan

ñ like ni in onion: niño, cañón, mañana, año

o like o in go: como, moreno, oigo, doctor

p like p in pan: Pedro, papá, peso, papel

q like c in can—always followed by ue or ui, and the u is always silent: que, aquí, química, aquel

r like Spanish rr at the beginning of a word or after l, n, or s: Rafael, alrededor, un rato, Israel; otherwise, only a slight trill: América, oro, mirar, preferir

rr with a strong trill in any position: arroz, cierren, perro, ferrocarril

s like s in sit: seso, vision, Rosa, presidente

t like t in to: fruta, tinta, Tomás, tiempo

u like u in rule: uno, escuchar, jugo, nunca

v like Spanish b in all its positions: vivo, volver, llave, tranvía

w usually pronounced like Spanish b, v, or like an English v, or kept as English: Washington, water, welter, wolfram


Note: In Spanish, the letter w occurs only in words borrowed from another language.


x like s in sir when followed by a consonant: explicar, extranjero, extremo, extensión; between vowels like x (ks) in extra or like x (gs) in examine: éxito, próximo, exactamente, existir

y like y in year: yo, ayer, ayudar, leyó; when y serves as a vowel, like i in machine: hay, hoy, doy, estoy; the conjugation y is pronounced like the English i in machine

z like c in certain instances: zapato, vez, Zaragoza, azul


Vowels Las vocales

The letters a, e, i, o, u are vowels.

a like a in ah

e like a in hay

i like ee in bee

o like o in no

u like oo in moon


Y is a vowel only when standing alone, as in y (and), or at the end of a word, as in ley (law).

The strong vowels are a, e, and o. The weak vowels are i and u.


Spanish vowels are generally open and clear. While the five basic vowel sounds sometimes vary slightly according to position or stress, they always retain the same character of sound.

Las vocales en español son generalmente abiertas y claras. Mientras las cinco vocals básicas pueden varian un poco de acuerdo a su posición o acento, ellas siempre retienen el mismo sonido.


Diphthongs

A diphthong is a combination, in either order, of a strong (a, e, o) and a weak (i, u) vowel, or of two weak vowels.

The following is a list of diphthongs and their approximate pronunciations. They need not be memorized.


Los diptongos

Un diptongo es una combinación, ya sea en una orden u otra, de un sonido (a, e, o) y una vocal dbil (i, u) o de dos vocals dbiles.

Los siguiente es una lista de diptongos con su pronunciación. No se tienen que memorizar.

ai, ay like i in line: aire, hay
au
like ou in sound: causa, autor
oi, oy
like oy in boy: oiga, soy
ei, ey
like ay in day: reina, ley
eu
like eh plus oo: Europa, deuda
iu
like the word you: ciudad, viuda
ia
like ya in yarda: media, seria
ua
like wa in want: cuando, agua
io
like yo in yoga: medio, patio
uo
like uo in quota: cuota, continuo
ie
like ye in yet: miel, tiene
ue
like wa in wait: puede, luego
ui, uy
like wee in week: cuidado, muy


A dipthong forms one syllable and cannot be separated in speech or in writing.

When a diphthong consists of a strong and a weak vowel, the strong vowel receives the stress in pronunciation: autor.

When a diphthong consists of two weak vowels, the second vowel receives the stress in pronunciation: viuda.

Un diptongo forma una sílaba y no puede estar separado ni al hablarlo ni al escribirlo.

Cuando un diptongo consiste de una vocal debil y una fuerte, la vocal fuerte tiene el acento en la pronunciación: autor

Cuando un diptongo consiste de dos vocals dbiles, la segunda vocal tiene el acento en la pronunciación: viuda


Thripthongs

A triphthong is the combination, in a single syllable, of a stressed strong vowel between two weak vowels. Only four combinations exist in Spanish: iai, iei, uai (uay), and uei (uey).


Triptongos

Un triptongo es una combinación, en una sola sílaba, de una vocal fuerte acentuada entre dos vocales dbiles. Solamente hay cuatro combinaciones que existen en español: iai, iei, uai, y uei.


Division of Words into Syllables

A syllable is the part of a word that can be pronounced with a single impulse of the voice. In Spanish, it always contains a vowel sound and may, in addition, contain one or more consonant sounds. The vowel sound may consist of a single vowel, a diphthong, or a tripthong The most basic Spanish syllable consists of a consonant followed by a vowel or diphthong.


Devision de palabras en sílabas

Una sílaba es la parte de la palabra que puede ser pronunciada con un solo impulse de la voz. En español, siempre contiene un sonido vocalic y puede, ademáas, contener una o más consonants. El sonido vocalic puede consistir de una sola voca., un diptongo, o un triptongo. La sílaba más básica en español consiste de una consonante seguida de una vocal o un diptongo.

se-ño-ra Cu-ba fue-go


Notice:

That the fundamental principle is to make syllables end in a vowel as far as possible.

That a single consonant (including ch, ll, rr) goes with the vowel or diphthong that follows it:

lle-ga-mos de-re-cho co-rren


That combinations of two consonants are usually separated:

car-ta fuen-te rom-per cuar-to es-tá


That if the second consonant is l or r, the combination is, as a rule, inseparable:

a-brir te-a-tro pue-blo in-fluen-cia


That more than two consonants are so divided that the last consonant goes with the following vowel, except if there is an inseparable combination involving l or r:

ins-tan-te in-glés en-tra


That two strong vowels are always written in separate syllables:

re-al le-er to-a- lla cre-e


That a written accent mark (') on the weak (i, u) vowel of a diphthong breaks the diphthong and creates two separate syllables:

dí-a le-í- do pa-ís Ra-úl


An accent mark on a strong vowel merely indicates stress.

Un acento marcado en una vocal fuerte demuestra acentuación.

diá-lo-go tam- bién


That a word in Spanish usually has as many syllables as it has vowels. Que una palabra en español usualmente tiene tantas sílabas como vocales.


Accentuation: Word Stress and the Written Accent Mark

The words stress and accent are often used with the same meaning. For our purposes, we will define stress as the emphasis given to a syllable which increases its relative loudness. The word accent, on the other hand, will refer only to the written accent mark over a vowel.

Las palabras acentuación y el acento tienen usualmente el mismo significado. Por nuestro propósito, definiremos acentuación como el enfasís dado a una sílaba la que hace aumentar el sonido de la sílaba. La palabra acento, por otro lado, se refiere solamente al acento marcado sobre la vocal.

The problem is to determine whether or not any Spanish word should be accented—that is, carry a written accent mark. Fortunately, Spanish words are stressed according to specific rules. Once these general rules are learned, there is very little difficulty in knowing where to stress a word in pronunciation or where to place the accent mark in writing. The only written accent generally used in Spanish is the acute ('). Only vowels take an accent mark.

El problema es el de determiner si las palabras en español debe tener acento- lo que significa, poner un acento marcado. Afortunadamente, las palabras en español son acentuadas de acuerdo a reglas específicas. Cuando se haya aprendido esas reglas, no habrá dificultad al saber si hay que poner acento o en que lugar poner el acento al escribirlo. El único acento escrito de una palabra generalmente usado en español es el grave. (') SOLAMENTE LAS VOCALES TIENEN ACENTO MARCADO.

Remember, the stressed syllable of a word is the syllable which is emphasized. In Spanish, there are three simple rules by means of which you can tell which syllable of a word is stressed, and whether or not a written accent mark is required. They are as follows:

Recuerden, las sílabas acentuadas de una palabra en la sílaba que tiene más sonido. En español, hay tres simples reglas por medio de las cuales usted puede decider cual sílaba o palabra está acentuada, y si un acento escrito se require. Las reglas son las siguientes:

1. Words ending in a vowel, or in the consonants n or s, are stressed on the next to the last syllable and require no written accent.

2. Las palabras que terminan en una vocal o en las consonantes n or s, tienen el enfasís en la penúltima sílaba y no requieren acento escrito.

3. Words ending in a consonant, except n or s, are stressed on the last syllable and take no written accent.

4. Las palabras que terminan en consonante, excepto n o s, tienen el enfasís en la última sílaba y no requieren acento escrito.

5. Words which are not stressed according to these two rules must have a written accent on the syllable that is stressed in pronunciation.

6. Las palabras que no tienen enfasís de acuerdo a estas dos reglas deben tener un acento escrito en la sílaba donde hay enfasís al pronunciarla.

The following are examples illustrating each rule: Los siguientes ejemplos ilustran estas reglas:

1. som-bre-ro a-ve-ni-da sie-te ha-blan
2. us-ted
I-sa-bel es-pa-ñol es-toy
3. -ba-do -mez ja-bón au-to--vil


Note: Final y, although sounded as a vowel, is considered a consonant for the purposes of accentuation.

vi-rrey es-toy


In addition to being used to indicate an exceptional stress (as in rule 3 above), the accent mark is also used to indicate the separation of two vowels which otherwise constitute a diphthong—as we have seen in the section Division of Words Into—to distinguish certain words, as for example all interrogative pronouns and adjectives, demonstrative pronouns, accented forms of the adjective compounded to form an adverb in -mente; to distinguish between two words spelled alike but different in meaning (si, if, sí, yes; el, the, él, he; mi, my, mí, me; etc.).


Linking of Words

In reading or speaking Spanish, words are linked together, as in English, so that two or more may sound as one long word. The following few examples will illustrate some of the general principles of linking.


Palabras unidas

Al leer las palabras en español, las palabras se juntan, como en ingls, de modo que dos o más sonidos pueden sonar como si fuese uno. Los siguients son pocos ejemplos de palabras unidas.

In speaking, a final consonant is linked with an initial vowel:

Es-un-amigo con-el hombre

Two identical vowels are pronounced as one:

De-español lo-oído


Two identical consonants are pronounced as one:

el-lobo al-lado


The final vowel of one word is linked with the initial vowel of the following word to form one spoken syllable:

todo-el día su-amigo


La última vocal de la palabra se une con la vocal inicial de la siguiente palabra para formar una sola sílaba.


Punctuation

Spanish punctuation, in general, is the same as English punctuation. Note these differences, however:

Spanish begins questions and exclamations with their respective punctuation marks inverted (in addition to the usual sign at the end). They are placed at the actual beginning of the question or exclamation, not necessarily at the beginning of the sentence.

ζ Cómo está usted?
How are you?
Í Qué muchacha más bonita!
What a pretty girl!
Tú aprendes francés, ζ verdad? You're learning French, right?


In Spanish, the dash is generally used instead of quotation marks to denote a change of speaker in dialogue. It is, however, omitted at the end of the sentence.

ζ No viene usted con nosotros-me preguntó Miguel. "Aren't you coming with us?" Michael asked me.


La puntuación

La puntuación es español, en general, es la misma puntuación que en ingls. Note estas diferencias, sin embargo:

Las preguntas y exclamaciones en español empiezan con los signos de puntuación invertidos (además del signo usual que se escribe al final). Son colocadas al principio de la pregunta o exclamación, no necesariamente al principio de la oración.

ζ Cómo está usted?
How are you?
Í Qué muchacha más bonita!
What a pretty girl!
Tú aprendes francés, ζ verdad? You're learning French, right?


En español, el guión es generalmente usado en vez de puntos de exclamación o denotan un cambio de hablante en un diálogo. Es sin embargo, omitido al final de la oración. ζ

No viene usted con nosotros-me preguntó Miguel. "Aren't you coming with us?" Michael asked me.


Capitalization

The use of capital letters is less extensive in Spanish than in English. The pronoun yo (I) is written with a small letter, except at the beginning of a sentence.


(Continues...)

Excerpted from BILINGUAL LEGAL GUIDE FOR ALL by Yolanda J. Izurieta. Copyright © 2014 Yolanda J. Izurieta M. Ed.. Excerpted by permission of Trafford Publishing.
All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher.
Excerpts are provided by Dial-A-Book Inc. solely for the personal use of visitors to this web site.

Table of Contents

Contents

PREFACE, xi,
INTRODUCCION, xiii,
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS, xv,
RECONOCIMIENTOS, xvii,
ABOUT THE AUTHOR, xix,
ACERCA DE LAAUTORA, xxi,
SUGGESTIONS FOR USE OF THIS BOOK, xxiii,
SPANISH PRONUNCIATION AND ORTOGRAPHY, 1,
THE SPANISH ALPHABET, 3,
THE BILL OF RIGHTS, 15,
ALTERNATIVE DISPUTE RESOLUTION, 27,
BANKRUPTCY SECTION, 105,
BUSINESS LAW SECTION, 121,
CRIMINAL LAW, 199,
FAMILY LAW, 261,
JUVENILE PROCEDURES, 309,
PROBATE AND ELDER LAW, 375,
REAL PROPERTY LANDLORD AND TENANT, 531,
WILLS, TRUSTS, AND ESTATES, 551,
BIBLIOGRAPHY, 571,

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