Organizations have information technology (IT) plans in place, such as contingency and computer security incident response plans, so that they can respond to and manage adverse situations involving IT. These plans should be maintained in a state of readiness, which should include having personnel trained to fulfill their roles and responsibilities within a plan, having plans exercised to validate their content, and having systems and system components tested to ensure their operability in an operational environment specified in a plan. These three types of events can be carried out efficiently and effectively through the development and implementation of a test, training, and exercise (TT&E) program. Organizations should consider having such a program in place because tests, training, and exercises are so closely related. For example, exercises and tests offer different ways of identifying deficiencies in IT plans, procedures, and training.