The Gulen Movement: Civic Service without Borders

The Gulen Movement: Civic Service without Borders

by Muhammed Cetin

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Overview

This book seeks to develop an appropriate discourse for studying the Gülen Movement and phenomena like it. The established discourse concerns itself with social movements as "protest," as "challenge" to the System, as contentious actors looking to alter or even overturn existing structures and/or policies in some field, usually political or economic. Approaching the matter from social movement theory and taking an insider's perspective, the author argues that the Gülen Movement is, as it has always been, non-contentious; it is not a marginalized actor working on the System from the outside. On the contrary, it has always worked within the System - within the boundaries of the laws and public norms that obtain in the different local and national settings where it has set up institutions.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781935295082
Publisher: Blue Dome Press
Publication date: 06/16/2010
Pages: 344
Product dimensions: 6.60(w) x 9.41(h) x 1.22(d)

Table of Contents

Acknowledgement ix

Foreword xi

Introduction xv

0.1 Particular and general aims of this study xv

0.2 Methodological questions xvii

0.2.1 Insider/Outsider research and perspective xix

0.2.2 Methodological consequences of the research xx

0.2.3 Data collection and presentation xxii

0.3 Present and future relevance xxiv

0.4 Organization of the book xxiv

0.5 The argument in brief xxiv

0.6 The multi-polar approach xxvi

1 Theoretical Background: Collective Action and Social Movements Theory 1

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Historical overview of collective action and social movements theory 1

1.2.1 The 'classical' approaches 2

1.2.2 The contemporary approaches 3

1.3 Conclusion 5

2 Historical Background 11

2.1 Introduction 11

2.2 Crises and conflicts; demands for modernization 12

2.2.1 The Republican era: one-party rule 12

2.2.2 Laicism 14

2.2.3 Cultural revolution 15

2.2.4 Inönü, 'the National Chief' and 'Eternal Leader' 18

2.2.5 Democrats, 1950-1960 20

2.2.6 Military coup d'état 24

2.2.7 After the executions: 1961-1970 27

2.2.8 Military coup II 32

2.2.9 Collapse of public order 34

2.2.10 Military coup III 38

2.2.11 New 'order' 39

2.2.12 The Özal years 41

2.2.13 President Özal 44

2.2.14 Political Islam? 47

2.2.15 'Post-modern' military coup 48

2.2.16 Crash and corruption 50

2.2.17 The return of Ecevit 53

2.2 Implications of the historical background 54

2.3 Conclusion 60

3 Mobilization and Counter-Mobilization 63

3.1 Introduction 63

3.2 The Gülen Movement 64

3.2.1 Cultural mobilization: public space and making new issues visible 64

3.2.2 Cultural and symbolic production 69

3.2.3 Information and media 74

3.2.4 Social mobility and professionalism 81

3.2.5 Reflexivity or symbolic potential 85

3.2.6 Transnational projects and recognition 90

3.2.7 Altruistic action and its symbolic challenge 94

3.2.8 The February 28 process and its aftermath 95

3.2.9 (Re)defining democracy 102

3.2.10 Induced resolution 111

3.2.11 Success of the Movement 111

3.3 Conclusion 113

4 Conjunctural Factors 119

4.1 Conceptualizing the Gülen Movement(GM) 119

4.1.1 Is the GM a civil society initiative? 119

4.1.2 Is the GM a reaction to a crisis and/or an expression of a conflict? 122

4.1.3 Is the GM a sector cult? 134

4.1.4 Is the GM a political movement? 149

4.1.5 Is the GM altruistic collective action and voluntary philanthropic service-projects? 165

4.2 Conclusion 175

5 Internal Organizational Factors And Components 181

5.1 Introduction 181

5.2 The case of the Gülen Movement 182

5.2.1 Identity, participation and relationship 182

5.2.2 Goals 201

5.2.3 Intervention, power and authority 208

5.2.4 SMOs and commitment 214

5.2.5 Leadership 221

5.2.6 Incentives and rewards 230

5.2.7 Factionalism 235

5.3 Conclusion 240

6 Summary and Conclusions 247

6.1 Defining the Gülen Movement 247

6.1.1 On social movements generally 247

6.1.2 The Gülen Movement as cultural actor 251

6.1.3 The Gülen Movement as civil society actor 260

6.1.4 Internal factors in the Gülen Movement 270

6.2 Implications for social movements theory 283

Appendices 289

Special Usages 295

Notes 299

Bibliography 327

Index 363

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