Halogens and Noble Gases

Halogens and Noble Gases

by Facts on File




Periodic Table of the Elements is a six-volume set that explains not only how the elements were discovered and what their most prominent chemical and physical properties are but also the impact of discoveries on society and in science, including the fields of astrophysics, chemistry, and materials science. The books illustrate how the work of scientists has advanced our understanding of atomic theory and the nature of matter. Each volume highlights a group of related elements as they appear in the periodic table-at present, the elements from 1 through 118 (with the exception of element 117)-and provides basic information about each element, its role in history, the chemistry of the element, new issues involving the element, and the past, present, and future uses of the element.

Halogens and Noble Gases presents the current scientific understanding of the physics, chemistry, biology, and geology of these two families of nonmetals, including how they are synthesized in the universe, when and how they were discovered, and where they are found on Earth. The book explores how humans use and manipulate halogens and noble gases and the resultant benefits and challenges to society. Sidebars clarify fundamental concepts about the behavior of this group of elements and provide insight into the effects that these nonmetals have on science, technology, health, and medicine.

The volume includes information on






iodine and astatine

krypton and xenon



the future direction of the elements

The book contains 50 color photographs and line illustrations, sidebars, a conversion table for Sl units, a list of acronyms, the Periodic Table of the Elements, a table of the elements arranged by category, a chronology, a glossary, a detailed list of print and Internet resources, and an index. The set is essential for high school students, teachers, and general readers who wish to learn about the history of the periodic table and its impact on scientific findings of the past, present, and future.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780816073689
Publisher: Facts on File, Incorporated
Publication date: 05/01/2010
Series: Periodic Table of the Elements Series
Pages: 192
Product dimensions: 7.30(w) x 9.30(h) x 0.60(d)
Age Range: 14 - 17 Years

Table of Contents

Preface viii

Acknowledgments xi

Introduction xiii

Overview: Chemistry and Physics Background xviii

Part 1 The Halogens 1

Introduction to the Halogens 1

Understanding Patterns and Properties in the Halogens and Noble Gases 5

1 Fluorine: Corrosive, Toxic, and Remarkable 9

The Astrophysics of Fluorine 9

The Discovery and Naming of Fluorine 12

Fluorine Gas: A Hazardous Molecule 15

The Chemistry of Fluorine: The Most Reactive Element 15

Fluoride in Drinking Water: The Debate 18

Technology and Current Uses 19

2 Chlorine: From Table Salt to Safe Swimming 21

The Astrophysics of Chlorine 22

The Novelty of the Negative Ion 24

The Discovery and Naming of Chlorine 25

The Chemistry of Chlorine 27

Fireworks and Flame Retardants 31

Chlorine as a Weapon of War 32

Technology and Current Uses 34

3 Bromine: Unusual at Room Temperature 35

The Astrophysics of Bromine 36

The Discovery and Naming of Bromine 37

The Chemistry of Bromine 38

A Radioactive Nature 41

Obsolete Uses of Bromine 42

Fluorine, Chlorine, Bromine, and the Ozone Hole 43

Technology and Current Uses 44

4 Iodine and Astatine: So Alike Yet So Different 47

Everywhere and Nowhere 48

Discovery and Naming 50

On Being Electropositive 53

The Chemistry of Iodine 53

Astatine Chemistry: Why There Is So Little 54

Iodine and Hypothyroidism 54

Medical Applications of Iodine Isotopes 55

Astatine's Radioactive Nature 56

Technology and Current Uses 57

Part 2 The Noble Gases 59

Introduction to the Noble Gases 59

Discovery and Naming of the Noble Gases 60

5 Helium: From Balloons to Lasers 64

The Astrophysics of Helium 66

Fusion of Light Helium: A Future Energy Source? 68

Earthbound in Natural Gas 70

Lighter than Air: Helium Balloons and Aerostatics 71

How Helium Changes Voice Sound 73

Technology and Current Uses 75

6 Neon: Known for Its Glow 77

The Astrophysics of Neon 77

Earthbound: Isotopes in Volcanoes 79

Bright City Lights 80

The Helium-Neon Laser 82

Technology and Current Uses 83

7 Argon 85

The Astrophysics of Argon 86

Scuba Diving and Argon 87

Freezing Cancer 89

Technology and Current Uses 90

8 Krypton and Xenon 91

The Astrophysics of Krypton and Xenon 93

The Sparse Chemistry of Krypton-Not So for Xenon 94

Defining the Meter 95

Excimer Lasers 96

Xenon and Exotic Propulsion 98

Technology and Current Uses 100

9 Radon: A Common Menace 102

The Geology of Radon 102

Radon and Hydrology 104

Bad Air: In Basements and Stone Houses 106

Technology and Current Uses 107

10 Conclusions and Future Directions 109

Speculations on Further Developments 109

New Physics 110

New Chemistry 110

SI Units and Conversions 113

List of Acronyms 115

Periodic Table of the Elements 116

Table of Element Categories 117

Chronology 118

Glossary 123

Further Resources 136

General Resources 141

Index 148

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