ISBN-10:
1930536151
ISBN-13:
9781930536159
Pub. Date:
12/16/2003
Publisher:
Best Publishing Company
Handbook of Acrylics for Submersibles, Hyperbaric Chambers, and Aquaria

Handbook of Acrylics for Submersibles, Hyperbaric Chambers, and Aquaria

by Jerry D. Stachiw

Hardcover

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781930536159
Publisher: Best Publishing Company
Publication date: 12/16/2003
Pages: 1080
Product dimensions: 7.20(w) x 10.36(h) x 2.36(d)

Table of Contents

1.0The Quest for Panoramic Vision Underwater
1.1Introduction1
1.2Bathysphere2
1.3Trieste3
1.4Multiple Window Installations5
1.5Submersibles without Viewports for Direct Use5
1.6Panoramic Windows7
1.7Acrylic Plastic Submersibles9
1.8In Addition to Submersibles16
1.9Summary17
References19
Figures 1.1-1.3021
2.0Introduction to Acrylic Plastic
2.1Introduction to Plastics41
2.2Introduction to Acrylic42
2.3Manufacture of Acrylic Monomer42
2.4Acrylic Polymerization43
2.5Modification of Acrylic45
2.6Conversion of Acrylic Resin46
2.7Acrylic Properties48
2.8Comparison of Acrylics52
2.9Chemical Resistance56
2.10Products Made from Acrylics57
2.11Design Considerations59
2.12Thermoforming Acrylic59
2.13Machining Acrylic61
2.14Sanding, Polishing and Cleaning Acrylic65
2.15Surface Castings and Texturing66
2.16Joining Acrylics66
2.17Lamination68
2.18Summary68
Figures and Tables44
3.0Sources of Window Design Data
3.1Introduction71
3.2Evaluation of Structures72
3.3Evaluation of Material81
Figures 3.1-3.2888
4.0Structural Properties of Monolithic Cast Acrylic Plastic
4.1Introduction105
4.2Plastic Design Considerations106
4.3Short-Term Mechanical Properties111
4.4Long-Term Mechanical Properties117
4.5Design Criteria125
References128
Figures 4.1-4.62129
5.0Acrylic Aquaria Enclosures
5.1Evaluation of Transparent Construction Materials165
5.2Selection of Acrylic Material for Aquaria169
5.3Inclusions171
5.4Design Parameters176
5.5Calculation of Stresses179
5.6Prediction of Critical Pressure181
5.7Structural Performance184
5.8Seating186
5.9Fabrication of Panels187
5.10Surface Care189
5.11QC Inspection Procedures for New Panels192
5.12Joining Techniques192
5.13Typical Aquaria Installations193
5.14Samples of Installations with Discussion of the Uniqueness of Each194
5.15Conclusion197
Figures 5.1-5.31199
Appendix ATypical Specification for Acrylic Aquarium Windows217
6.0Pressure-Resistant Windows
6.1Introduction221
6.2Window Classification222
6.3Summary224
Figures 6.1-6.6226
7.0Plane Disc Windows With Flat Bearing Surfaces
7.1Introduction231
7.2Structural Performance232
7.3Modes of Failure232
7.4Prediction of Critical Pressure233
7.5Seating236
7.6Fabrication of Windows238
7.7Resistance to Impulse and Point-Impact Loading239
7.8Conclusion240
References241
Figures 7.1-7.27242
8.0Plane Rectangular Windows
8.1Introduction262
8.2Structural Performance262
8.3Mode of Failure262
8.4Prediction of Critical Pressures262
8.5Seating265
8.6Fabrication267
8.7Resistance to Impulse and Point Loading268
8.8Conclusion268
References270
Figures 8.1-8.9271
9.0Conical Frustum Windows
9.1Introduction277
9.2Structural Performance278
9.3Modes of Failure279
9.4Prediction of Critical Pressures290
9.5Seating of Windows295
9.6Fabrication301
9.7Resistance to Impulse and Point Loading302
9.8Nonstandard Conical Frustums306
9.9Window Design306
9.10Conclusion309
References310
Figures 9.1-9.58311
Appendix AWindow Design Procedure369
Appendix BShort-Term Critical Pressures and Displacement of Conical Frustums375
Appendix CDisplacement of Conical Frustum Windows Under Long-Term Pressure Loading387
10.0Plane Disc Windows with Twin Conical Bearing Surfaces
10.1Introduction401
10.2Structural Performance402
10.3Modes of Failure403
10.4Critical Pressures404
10.5Seating408
10.6Sealing408
10.7Fabrication409
10.8Resistance to Underwater Explosions and Point-Impact Loading409
10.9Conclusion410
References411
Figures 10.1-10.20412
11.0Spherical Sector Windows
11.1Introduction433
11.2Spherical Shell Sectors with Conical Bearing Surfaces435
11.3Modified Spherical Shell Sectors455
11.4Conclusion464
References465
Figures 11.1-11.109466
Appendix AShort-Term Critical Pressures and Displacements of Spherical Sector Windows551
Appendix BLong-Term Displacement of Spherical Sector Windows Under Sustained Pressure Loading569
12.0Spherical Pressure Hulls
12.1Introduction577
12.2Internal Pressure579
12.3Ideal Spheres Under External Pressure582
12.4Conclusion629
References631
Figures 12.1-12.70633
Appendix AConstruction of Acrylic Spheres for NEMO Submersibles689
13.0Cylindrical Windows
13.1Introduction713
13.2Internal Pressure714
13.3External Pressure723
13.4Fabrication736
13.5Conclusion738
References739
Figures 13.1-13.37740
Appendix ANumerical Example for Calculations of Stresses in a Ring Stiffened Cylinder Under External Pressure773
14.0Illumination of Vessel Interiors
14.1Introduction775
14.2Illumination Through Windows (WTLS)775
14.3Illumination through Acrylic Light Pipes (ALPS)777
14.4Summary779
References781
Figures 14.1-14.29782
Appendix AWindow Transmission Light System (WTLS)803
Appendix BAcrylic Light Pipe System (ALPS)809
Enclosure 1Light Pipe Assembly Qualification/Acceptance Tests817
Enclosure 2Light Pipe Assembly Control Test822
Enclosure 3Light Pipe Assembly Fabrication Drawings825
15.0Stress Relieving Processes
15.1Residual Stresses833
15.2Reduction of Residual Stresses834
15.3Quality Control of Annealing Effectiveness839
15.4Summary843
References844
Figures 15.1-15.7850
16.0Joining Acrylic Components
16.1Introduction857
16.2Mechanical Joining857
16.3Adhesive Joining858
16.4Adhesive Joined Bond Configuration861
16.5Dams for Containment of Cement in the Bond Gap862
16.6Cementing Procedures865
16.7Durability of Bonded Joints866
16.8Effect of Joint Defects on Bond Performance867
16.9Repair of Bonded Joints870
16.10Cementing of Repair Bonds873
16.11Summary874
References875
Figures 16.1-16.23878
17.0Effect of Submersion in Water
17.1Introduction897
17.2Effects of Submergence897
17.3Fouling899
17.4Summary903
References904
Figures 17.1-17.11905
18.0Crazing
18.1Introduction913
18.2Craze Definition913
18.3Causes of Crazing913
18.4Postponement of Crazing916
18.5Resistance to Crazing916
18.6Removal of Crazing918
18.7Summary918
References920
Tables 18.1-18.3 and Figures 18.1-18.6921
19.0Deterioration of Acrylic in Service
19.1Introduction927
19.2Effect of Weathering928
19.3Effect of Stress933
19.4Service Life of Windows937
19.5Procedure for Determining Remaining Service Life938
19.6Service Inspection of Windows942
19.7Description of Safety Hazards943
19.8Effect of High Energy Radiation945
19.9Chemical Attack947
19.10Summary948
References949
Figures 19.1-19.10950
Appendix AEffect of Cleaners and Disinfectants on Stress Crazing Initiation957
Appendix BEvaluation of Cleaners, Waxes, Protective Coatings, and Gasketing Materials for Use on Acrylic Windows961
Appendix CEffect of Chemicals on Cast Acrylic969
Appendix DRefinishing of Crazed, Cracked, or ScratchedAcrylic Surfaces by the User977
Appendix EStorage of Acrylic Windows981
20.0Optical Characteristics
20.1Optical Properties of Materials985
20.2Imagery in Viewing Media989
20.3Optical Geometry of Viewports991
20.4Ray Tracing and Light Pipes999
20.5Comparisons and Conclusions1002
References1003
Figures 20.1-20.181004
Appendix AOptical Properties of Spherical Shell Acrylic Windows1019
21.0Safety Standards
21.1Introduction1025
21.2Historical Background1025
21.3ASME PVHO-1 Safety Standard1026
21.4Projected Performance of the Window in Service1033
21.5Summary1035
References1037
Figures 21.1-21.101038

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Handbook of Acrylics for Submersibles, Hyperbaric Chambers, and Aquaria 5 out of 5 based on 0 ratings. 2 reviews.
Guest More than 1 year ago
The recent publication of 'Handbook of Acrylics for Submersibles, Hyperbaric Chambers and Aquaria' by Dr. Jerry Stachiw provides a singular reference material to which any prospective designer or fabricator may turn to ensure an high quality, safe and cost-effective product. I can assure you that this handbook should form an essential part of the library of any persons or entities considering the development and fielding of acrylic windows. R. Lawrence Walker, former Program Manager - Naval Ocean Systems Center, San Diego, California
Guest More than 1 year ago
As a designer, I am often at a loss to find a handbook that in clear enginering language presents the solutions to my design problems. I have found 'The Handbook of Acrylics for Submersibles, Hyperbaric Chambers and Aquaria' by Dr J D Stachiw to be such a publication. It truly explains in plain language all the criteria affecting the design of acrylic pressure resistant structural components. I use it frequently.