ISBN-10:
1118647246
ISBN-13:
9781118647240
Pub. Date:
04/25/2016
Publisher:
Wiley
Handbook of Measurement in Science and Engineering / Edition 1

Handbook of Measurement in Science and Engineering / Edition 1

by Myer Kutz
Current price is , Original price is $350.0. You

Temporarily Out of Stock Online

Please check back later for updated availability.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781118647240
Publisher: Wiley
Publication date: 04/25/2016
Pages: 832
Product dimensions: 7.10(w) x 10.10(h) x 1.70(d)

About the Author

Myer Kutz holds engineering degrees from RPI and MIT. He was Vice President and General Manager of Wiley's STM division and has consulted and authored for most of the major professional and technical publishing houses. He is the author of 7 books and the editor of more than 20 handbooks.

Table of Contents

VOLUME 3

List of Contributors xxi

PREFACE xxv

Part VII Physics and Electrical Engineering 1943

54 Laser Measurement Techniques 1945
Cecil S. Joseph, Gargi Sharma, Thomas M. Goyette, and Robert H. Giles

54.1 Introduction, 1945

54.1.1 History and Development of the MASER, 1945

54.1.2 Basic Laser Physics, 1946

54.1.3 Laser Beam Characteristics, 1951

54.1.4 Example: CO2 Laser Pumped Far‐Infrared Gas Laser Systems, 1956

54.1.5 Heterodyned Detection, 1959

54.1.6 Transformation of Multimode Laser Beams from THz Quantum Cascade Lasers, 1962

54.1.7 Suggested Reading, 1965

54.2 Laser Measurements: Laser‐Based Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar Systems, 1965

54.2.1 ISAR Theory, 1966

54.2.2 DFT in Radar Imaging, 1967

54.2.3 Signal Processing Considerations: Sampling Theory, 1970

54.2.4 Measurement Calibration, 1971

54.2.5 Example Terahertz Compact Radar Range, 1972

54.2.6 Suggested Reading, 1974

54.3 Laser Imaging Techniques, 1974

54.3.1 Imaging System Measurement Parameters, 1975

54.3.2 Terahertz Polarized Reflection Imaging of Nonmelanoma Skin Cancers, 1981

54.3.3 Confocal Imaging, 1985

54.3.4 Optical Coherence Tomography, 1987

54.3.5 Femtosecond Laser Imaging, 1990

54.3.6 Laser Raman Spectroscopy, 1996

54.3.7 Suggested Reading, 1997

References, 1997

55 Magnetic Force Images Using Capacitive Coupling Effect 2001
Byung I. Kim

55.1 Introduction, 2001

55.2 Experiment, 2004

55.2.1 Principle, 2004

55.2.2 Instrumentation, 2004

55.2.3 Approach, 2005

55.3 Results and Discussion, 2006

55.3.1 Separation of Topographic Features from Magnetic Force Images Using Capacitive Coupling Effect, 2007

55.3.2 Effects of Long‐Range Tip–Sample Interaction on Magnetic Force Imaging: A Comparative Study Between Bimorph‐Driven System and Electrostatic Force Modulation, 2012

55.4 Conclusion, 2020

References, 2021

56 Scanning Tunneling Microscopy 2025
Kwok‐Wai Ng

56.1 Introduction, 2025

56.2 Theory of Operation, 2026

56.3 Measurement of the Tunnel Current, 2030

56.4 The Scanner, 2032

56.5 Operating Mode, 2035

56.6 Coarse Approach Mechanism, 2036

56.7 Summary, 2041

References, 2042

57 Measurement of Light and Color 2043
John D. Bullough

57.1 Introduction, 2043

57.2 Lighting Terminology, 2043

57.2.1 Fundamental Light and Color Terms, 2043

57.2.2 Terms Describing the Amount and Distribution of Light, 2047

57.2.3 Terms Describing Lighting Technologies and Performance, 2048

57.2.4 Common Quantities Used in Lighting Specification, 2052

57.3 Basic Principles of Photometry and Colorimetry, 2056

57.3.1 Photometry, 2056

57.3.2 Colorimetry, 2063

57.4 Instrumentation, 2072

57.4.1 Illuminance Meters, 2072

57.4.2 Luminance Meters, 2072

57.4.3 Spectroradiometers, 2074

References, 2074

58 The Detection and Measurement of Ionizing Radiation 2075
Clair J. Sullivan

58.1 Introduction, 2075

58.2 Common Interactions of Ionizing Radiation, 2076

58.2.1 Radiation Interactions, 2076

58.3 The Measurement of Charge, 2077

58.3.1 Counting Statistics, 2078

58.3.2 The Two Measurement Modalities, 2080

58.4 Major Types of Detectors, 2081

58.4.1 Gas Detectors, 2081

58.4.2 Ionization Chambers, 2086

58.4.3 Proportional Counters, 2090

58.4.4 GM Detectors, 2092

58.4.5 Scintillators, 2092

58.4.6 Readout of Scintillation Light, 2094

58.4.7 Semiconductors, 2096

58.5 Neutron Detection, 2100

58.5.1 Thermal Neutron Detection, 2102

58.5.2 Fast Neutron Detection, 2104

58.6 Concluding Remarks, 2106

References, 2106

59 Measuring Time and Comparing Clocks 2109
Judah Levine

59.1 Introduction, 2109

59.2 A Generic Clock, 2109

59.3 Characterizing the Stability of Clocks and Oscillators, 2110

59.3.1 Worst‐Case Analysis, 2111

59.3.2 Statistical Analysis and the Allan Variance, 2113

59.3.3 Limitations of the Statistics, 2116

59.4 Characteristics of Different Types of Oscillators, 2117

59.5 Comparing Clocks and Oscillators, 2119

59.6 Noise Models, 2121

59.6.1 White Phase Noise, 2121

59.6.2 White Frequency Noise, 2122

59.6.3 Long‐Period Effects: Frequency Aging, 2123

59.6.4 Flicker Noise, 2124

59.7 Measuring Tools and Methods, 2126

59.8 Measurement Strategies, 2129

59.9 The Kalman Estimator, 2133

59.10 Transmitting Time and Frequency Information, 2135

59.10.1 Modeling the Delay, 2136

59.10.2 The Common‐View Method, 2137

59.10.3 The “Melting‐Pot” Version of Common View, 2138

59.10.4 Two‐Way Methods, 2139

59.10.5 The Two‐Color Method, 2139

59.11 Examples of the Measurement Strategies, 2141

59.11.1 The Navigation Satellites of the GPS, 2141

59.11.2 The One‐Way Method of Time Transfer: Modeling the Delay, 2144

59.11.3 The Common‐View Method, 2145

59.11.4 Two‐Way Time Protocols, 2147

59.12 The Polling Interval: How Often Should I Calibrate a Clock?, 2152

59.13 Error Detection, 2155

59.14 Cost–Benefit Analysis, 2156

59.15 The National Time Scale, 2157

59.16 Traceability, 2158

59.17 Summary, 2159

59.18 Bibliography, 2160

References, 2160

60 Laboratory‐Based Gravity Measurement 2163
Charles D. Hoyle, Jr.

60.1 Introduction, 2163

60.2 Motivation for Laboratory‐Scale Tests of Gravitational Physics, 2164

60.3 Parameterization, 2165

60.4 Current Status of Laboratory‐Scale Gravitational Measurements, 2166

60.4.1 Tests of the ISL, 2166

60.4.2 WEP Tests, 2167

60.4.3 Measurements of G, 2167

60.5 Torsion Pendulum Experiments, 2167

60.5.1 General Principles and Sensitivity, 2168

60.5.2 Fundamental Limitations, 2168

60.5.3 ISL Experiments, 2171

60.5.4 Future ISL Tests, 2172

60.5.5 WEP Tests, 2176

60.5.6 Measurements of G, 2176

60.6 Microoscillators and Submicron Tests of Gravity, 2177

60.6.1 Microcantilevers, 2177

60.6.2 Very Short‐Range ISL Tests, 2177

60.7 Atomic and Nuclear Physics Techniques, 2178

Acknowledgements, 2178

References, 2178

61 Cryogenic Measurements 2181
Ray Radebaugh

61.1 Introduction, 2181

61.2 Temperature, 2182

61.2.1 ITS‐90 Temperature Scale and Primary Standards, 2182

61.2.2 Commercial Thermometers, 2183

61.2.3 Thermometer Use and Comparisons, 2193

61.2.4 Dynamic Temperature Measurements, 2199

61.3 Strain, 2201

61.3.1 Metal Alloy Strain Gages, 2202

61.3.2 Temperature Effects, 2203

61.3.3 Magnetic Field Effects, 2204

61.3.4 Measurement System, 2205

61.3.5 Dynamic Measurements, 2205

61.4 Pressure, 2205

61.4.1 Capacitance Pressure Sensors, 2206

61.4.2 Variable Reluctance Pressure Sensors, 2206

61.4.3 Piezoresistive Pressure Sensors, 2208

61.4.4 Piezoelectric Pressure Sensors, 2210

61.5 Flow, 2211

61.5.1 Positive Displacement Flowmeter (Volume Flow), 2212

61.5.2 Angular Momentum Flowmeter (Mass Flow), 2212

61.5.3 Turbine Flowmeter (Volume Flow), 2213

61.5.4 Differential Pressure Flowmeter, 2213

61.5.5 Thermal or Calorimetric (Mass Flow), 2216

61.5.6 Hot‐Wire Anemometer (Mass Flow), 2217

61.6 Liquid Level, 2218

61.7 Magnetic Field, 2219

61.8 Conclusions, 2220

References, 2220

62 Temperature‐Dependent Fluorescence Measurements 2225
James E. Parks, Michael R. Cates, Stephen W. Allison, David L. Beshears, M. Al Akerman, and Matthew B. Scudiere

62.1 Introduction, 2225

62.2 Advantages of Phosphor Thermometry, 2227

62.3 Theory and Background, 2227

62.4 Laboratory Calibration of Tp Systems, 2235

62.5 History of Phosphor Thermometry, 2238

62.6 Representative Measurement Applications, 2239

62.6.1 Permanent Magnet Rotor Measurement, 2239

62.6.2 Turbine Engine Component Measurement, 2240

62.7 Two‐Dimensional and Time‐Dependent Temperature Measurement, 2241

62.8 Conclusion, 2243

References, 2243

63 Voltage and Current Transducers for Power Systems 2245
Carlo Muscas and Nicola Locci

63.1 Introduction, 2245

63.2 Characterization of Voltage and Current Transducers, 2247

63.3 Instrument Transformers, 2248

63.3.1 Theoretical Fundamentals and Characteristics, 2248

63.3.2 Instrument Transformers for Protective Purposes, 2252

63.3.3 Instrument Transformers under Nonsinusoidal Conditions, 2253

63.3.4 Capacitive Voltage Transformer, 2254

63.4 Transducers Based on Passive Components, 2255

63.4.1 Shunts, 2255

63.4.2 Voltage Dividers, 2256

63.4.3 Isolation Amplifiers, 2257

63.5 Hall‐Effect and Zero‐Flux Transducers, 2258

63.5.1 The Hall Effect, 2258

63.5.2 Open‐Loop Hall‐Effect Transducers, 2259

63.5.3 Closed‐Loop Hall‐Effect Transducers, 2259

63.5.4 Zero‐Flux Transducers, 2262

63.6 Air‐Core Current Transducers: Rogowski Coils, 2262

63.7 Optical Current and Voltage Transducers, 2267

63.7.1 Optical Current Transducers, 2268

63.7.2 Optical Voltage Transducer, 2271

63.7.3 Applications of OCTs and OVTs, 2272

References and Further Reading, 2273

64 Electric Power and Energy Measurement 2275
Alessandro Ferrero and Marco Faifer

64.1 Introduction, 2275

64.2 Power and Energy in Electric Circuits, 2276

64.2.1 DC Circuits, 2276

64.2.2 AC Circuits, 2277

64.3 Measurement Methods, 2282

64.3.1 DC Conditions, 2282

64.3.2 AC Conditions, 2285

64.4 Wattmeters, 2288

64.4.1 Architecture, 2288

64.4.2 Signal Processing, 2289

64.5 Transducers, 2290

64.5.1 Current Transformers, 2291

64.5.2 Hall‐Effect Sensors, 2296

64.5.3 Rogowski Coils, 2297

64.5.4 Voltage Transformers, 2299

64.5.5 Electronic Transformers, 2302

64.6 Power Quality Measurements, 2303

References, 2305

Part Viii CHEMISTRY 2307

65 An Overview of Chemometrics for the Engineering and Measurement Sciences 2309
Brad Swarbrick and Frank Westad

65.1 Introduction: The Past and Present of Chemometrics, 2309

65.2 Representative Data, 2311

65.2.1 A Suggested Workflow for Developing Chemometric Models, 2313

65.2.2 Accuracy and Precision, 2313

65.2.3 Summary of Representative Data Principles, 2316

65.3 Exploratory Data Analysis, 2317

65.3.1 Univariate and Multivariate Analysis, 2317

65.3.2 Cluster Analysis, 2318

65.3.3 Principal Component Analysis, 2323

65.4 Multivariate Regression, 2352

65.4.1 General Principles of Univariate and Multivariate Regression, 2352

65.4.2 Multiple Linear Regression, 2354

65.4.3 Principal Component Regression, 2355

65.4.4 Partial Least Squares Regression, 2356

65.5 Multivariate Classification, 2369

65.5.1 Linear Discriminant Analysis, 2370

65.5.2 Soft Independent Modeling of Class Analogy, 2372

65.5.3 Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis, 2381

65.5.4 Support Vector Machine Classification, 2383

65.6 Techniques for Validating Chemometric Models, 2385

65.6.1 Test Set Validation, 2386

65.6.2 Cross Validation, 2388

65.7 An Introduction to Mspc, 2389

65.7.1 Multivariate Projection, 2389

65.7.2 Hotelling’s T2 Control Chart, 2390

65.7.3 Q‐Residuals, 2391

65.7.4 Influence Plot, 2391

65.7.5 Continuous versus Batch Monitoring, 2392

65.7.6 Implementing MSPC in Practice, 2394

65.8 Terminology, 2397

65.9 Chapter Summary, 2401

References, 2404

66 Liquid Chromatography 2409
Zhao Li, Sandya Beeram, Cong Bi, Ellis Kaufmann, Ryan Matsuda, Maria Podariu, Elliott Rodriguez, Xiwei Zheng, and David S. Hage

66.1 Introduction, 2409

66.2 Support Materials in Lc, 2412

66.3 Role of the Mobile Phase in Lc, 2413

66.4 Adsorption Chromatography, 2414

66.5 Partition Chromatography, 2415

66.6 Ion‐Exchange Chromatography, 2417

66.7 Size‐Exclusion Chromatography, 2419

66.8 Affinity Chromatography, 2421

66.9 Detectors for Liquid Chromatography, 2423

66.10 Other Components of Lc Systems, 2426

Acknowledgements, 2427

References, 2427

67 Mass Spectroscopy Measurements of Nitrotyrosine‐Containing Proteins 2431
Xianquan Zhan and Dominic M. Desiderio

67.1 Introduction, 2431

67.1.1 Formation, Chemical Properties, and Related Nomenclature of Tyrosine Nitration, 2431

67.1.2 Biological Roles of Tyrosine Nitration in a Protein, 2432

67.1.3 Challenge and Strategies to Identify a Nitroprotein with Mass Spectrometry, 2432

67.1.4 Biological Significance Measurement of Nitroproteins, 2434

67.2 Mass Spectrometric Characteristics of Nitropeptides, 2434

67.2.1 MALDI‐MS Spectral Characteristics of a Nitropeptide, 2434

67.2.2 ESI‐MS Spectral Characteristics of a Nitropeptide, 2437

67.2.3 Optimum Collision Energy for Ion Fragmentation and Detection Sensitivity for a Nitropeptide, 2438

67.2.4 MS/MS Spectral Characteristics of a Nitropeptide under Different Ion‐Fragmentation Models, 2440

67.3 Ms Measurement of in vitro Synthetic Nitroproteins, 2443

67.3.1 Importance of Measurement of In Vitro Synthetic Nitroproteins, 2443

67.3.2 Commonly Used In Vitro Nitroproteins and Their Preparation, 2443

67.3.3 Methods Used to Measure in Vitro Synthetic Nitroproteins, 2444

67.4 Ms Measurement of In Vivo Nitroproteins, 2446

67.4.1 Importance of Isolation and Enrichment of In Vivo Nitroprotein/Nitropeptide Prior to MS Analysis, 2446

67.4.2 Methods Used to Isolate and Enrich In Vivo Nitroproteins/Nitropeptides, 2446

67.5 Ms Measurement of In Vivo Nitroproteins in Different Pathological Conditions, 2449

67.6 Biological Function Measurement of Nitroproteins, 2456

67.6.1 Literature Data‐Based Rationalization of Biological Functions, 2457

67.6.2 Protein Domain and Motif Analyses, 2459

67.6.3 Systems Pathway Analysis, 2459

67.6.4 Structural Biology Analysis, 2460

67.7 Pitfalls of Nitroprotein Measurement, 2462

67.8 Conclusions, 2463

Nomenclature, 2464

Acknowledgments, 2465

References, 2465

68 Fluorescence Spectroscopy 2475
Yevgen Povrozin and Beniamino Barbieri

68.1 Observables Measured in Fluorescence, 2476

68.2 The Perrin–Jabłoński Diagram, 2476

68.3 Instrumentation, 2479

68.3.1 Light Source, 2480

68.3.2 Monochromator, 2480

68.3.3 Light Detectors, 2481

68.3.4 Instrumentation for Steady‐State Fluorescence: Analog and Photon Counting, 2483

68.3.5 The Measurement of Decay Times: Frequency‐Domain and Time‐Domain Techniques, 2484

68.4 Fluorophores, 2486

68.5 Measurements, 2487

68.5.1 Excitation Spectrum, 2487

68.5.2 Emission Spectrum, 2488

68.5.3 Decay Times of Fluorescence, 2490

68.5.4 Quantum Yield, 2492

68.5.5 Anisotropy and Polarization, 2492

68.6 Conclusions, 2498

References, 2498

Further Reading, 2498

69 X‐Ray Absorption Spectroscopy 2499
Grant Bunker

69.1 Introduction, 2499

69.2 Basic Physics of X‐Rays, 2499

69.2.1 Units, 2500

69.2.2 X‐Ray Photons and Their Properties, 2500

69.2.3 X‐Ray Scattering and Diffraction, 2501

69.2.4 X‐Ray Absorption, 2502

69.2.5 Cross Sections and Absorption Edges, 2503

69.3 Experimental Requirements, 2505

69.4 Measurement Modes, 2507

69.5 Sources, 2507

69.5.1 Laboratory Sources, 2507

69.5.2 Synchrotron Radiation Sources, 2508

69.5.3 Bend Magnet Radiation, 2509

69.5.4 Insertion Devices: Wigglers and Undulators, 2509

69.6 Beamlines, 2512

69.6.1 Instrument Control and Scanning Modes, 2512

69.6.2 Double‐Crystal Monochromators, 2513

69.6.3 Focusing Conditions, 2514

69.6.4 X‐Ray Lenses and Mirrors, 2515

69.6.5 Harmonics, 2516

69.7 Detectors, 2518

69.7.1 Ionization Chambers and PIN Diodes, 2519

69.7.2 Solid‐State Detectors, SDDs, and APDs, 2520

69.8 Sample Preparation and Detection Modes, 2521

69.8.1 Transmission Mode, 2521

69.8.2 Fluorescence Mode, 2521

69.8.3 HALO, 2522

69.8.4 Sample Geometry and Background Rejection, 2523

69.8.5 Oriented Samples, 2525

69.9 Absolute Measurements, 2526

References, 2526

70 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy 2529
Kenneth R. Metz

70.1 Introduction, 2529

70.2 Historical Review, 2530

70.3 Basic Principles of Spin Magnetization, 2531

70.4 Exciting the NMR Signal, 2534

70.5 Detecting the NMR Signal, 2538

70.6 Computing the NMR Spectrum, 2540

70.7 NMR Instrumentation, 2542

70.8 The Basic Pulsed FTNMR Experiment, 2550

70.9 Characteristics of NMR Spectra, 2551

70.9.1 The Chemical Shift, 2552

70.9.2 Spin–Spin Coupling, 2557

70.10 NMR Relaxation Effects, 2563

70.10.1 Spin–Lattice Relaxation, 2563

70.10.2 Spin–Spin Relaxation, 2565

70.10.3 Quantitative Analysis by NMR, 2568

70.11 Dynamic Phenomena in NMR, 2568

70.12 Multidimensional NMR, 2573

70.13 Conclusion, 2580

References, 2580

71 Near‐Infrared Spectroscopy and Its Role in Scientific and Engineering Applications 2583
Brad Swarbrick

71.1 Introduction to Near‐Infrared Spectroscopy and Historical Perspectives, 2583

71.1.1 A Brief Overview of Near‐Infrared Spectroscopy and Its Usage, 2583

71.1.2 A Short History of NIR, 2585

71.2 The Theory behind Nir Spectroscopy, 2588

71.2.1 IR Radiation, 2588

71.2.2 The Mechanism of Interaction of NIR Radiation with Matter, 2588

71.2.3 Absorbance Spectra, 2591

71.3 Instrumentation for Nir Spectroscopy, 2595

71.3.1 General Configuration of Instrumentation, 2595

71.3.2 Filter‐Based Instruments, 2597

71.3.3 Holographic Grating‐Based Instruments, 2598

71.3.4 Stationary Spectrographic Instruments, 2600

71.3.5 Fourier Transform Instruments, 2601

71.3.6 Acoustooptical Tunable Filter Instruments, 2603

71.3.7 Microelectromechanical Spectrometers, 2604

71.3.8 Linear Variable Filter Instruments, 2605

71.3.9 A Brief Overview of Detectors Used for NIR Spectroscopy, 2606

71.3.10 Summary, 2608

71.4 Modes of Spectral Collection and Sample Preparation in Nir Spectroscopy, 2609

71.4.1 Transmission Mode, 2609

71.4.2 Diffuse Reflectance, 2611

71.4.3 Sample Preparation, 2613

71.4.4 Fiber Optic Probes, 2617

71.4.5 Summary of Sampling Methods, 2619

71.5 Preprocessing of Nir Spectra for Chemometric Analysis, 2620

71.5.1 Preprocessing of NIR Spectra, 2621

71.5.2 Minimizing Additive Effects, 2621

71.5.3 Minimizing Multiplicative Effects, 2627

71.5.4 Preprocessing Summary, 2633

71.6 A Brief Overview of Applications of Nir Spectroscopy, 2633

71.6.1 Agricultural Applications, 2634

71.6.2 Pharmaceutical/Biopharmaceutical Applications, 2636

71.6.3 Applications in the Petrochemical and Refining Sectors, 2644

71.6.4 Applications in the Food and Beverage Industries, 2646

71.7 Summary and Future Perspectives, 2647

71.8 Terminology, 2648

References, 2652

72 Nanomaterials Properties 2657
Paul J. Simmonds

72.1 Introduction, 2657

72.2 The Rise of Nanomaterials, 2660

72.3 Nanomaterial Properties Resulting from High Surface‐Area‐to‐Volume Ratio, 2661

72.3.1 The Importance of Surfaces in Nanomaterials, 2661

72.3.2 Electrostatic and Van der Waals Forces, 2662

72.3.3 Color, 2663

72.3.4 Melting Point, 2663

72.3.5 Magnetism, 2664

72.3.6 Hydrophobicity and Surface Energetics, 2664

72.3.7 Nanofluidics, 2666

72.3.8 Nanoporosity, 2668

72.3.9 Nanomembranes, 2669

72.3.10 Nanocatalysis, 2670

72.3.11 Further Increasing the SAV Ratio, 2671

72.3.12 Nanopillars, 2672

72.3.13 Nanomaterial Functionalization, 2673

72.3.14 Other Applications for High SAV Ratio Nanomaterials, 2674

72.4 Nanomaterial Properties Resulting from Quantum Confinement, 2674

72.4.1 Quantum Well Nanostructures, 2677

72.4.2 Quantum Wire Nanostructures, 2682

72.4.3 Quantum Dot Nanostructures, 2691

72.5 Conclusions, 2695

References, 2695

73 Chemical Sensing 2707
W. Rudolf Seitz

73.1 Introduction, 2707

73.2 Electrical Methods, 2709

73.2.1 Potentiometry, 2709

73.2.2 Voltammetry, 2713

73.2.3 Chemiresistors, 2715

73.2.4 Field Effect Transistors, 2716

73.3 Optical Methods, 2717

73.3.1 In situ Optical Measurements, 2717

73.3.2 Raman Spectroscopy, 2719

73.3.3 Indicator‐Based Optical Sensors, 2721

73.4 Mass Sensors, 2722

73.5 Sensor Arrays (Electronic Nose), 2724

References, 2724

Index 2727

Customer Reviews

Most Helpful Customer Reviews

See All Customer Reviews