ISBN-10:
0819436216
ISBN-13:
9780819436214
Pub. Date:
02/01/2000
Publisher:
SPIE Press
Handbook of Medical Imaging, Volume 1. Physics and Psychophysics / Edition 1

Handbook of Medical Imaging, Volume 1. Physics and Psychophysics / Edition 1

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Overview

This book examines x-ray imaging physics and reviews linear systems theory and its application to signal and noise propagation. The first half addresses the physics of important imaging modalities now in use: ultrasound, CT, MRI, and the recently emerging flat panel x-ray detectors and their application to mammography. The second half describes the relationship between image quality metrics and visual perception of the diagnostic information carried by medical images.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780819436214
Publisher: SPIE Press
Publication date: 02/01/2000
Series: Handbook of Medical Imaging Series
Pages: 968
Product dimensions: 6.50(w) x 1.50(h) x 9.50(d)

Table of Contents

Prefacexi
Part I.Physics
Introduction to Part Ixv
Chapter 1.X-ray Production, Interaction, and Detection in Diagnostic Imaging1
1.1X-ray production3
1.2X-ray interactions17
1.3X-ray spectra40
1.4X-ray dosimetry58
1.5X-ray detection64
References77
Chapter 2.Applied Linear-Systems Theory79
2.1Introduction82
2.2Background concepts83
2.3Introduction to linear-systems theory91
2.4The spatial-frequency domain100
2.5Stochastic processes in linear systems108
2.6Metrics of system performance115
2.7Noise transfer in cascaded imaging systems126
2.8Cascaded DQE and quantum sinks131
2.9Metrics of digital-system performance137
2.10Analysis of a simple digital detector array145
2.11Summary155
References156
Chapter 3.Image Quality Metrics for Digital Systems161
3.1Introduction163
3.2Global parameter assessment163
3.3Spatial-frequency assessment178
3.4Image-processing assessment203
3.5Observer assessment211
References219
Chapter 4.Flat Panel Detectors for Digital Radiography223
4.1Introduction225
4.2X-ray detection media234
4.3Flat-panel array technology253
4.4Configuration and operation of a flat-panel x-ray imager276
4.5Methods of evaluating performance286
4.6Clinical applications of complete systems300
4.7Future prospects312
References313
Chapter 5.Digital Mammography329
5.1Introduction331
5.2Digital mammography336
5.3X-ray detectors for digital mammography345
5.4Display of digital mammograms359
5.5Clinical status of digital mammography362
5.6Applications of digital mammography362
5.7Telemammography363
5.8Tomosynthesis365
5.9Quantitative image analysis: Risk assessment365
5.10Dual-energy mammography366
5.11Contrast-uptake imaging of the breast366
5.12Conclusion366
References367
Chapter 6.Magnetic Resonance Imaging373
6.1Introduction375
6.2Basic principles376
6.3Magnetic resonance imaging388
6.4Common artifacts419
6.5Hardware and software components427
6.6Current techniques and areas of research440
6.7Conclusions: What does the future hold?457
References458
Chapter 7.Three-Dimensional Ultrasound Imaging463
7.1Introduction465
7.2Limitations of ultrasonography addressed by 3D imaging466
7.3Three-dimensional ultrasound scanning techniques467
7.4Reconstruction of the 3D ultrasound images481
7.5Effects of errors in 3D ultrasound image reconstruction483
7.6Viewing of 3D ultrasound images487
7.7Three-dimensional ultrasound system performance491
7.8Trends and future developments498
7.9Conclusions501
References501
Chapter 8.Tomographic Imaging511
8.1Introduction512
8.2Overview of CT as an image device512
8.3Scanner design513
8.4Reconstruction techniques523
8.5CT image quality527
8.6Other artifacts in CT537
8.7Multislice CT537
8.8CT scanner performance543
8.9Developments in other modalities550
8.10Conclusions552
References552
Part II.Psychophysics
Introduction to Part II557
Chapter 9.Ideal Observer Models of Visual Signal Detection559
9.1Introduction561
9.2The Bayesian or ideal observer568
9.3Calculation of ideal-observer performance: examples572
9.4Comparison with human performance582
9.5Estimation of ideal observer performance from finite samples585
9.6Estimation tasks585
9.7Closing remarks586
References587
Chapter 10.A Practical Guide to Model Observers for Visual Detection in Synthetic and Natural Noisy Images593
10.1Introduction595
10.2Key components for the use of model observers596
10.3Visual tasks for model observers596
10.4Signals and backgrounds598
10.5Model observers602
10.6Calculation of figures of merit614
10.7Comparing model to human performance620
10.8Concluding remarks622
References623
Chapter 11.Modeling Visual Detection Tasks in Correlated Image Noise with Linear Model Observers629
11.1Introduction630
11.2Mathematical preliminaries631
11.3Modeling signal-detection tasks635
11.4Linear model observers643
11.5Summary650
References651
Chapter 12.Effects of Anatomical Structure on Signal Detection655
12.1Introduction656
12.2Anatomical structure as noise656
12.3Perceptual effects of anatomical structure660
12.4Effects of anatomical structure in selected clinical applications666
12.5Methods for reducing the effects of anatomical structure673
12.6Conclusions677
References678
Chapter 13.Synthesizing Anatomical Images for Image Understanding683
13.1Introduction685
13.2Computer-simulated angiograms686
13.3Synthesizing lumpy backgrounds694
13.4Modeling liver scans701
13.5Synthesizing ultrasound B-scan images706
13.6Texture synthesis710
13.7Conclusion and future work715
References717
Chapter 14.Quantitative Image Quality Studies and the Design of X-Ray Fluoroscopy Systems721
14.1Introduction723
14.2Modeling725
14.3Methods728
14.4Results and discussion733
14.5Implications for x-ray system design741
14.6Conclusions745
References745
Chapter 15.Fundamental ROC Analysis751
15.1Introduction752
15.2The ROC curve as a description of diagnostic accuracy752
15.3Independent variables and sources of bias753
15.4ROC indices753
15.5Confidence-rating scales754
15.6Other issues in experimental design755
15.7Comments on forced-choice methodology759
15.8ROC curve fitting761
15.9Statistical tests for differences between ROC estimates762
15.10Ordinal regression techniques763
15.11An overview764
References764
Chapter 16.The FROC, AFROC and DROC Variants of the ROC Analysis771
16.1FROC methodology772
16.2DROC methodology789
References793
Chapter 17.Agreement and Accuracy Mixture Distribution Analysis797
17.1Introduction798
17.2Kappa coefficient and Aicken's Alpha801
17.3Other models for agreement811
17.4Mixture distributions of binomials816
17.5Summary832
References833
Chapter 18.Visual Search in Medical Images837
18.1Introduction838
18.2The organization of the visual system839
18.3Visual scanning as a method for studying visual search847
18.4Current problems in visual search852
References855
Chapter 19.The Nature of Expertise in Radiology859
19.1Introduction860
19.2Plan of the chapter861
19.3Expertise roots862
19.4Expertise, acquired or innate?863
19.5What is learned from reading medical images?867
19.6Connectionism--another approach to information processing881
19.7Conclusions889
References891
Chapter 20.Practical Applications of Perceptual Research895
20.1Introduction896
20.2Bridging the gap between research and clinical practice896
20.3Image display and workstation design899
20.4Prompting/cueing to improve diagnostic performance912
20.5Color applications in radiology917
20.6Conclusions918
References920
Index931

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