'Hell': A Hard Look at a Hard Question: The Fate of the Unrighteous in New Testament Thought

'Hell': A Hard Look at a Hard Question: The Fate of the Unrighteous in New Testament Thought

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Overview

'Hell': A Hard Look at a Hard Question: The Fate of the Unrighteous in New Testament Thought by David J. Powys


About the Author:
David Powys is an Examining Chaplain to the Archbishop of Melbourne and was a member of Archbishop in Council and National Synod

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781597527569
Publisher: Wipf & Stock Publishers
Publication date: 01/28/2007
Series: Paternoster Biblical Monographs Series
Edition description: Reprint
Pages: 518
Product dimensions: (w) x 9.00(h) x (d)

About the Author

David Powys was educated at The University of Melbourne. He gained degrees in arts and social work, studied theology at Ridley College, and was ordained in 1981. Dr Powys has ministered in four Melbourne parishes. He is an Examining Chaplain to the Archbishop of Melbourne and a member of Archbishop in Council and National Synod. He was awarded the Doctor of Theology by the Australian College of Theology in 1994 for his The Hermeneutics of 'Hell'. The present volume is a slightly abbreviated version of that dissertation.

Table of Contents


Contents     vii
List of table     xi
List of diagrams     xii
Foreword     xiii
Acknowledgements     xv
Preface     xvii
Abbreviations     xxii
The Fate of the Unrighteous in Christian Thought     1
Classical Perspectives on the Fate of the Unrighteous     2
Irenaeus     2
Gregory of Nyssa     4
Augustine of Hippo     6
Conclusion     9
The Fate of the Unrighteous in Modern Thought     17
Immediate Unending Physical Torment Becomes 'Orthodoxy'     17
Western Christendom     19
The Church of England Formularies     19
'Orthodoxy' Challenged     25
Dating the Challenge     25
Resistance to the Challenge     26
The Dynamics of the Challenge     27
The Matter of Duration     29
Universal Immortality Assumed     30
Universal Immortality Denied     30
The Matter of Quality     32
The Matter of Purpose     34
The Matter of Finality     35
The Role of Presuppositions     37
Conclusion to Part 1     40
The Foundation for a New Quest to Discern the Fate of the Unrighteous in New Testament Thought     63
'Life', 'Death' and 'Judgement' in the Old Testament     65
'Life' and 'Death' in the Earlier Old Testament Traditions     66
Life: God's Good, Finite Gift     66
Death     67
Genesis 2,3     69
'Judgement' in the Earlier and Later Old Testament Traditions     71
'Judgement' in the Earlier Old Testament Traditions     71
'Judgement' in the Later Old Testament Traditions     77
'Life' and 'Death' in the Later Old Testament Traditions     82
Sheol     83
Reward     83
Preservation     84
Resurrection     86
Forms of Hope in the Old Testament     88
The Influence of Bible Translations     90
The Politico-Cultural Challenges of the Greek and Hasmonean Eras and the Resultant Responses     107
Identifying and Working with the Relevant Intertestamental Literature     107
Foundational Premisses     109
The Approach Adopted     110
The Challenge     111
The Hasmonean Experience     114
The Responses - Diversification of Hope     119
The Twelfth Chapter of Daniel      121
Apocrypha     123
Second Maccabees     123
Wisdom of Solomon     125
Tobit     126
Ecclesiasticus     126
Baruch     127
Judith     127
Pseudepigrapha     128
Psalms 152,153     128
1 Enoch     129
Jubilees     133
Psalms of Solomon     136
The Dead Sea Scrolls     137
Conclusion     141
The Politico-Cultural Challenge of the Roman Empire and the Resultant Responses     162
The Politico-Cultural Challenge     162
The Responses     166
Hope as Reflected in Certain Contemporary Pseudepigrapha     166
Testament Of Moses     167
The Lives of the Prophets     168
Pseudo Philo     168
The Apocryphon of Ezekiel     169
Human Destiny in the Palestinian Targums     172
The World to Come     172
Reward and Punishment     175
Gehenna / Gan Eden     177
Judgment     179
Human Destiny in the Early Rabbinic Traditions     184
The World to Come     184
Reward and Punishment      186
Gehenna / Gan Eden     188
Judgment     191
Conclusion     192
Contemporary Messianism     196
The Context of Jesus' Teaching about Human Fate: 'Salvation' as 'Compensation' in Jewish Thought Prior to the Fall of Jerusalem     211
The Pharisees     212
Evidence from Josephus     213
Evidence from the Synoptic Gospels and the Book of Acts     215
Pharisaic Soteriology and Eschatology     216
A Test Case - The Tale of the Rich Man and Lazarus     218
The Case for a New Treatment of the Passage     219
A New Interpretation     225
Conclusion     228
Divine Rule and Resurrection Hope in New Testament Thought     246
What was the Apostolic Hope?     247
What was the Basis of this Hope?     248
Apostolic Hope and the Problem of Death     250
A Revised Pauline Eschatology?     251
Immortality?     254
Conclusion to Part 2     256
Spatial Images     256
The Fate of the Unrighteous in New Testament Thought     271
The Fate of the Unrighteous in the Synoptic Gospels     272
Preliminary Matters     272
Passages Containing Reference to Gehenna     275
Calls to Reconciliation     276
Call for Radical Prevention     277
Whom to Fear and Acknowledge     279
Sayings against the Pharisees and Scribes     280
Key Images     281
Rejection     281
Debarred from the Kingdom     281
The Expulsion of the Offending Guest     283
The Fate of the Servant who Received One Talent     283
Destruction     284
The Wrath to Come     284
A Tree is Known by Its Fruit     284
Losing and Gaining Life     285
"Great was the fall of it"; "The ruin of that house was great"     285
Woes to Cities     286
Exhortation in view of the Fate of Certain Galileans and Jerusalemites     286
The Fig Tree's Last Opportunity     286
The Treatment of the Tares and the Interpretation of the Parable of the Tares     286
The Treatment of the Rejected Fish     288
The King's Response to the Declining Guests     288
The Coming of the Son of Man     288
Retribution     289
The Rich Man and Lazarus     289
The Fate of the Unfaithful Servant     289
The Fate of those on the Left     290
Matthean Emphases     293
Conclusion     293
The Fate of the Unrighteous in the Pauline Corpus     308
Wrath and Judgment     308
Wrath     309
Romans 1:18-32     309
Romans 2:1-11     311
Wrath elsewhere in the Epistle to the Romans     315
Wrath elsewhere in the Pauline Corpus     318
Wrath in the Pauline Corpus     319
Judgment in the Pauline Corpus     320
[Characters not reproducible] Passages     321
[Characters not reproducible] / [Characters not reproducible] Passages     324
Wrath and Judgment in Light of Romans 5     325
2 Thessalonians 1:3-10     328
Other Pertinent Texts     332
Conclusion     334
Universalist Texts     335
The Fate of the Unrighteous in the Johannine Literature     351
The Fourth Gospel     351
Eternal Life     352
Inferences of a Vital Nature     352
Inferences of a Relational Nature     357
Relevant Concepts     359
John 5:28,29     360
I John     362
The Apocalypse     364
The Nature of the Work     364
Revelation 19:11-21     368
Diverse Fates     369
Conclusion     374
The Eschatology of John 5     376
The Fate of the Unrighteous in Jude, Peter, Hebrews and James     396
The Epistle of Jude     396
The Petrine Epistles     397
2 Peter     398
1 Peter     399
The Letter to the Hebrews     403
The Epistle of James     405
Conclusion     412
Overview     412
Main Findings     415
Associated Findings     416
Postscript     419
The Relevance of the Palestinian Targums     424
Working with the Early Rabbinic Literature     433
Bibliography     438
Scripture Index     470

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