Hepatobiliary Diseases

Hepatobiliary Diseases

Paperback(Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1992)

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9783642768040
Publisher: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Publication date: 12/13/2011
Edition description: Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1992
Pages: 1128
Product dimensions: 6.10(w) x 9.25(h) x 0.09(d)

Table of Contents

1 Anatomy and Structure of the Liver and Biliary Tree.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Gross Anatomy.- 3 Light and Electron Microscopy.- 4 Functional Anatomy.- 5 Conclusion.- References.- 2 Biochemical Investigations in the Management of Liver Disease.- 1 Serum Bilirubin.- 2 Interpretation of Bilirubin Levels.- 3 Urinary Bilirubin.- 4 Urinary Urobilinogen.- 5 Aspartate and Alanine Aminotransferases.- 6 Other Tests Indicating the Presence of Hepatocellular Damage or Necrosis.- 7 Alkaline Phosphatases (Liver, Biliary, Tumour, Bone, Intestinal, Placental).- 8 y-Glutamyltransferase.- 9 Plasma Proteins.- 10 Other Tests Sometimes Used to Investigate Liver Function.- 11 Other Tests Which May Be Useful in Managing Patients with Liver Disease.- 12 Tests Used for Research.- 13 The Use of Liver Function Tests.- 14 Applications of Liver Function Tests.- 15 Screening and Profiling.- 16 “Batteries” of Liver Function Tests.- 17 Role of Liver Function Tests in Diagnosis.- 18 Diagnostic Classification of Liver Disease.- 19 Monitoring.- 20 Appendix: Sensitivity, Specificity and Predictive Accuracy.- References.- 3 Molecular Biology of the Liver.- 1 Gene Transcription.- 2 Basic Techniques for the Analysis of Gene Expression.- 3 Regulation of Liver-Specific Genes; Albumin and ?-Fetoprotein.- 4 The Expression of Growth-Associated Genes: Proto-oncogenes, Oncogenes, Growth Factors, and Suppressor Genes.- 5 Gene Expression During Liver Regeneration.- References.- 4 Immunology and the Liver.- 1 The Immune Response.- 2 Role of the Immune System in Liver Disease.- References.- 5 Diagnostic Imaging of the Hepatobiliary System.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Plain Radiographs.- 3 Oral Cholecystography.- 4 Intravenous Cholangiography.- 5 Hepatic Radionuclide Imaging.- 6 Hepatobiliary Ultrasound.- 7 Hepatobiliary Computed Tomography.- 8 Hepatic Magnetic Resonance Imaging.- 9 Hepatic Angiographic Studies.- 10 Biliary Invasive Studies.- References.- 6 The Role of Direct Morphologic Methods.- A. Liver Biopsy and Elementary Hepatic Lesions.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Hepatic Architecture and Its Alterations.- 3 Portal Tracts.- 4 The Hepatic Acinus.- References.- B. Laparoscopy.- 1 Indications.- 2 Contraindications.- 3 Complications.- 4 Technique.- 5 Diagnostic Value of Changes Detected by Laparoscopy.- References.- 7 Bilirubin Metabolism and Hyperbilirubinemia.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Chemistry of Bilirubin.- 3 Bilirubin Formation and Plasma Transport.- 4 Hepatocyte Uptake and Intracellular Storage.- 5 Conjugation.- 6 Secretion and Intestinal Fate.- 7 Hyperbilirubinemia.- 8 Dubin-Johnson Sydrome and Rotor’s Syndrome.- References.- 8 Bile Salts, Bile Flow, and Cholestasis.- 1 Bile Salts and the Enterohepatic Circulation: Physiology and Pathophysiology.- 2 Anatomic and Physiologic Bases of Bile Formation.- 3 Cholestasis.- References.- 9 Chronic Hepatitis and Cirrhosis.- A. Chronic Hepatitis.- 1 Pathology.- 2 Etiologic Forms of Chronic Hepatitis.- 3 Pathogenesis.- 4 Clinical Features.- 5 Biochemical Findings.- 6 Diagnosis.- 7 Natural History and Prognosis.- 8 Management.- References.- B. Cirrhosis.- 1 Definition.- 2 Epidemiology.- 3 Classification.- 4 Pathogenesis.- 5 Pathophysiology and Clinical Manifestations.- 6 Metabolic Disturbances.- 7 Systemic Derangements.- 8 Infections and Noninfectious Fever.- 9 Diagnosis.- 10 Prognosis.- 11 Treatment.- References.- 10 Portal-Systemic Encephalopathy.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Pathogenesis.- 3 Clinical Presentation.- 4 Clinical Investigation.- 5 Management.- References.- 11 Portal Hypertension.- 1 Etiology.- 2 Pathophysiology.- 3 Evaluation of the Portal Hypertensive Patient.- 4 Natural History of Esophageal Varices.- 5 Management of Variceal Hemorrhage.- 6 Prevention of Variceal Hemorrhage.- 7 Ectopic Varices.- 8 Portal Hypertensive Gastropathy.- 9 Extrahepatic Portal Hypertension.- 10 Diagnostic and Therapeutic Approach to the Portal Hypertensive Patient.- References.- 12 Ascites and Renal and Electrolyte Abnormalities in Cirrhosis.- 1 Detection of Ascites.- 2 Characteristics of Cirrhotic Ascites.- 3 Factors Involved in Ascites Formation in Cirrhosis.- 4 Mechanism of Renal Function Abnormalities.- 5 Pathogenesis of Ascites and Renal Dysfunction in Cirrhosis.- 6 Reabsorption of Ascites.- 7 Treatment of Ascites.- References.- 13 Viral Hepatitis A and E.- A. Type A Viral Hepatitis.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Etiologic Agent.- 3 Natural History.- 4 Clinical Findings.- 5 Pathology.- 6 Diagnosis.- 7 Treatment.- 8 Epidemiology.- 9 Prevention.- References.- B. Type E Viral Hepatitis.- 1 Introduction.- 2 The Agent of Enterically Transmitted non-A, non-B Hepatitis.- 3 Serologic Assays and Immune Response.- 4 Molecular Cloning of the Viral Genome.- 5 Unanswered Questions.- References.- 14 Viral Hepatitis B and D.- 1 Hepatitis B Virus and Viral Hepatitis B.- 2 Hepatitis D Virus and Viral Hepatitis D.- 3 Laboratory Tests.- 4 Treatment.- 5 Prophylaxis.- References.- 15 Viral Hepatitis C.- 1 Identification of Hepatitis C Virus.- 2 The Virus.- 3 Serologic Markers of Hepatitis C Virus.- 4 Epidemiologic Aspects.- 5 Hepatitis C Virus Infection in Chronic Liver Disease and Hepatocellular Carcinoma.- 6 Pathogenesis of Hepatitis C.- 7 Clinical and Histopathologic Aspects.- 8 Treatment of Hepatitis C Virus Infection.- References.- 16 Liver Involvement in Systemic Infection.- 1 Pyogenic Hepatic Abscess.- 2 Systemic Bacterial Infections.- 3 Fungal Infections.- 4 Viruses Other than Hepatitis Virus.- 5 Granulomas of the Liver.- References.- 17 Protozoal and Helminthic Diseases of the Liver and Biliary Tract.- 1 Amebiasis.- 2 Malaria.- 3 Visceral leishmaniasis (Kala-azar).- 4 Ascariasis.- 5 Fascioliasis.- 6 Clonorchiasis and Opisthorchiasis.- 7 Schistosomiasis.- 8 Hydatidosis (Echinococcosis).- 9 Visceral Larva Migrans (Systemic Toxocariasis).- 10 Capillariasis.- 11 Strongyloidiasis.- 12 Pentastomiasis (Porocephaliasis).- 13 Protozoal and Helminthic Diseases in the Liver and Biliary Tract in Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome.- References.- 18 The Liver in Pregnancy and in Systemic Diseases.- 1 Liver Diseases and Pregnancy.- 2 Liver Diseases Specific to Pregnancy.- 3 Liver Diseases Occurring During Pregnancy.- 4 Pregnancy in Patients with Liver Disease.- 5 The Liver in Systemic Diseases.- 6 Hematologic Diseases.- 7 Connective Tissue Diseases.- 8 Sarcoidosis.- 9 Amyloidosis.- 10 Inflammatory Bowel Disease.- 11 Thyroid Disease.- References.- 19 Drug-Induced Liver Diseases.- 1 Mechanisms Involved in Acute Hepatitis.- 2 Clinicopathologic Aspects of Acute Hepatitis.- 3 Bland Hepatocellular Cholestasis.- 4 Steatosis.- 5 Subacute Hepatitis, Chronic Hepatitis, and Cirrhosis.- 6 Phospholipidosis and Alcoholic-like Liver Lesions.- 7 Prolonged Cholestasis Due to Rarefaction of Small Bile Ducts.- 8 Sclerosing Cholangitis.- 9 Vascular Lesions.- 10 Hepatic Tumors.- 11 Diagnosis.- 12 Treatment and Prevention.- References.- 20 Alcoholic Liver Disease.- 1 Epidemiologic Aspects of Alcohol Use and Alcoholic Liver Disease.- 2 Patterns and Pathology of Alcoholic Liver Disease.- 3 Ethanol Metabolism.- 4 Pathogenesis of Alcoholic Liver Disease.- 5 Clinical Manifestations of Alcoholic Liver Disease.- 6 Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis of Alcoholic Liver Diseases.- 7 Treatment and Prognosis of Alcoholic Liver Disease.- References.- 21 Autoimmune Chronic Active Hepatitis.- 1 Definition.- 2 Diagnosis and Classification.- 3 Immunogenetics.- 4 Etiology and Pathogenesis.- 5 Clinical Features and Pathology.- 6 Differential Diagnosis.- 7 Therapy.- References.- 22 Primary Biliary Cirrhosis and Sclerosing Cholangitis.- A. Primary Biliary Cirrhosis.- 1 Epidemiology.- 2 Pathology.- 3 Etiology and Pathogenesis.- 4 Clinical Features.- 5 Laboratory Tests.- 6 Associated Diseases.- 7 Diagnosis.- 8 Differential Diagnosis.- 9 Natural History and Prognosis.- 10 Treatment.- B. Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis.- 1 Etiology and Pathogenesis.- 2 Pathology.- 3 Clinical Features.- 4 Cholangiographie Features.- 5 Associated Diseases.- 6 Diagnosis.- 7 Natural History and Prognosis.- 8 Treatment.- References.- 23 Wilson’s Disease: Pathophysiology and Therapy.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Copper Metabolism.- 3 Wilson’s Disease.- 4 Summary.- References.- 24 Haemochromatosis.- 1 Normal Iron Metabolism.- 2 Definitions and Classification.- 3 Primary (Genetic) Haemochromatosis.- 4 Secondary (Acquired) Haemochromatosis.- References.- 25 ?1-Antitrypsin Deficiency.- 1 Structure and Function of ?1-Antitrypsin.- 2 Genetics and ?1-Antitrypsin Variants.- 3 ?1-Antitrypsin Deficiency and Liver Disease.- References.- 26 The Porphyrias.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Porphyrins and Porphyrinogens.- 3 The Heme Biosynthetic Pathway.- 4 Classification of the Porphyrias.- 5 Hepatic Porphyrias with Acute Neurovisceral Attacks.- 6 Hepatic Porphyrias without Acute Neurovisceral Attacks.- 7 Erythrohepatic Porphyria or Protoporphyria.- 8 Secondary Porphyrinuria.- References.- 27 Pediatric Metabolic Liver Diseases.- 1 Inborn Errors of Metabolism Associated with Disordered Liver Function or Hepatomegaly.- 2 Congenital or Neonatal Ascites.- 3 Glycogen Storage Diseases.- 4 Hepatic Glycogen Storage Diseases.- 5 Transferase Deficiency Galactosaemia: Galactose-1-phosphate Uridyl Transferase Deficiency.- 6 Epimerase Deficiency Galactosaemia.- 7 Fructosaemia.- 8 Tyrosinaemia.- 9 Urea Cycle Disorders.- 10 Rare Disorders with Hyperammonaemia and Disturbed Amino Acid Metabolism.- 11 Defects in Pyruvate Metabolism Causing Lactic Acidosis.- 12 Disorders with Hyperammonaemia and Massive Fat Accumulation in Hepatocytes.- 13 Defects in Fatty Acid ß-Oxidation.- 14 Abetalipoproteinaemia.- 15 Bile Salt Metabolism.- 16 Defects in Bile Acid Synthesis.- 17 Disorders of Lysosomal Enzymes.- 18 Lipid Storage Disorders.- 19 Mucopolysaccharidosis.- 20 Progressive Neuronal Degeneration of Childhood with Liver Disease.- 21 Indian Childhood Cirrhosis.- 22 Familial Erythrophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis.- 23 Cystic Fibrosis.- References.- 28 Disordered Embryogenesis of the Hepatobiliary Tract.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Normal Development of the Bile Ducts and the Ductal Plate Malformation.- 3 Anatomic Anomalies of the Bile Ducts.- 4 Atresia of Extrahepatic Bile Ducts.- 5 Paucity of Intrahepatic (Interlobular) Bile Ducts.- 6 Cystic and Dysplastic Lesions.- References.- 29 Fatty Liver Disease and Nutritional Liver Damage.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Fat Metabolism and Fatty Liver.- 3 Reye’s Syndrome.- 4 Fatty Liver Hepatitis (Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis).- 5 Nutritional Liver Injury.- References.- 30 Circulatory Disorders and Vascular Disease Affecting the Liver.- 1 Effects of Liver Disease on the Systemic Circulation.- 2 Effects of Liver Disease on the Pulmonary Circulation.- 3 Cardiomyopathy Associated with Cirrhosis.- 4 The Effect of Ascites on Cardiac Function.- 5 Endocarditis and Pericarditis.- 6 Atherosclerosis and Arterial Hypertension.- 7 Arteriohepatic Dysplasia Syndrome.- 8 Hereditary Haemorrhagic Telangiectasia.- 9 Arterioportal Fistulae.- 10 Heart Failure.- 11 Hepatic Abnormalities in Other Cardiac Diseases.- 12 Cardiac Surgery.- 13 Hepatic Infarction.- 14 Budd-Chiari Syndrome.- 15 Hepatic Veno-occlusive Disease.- 16 Peliosis Hepatis.- 17 Systemic Vasculitis.- 18 Nodular Regenerative Hyperplasia.- 19 Non-cirrhotic Portal Fibrosis; Idiopathic Portal Hypertension.- References.- 31 Acute Hepatic Failure.- 1 Nomenclature.- 2 Etiology.- 3 Clinical Features.- 4 Prognosis.- 5 Medical Treatment.- 6 Liver Transplantation for Acute Hepatic Failure.- References.- 32 Tumors of the Liver and Biliary Tract.- 1 Malignant Liver Tumors of Adulthood.- 2 Benign Liver Tumors of Adulthood.- 3 Liver Tumors of Childhood.- 4 Tumors of the Gallbladder.- References.- 33 Liver Transplantation.- 1 History of Liver Transplantation.- 2 Indications.- 3 Selection of Patients.- 4 Timing of Transplantation.- 5 Operative and Postoperative Course.- 6 Complications.- 7 Results.- 8 Conclusion.- References.- 34 Gallstones.- 1 Gallstone Formation.- 2 Natural History of Gallstones.- 3 Treatment of Gallstones.- References.

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