High-Pressure Physics

High-Pressure Physics

by John Loveday

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Overview

High-Pressure Physics by John Loveday

High-pressure science has undergone a revolution in the last 15 years. The development of intense new x-ray and neutron sources, improved detectors, new instrumentation, greatly increased computation power, and advanced computational algorithms have enabled researchers to determine the behavior of matter at static pressures in excess of 400 GPa. Shock-wave techniques have allowed access to the experimental pressure-temperature range beyond 1 TPa and 10,000 K.

High-Pressure Physics introduces the current state of the art in this field. Based on lectures presented by leading researchers at the 63rd Scottish Universities Summer School in Physics, the book summarizes the latest experimental and theoretical techniques. Highlighting applications in a range of physics disciplines—from novel materials synthesis to planetary interiors—this book cuts across many areas and supplies a solid grounding in high-pressure physics.

Chapters cover a wide array of topics and techniques, including:


  • High-pressure devices
  • The design of pressure cells
  • Electrical transport experiments
  • The fabrication process for customizing diamond anvils
  • Equations of state (EOS) for solids in a range of pressures and temperatures
  • Crystallography, optical spectroscopy, and inelastic x-ray scattering (IXS) techniques
  • Magnetism in solids
  • The internal structure of Earth and other planets
  • Measurement and control of temperature in high-pressure experiments
  • Solid state chemistry and materials research at high pressure
  • Liquids and glasses
  • The study of hydrogen at high density

A resource for graduate students and young researchers, this accessible reference provides an overview of key research areas and applications in high-pressure physics.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781138199101
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Publication date: 10/12/2016
Series: Scottish Graduate Series
Edition description: Reprint
Pages: 342
Product dimensions: 6.00(w) x 9.20(h) x 0.70(d)

Table of Contents

High-Pressure Devices
Introduction
The cylinder: the most common high-pressure device
Belt type apparatuses
Opposed anvil devices: Bridgman, Drickamer and profiled anvils
Multi-anvil devices
The diamond anvil cell
Other gem anvil cells: sapphire, moissanite and zirconia cells
Pressure transmitting media
Glossary

Instrumentation Development for High-Pressure Research
Introduction
Design flow
Pressure generation and the types of pressure cells
Materials properties
Materials selection
Technical drawings
Finite element analysis
Machining and tolerances
Testing and safety certification

Electrical Transport Experiments at High Pressure
Introduction
Electrical Measurement Techniques with Diamond Anvil Cells
Superconductivity under High Pressure
Iron
Oxygen
Conductivity Experiments at High-Pressure and Very High Temperatures
Single-Crystal Experiments
Hall Effect and Magnetoresistance
Photoconductivity
Other Uses of Electrical Transport Techniques
Future Directions

Advances in Customized Diamond Anvils
Introduction
Laser-Drilled Diamond Anvils
“Designer” Diamond Anvils
Designer Anvil Fabrication Process Steps
Types of Designer Anvils
“Intelligent” Diamond Anvils (iDAC)
Integrated Circuit Technique using Alumina Films
Focused Ion Beam (FIB) Systems
Further Examples of the Use of Customized Anvils in High-Pressure Experiments
Future Prospects
Further Development of CVD Diamond Growth Technology

Equations of State for Solids in Wide Ranges of Pressure and Temperature
Introduction
Parametric EOS forms
Thermodynamic modeling
Comparison with experimental results
Comparison of thermodynamic and parametric formulations
Conclusions

High Pressure Crystallography
Introduction
Technical developments

Optical Spectroscopy at High Pressure
Introduction
General aspects
The Raman and IR spectroscopy set-up
Oxygen
Carbon dioxide
Concluding remarks

Inelastic X-ray Scattering
Introduction
General aspects
Instrumentation
Systems

Optical Spectroscopy in the Diamond Anvil Cell
Introduction
Spectroscopy units, spectral ranges, and dimension constraints
Basic principles
Techniques
Probing of intra- and inter- molecular interactions under pressure – The example of hydrogen
Optical properties of minerals in the deep Earth interior
Prospects

Magnetism and High Pressure
Magnetic equation of state, feedback, instability
Types of magnetic interactions
Magnetic phase transitions
Examples of high pressure magnetic measurement methods

The Deep Earth
Introduction
Geophysical constraints
Phase transitions
Refining the chemical composition of the deep reservoirs
Core dynamics
Differentiation of the Earth
Conclusions

Planetary Interiors
Introduction
Terrestrial planets
Giant planets
Conclusion

Temperature Measurement and Control in High-Pressure Experiments
Introduction
Resistance heating and the thermocouple principle for temperature measurements
“Large volume” devices and sample assemblies
Blackbody radiation and laser-heated diamond anvil cell experiments

Solid State and Materials Chemistry at High Pressure
Abstract
Introduction
Diamond and related materials
High pressure mineralogy and solid state materials research
Superconductors, elemental alloys and high-hardness metals
Clathrates and new “light element” solids
Summary

Liquids and Amorphous Materials
Introduction
Definitions
Exploring the liquid state
Amorphous materials
The glass transition
The influence of pressure
Metastable melting
Two state models
Liquid fragility
Polyamorphic systems
Experimental techniques
The role of diffraction
Glass and liquid structure
Case studies
Transitions in the strong amorphous network
Non-oxide glasses: GeSe2
Future directions

Dense Hydrogen
Introduction
The isolated molecule and low density solid
Hydrogen under pressure
High pressures and temperatures
Conclusions

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