High-Tech and Micropropagation I

High-Tech and Micropropagation I

by Y. P. S. Bajaj

Paperback(Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1991)

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9783642764172
Publisher: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Publication date: 11/22/2011
Series: Biotechnology in Agriculture and Forestry , #17
Edition description: Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1991
Pages: 555
Product dimensions: 6.69(w) x 9.53(h) x 0.05(d)

Table of Contents

Section I General Aspects, Factors Affecting Micropropagation, Meristem Culture, Somatic Embryogenesis, Grafting, Vitrification, Acclimatization, Disposable Culture Vessels.- I.1 Automated Micropropagation for en masse Production of Plants.- 1 General Account.- 2 Problems and Factors Affecting Micropropagation.- 3 Automation - Robots, Microcomputers, and Artificial Intelligence.- 4 Summary and Conclusions.- References.- I.2 Setting Up a Commercial Micropropagation Laboratory (With 8 Figures).- 1 Introduction.- 2 The Planning Phase.- 3 Decision on Laboratory Specification.- 4 The Micropropagation and Ancillary Facilities.- 5 Research and Development and Quality Assurance.- 6 Trends in the Micropropagation Industry.- 7 Conclusions.- References.- I.3 Micropropagation Through Meristem Culture (With 1 Figures).- 1 Introduction.- 2 Shoot Meristem Culture.- 3 Factors Influencing Disease-Elimination.- 4 In Vitro Clonal Propagation of Disease Eliminated Plants.- 5 Long-Term Storage.- 6 Implications in Commercial Propagation.- References.- I.4 Micropropagation Through Somatic Embryogenesis in Conifers (With 7 Figures).- 1 General Account.- 2 Plant Regeneration.- 3 Conclusions.- References.- I.5 Graft Compatibilities in Vitro (With 9 Figures).- 1 Introduction.- 2 In Vitro Studies of Graft Compatibility-Incompatibility.- 3 Models for Graft Compatibility-Incompatibility.- 4 Future Prospects.- References.- I.6 In Vitro Induction of Flowering and Its Relevance to Micropropagation (With 2 Figures).- 1 Introduction.- 2 The Existence of Florigen? Evidence Provided by in Vitro Studies.- 3 Studies Concerned with Flower Inhibitors.- 4 Flowering as a Multi-Component System: Evidence Provided by in Vitro Studies.- 5 Hormones and in Vitro Flowering.- 6 Nonhormonal Substances and in Vitro Flowering.- 7 Conclusions.- References.- I.7 Vitrification in Micropropagation.- 1 Definition.- 2 Morphological, Anatomical, Mechanical and Biochemical Characteristics.- 3 External and Internal Factors Inducing Vitrification.- 4 Remedies.- 5 Disadvantages.- 6 Beneficial Management.- 7 Conclusions and Prospects.- References.- I.8 Acclimatization of Micropropagated Plants (With 7 Figures).- 1 Introduction.- 2 Features of Tissue Culture Environment.- 3 Heterotrophy, Mixotrophy, and Autotrophy.- 4 Increasing Percentage Survival and Growth Rate.- 5 Computer-Controlled Acclimatization Unit.- 6 Concluding Remarks.- References.- I.9 The Effect of the Nature and Origin of Explants on Micropropagation (With 9 Figures).- 1 Introduction.- 2 What Is Meant by the Nature and Origin of Explants?.- 3 Examples of Explant Reaction.- 4 Summary.- References.- I.10 Problems with Explant Exudation in Micropropagation (With 1 Figure).- 1 General Account.- 2 Phenolic Compounds.- 3 Oxidation of Phenolics.- 4 Conclusions.- References.- I.11 Woody Plant Micropropagation with Cytokinins (With 4 Figures).- 1 Introduction.- 2 Comparative Physiology.- 3 Cytokinin Biology.- 4 Discussion.- References.- I.12 The Effect of the Culture Vessel on Micropropagation (With 4 Figures).- 1 Introduction.- 2 Moisture Conductance.- 3 Discussion.- 4 Summary and Conclusion.- References.- I.13 Disposable Film Culture Vessels (With 17 Figures).- 1 Introduction.- 2 Properties of Fluorocarbon Polymer Films.- 3 Box-Shaped Vessel, the “Culture Pack”.- 4 Envelope-Shaped Vessel, the “Culture Bag”.- 5 Conclusions.- References.- Section II Rooting, Artificial Substrates, Autotrophic Micropropagation, Nursery Planting.- II.1 Rooting of in Vitro Cuttings (With 4 Figures).- 1 Introduction.- 2 Stages of Root Ontogenesis.- 3 Rooting Correlations: Influence of Lateral Organs.- 4 Influence of Juvenility.- 5 Basal Medium and Carbohydrate Nutrition.- 6 Environmental Influences.- 7 Relations Between Rhizogenesis, Auxins, Peroxidases, Phenols, and Ethylene.- 8 Relations Between Ontogenetic States and Rooting Markers.- 9 Conclusion.- References.- II.2 Rooting of in Vitro-Produced Shoots in Nonsterile - an Inexpensive and Efficient Technique for en masse Micropropagation (With 2 Figures).- 1 Introduction.- 2 Method and Observations.- 3 Protocol for Sand Rooting.- 4 Summary and Conclusions.- References.- II.3 Use of Artificial Substrates for in Vitro Propagation (With 6 Figures).- 1 Introduction.- 2 Rhizogenesis and Acclimatization.- 3 Use of Artificial Substrates for in Vitro Micrografting.- 4 Use of Artificial Substrates in a Mixed Culture: Plant and Microorganisms.- 5 Qualities Needed in an Ideal Artificial Substrate.- 6 Summary and Conclusion.- References.- II.4 Rockwool as a Substrate for Greenhouse Crops (With 21 Figures).- 1 Introduction.- 2 Rockwool.- 3 Growing Systems.- 4 Root Zone Temperature.- 5 Water Quality.- 6 Water Supply.- 7 Other Rockwool Systems.- 8 pH.- 9 Electrical Conductivity.- 10 Nutrients.- 11 Handling of Plant Nutrition.- 12 Conclusions.- References.- II.5 Autotrophic Micropropagation (With 20 Figures).- 1 Introduction.- 2 Micropropagation Process and Reasons for High Production Cost in the Conventional Micropropagation Method.- 3 Carbon Sources for Hetero- and Autotrophic Growth.- 4 Fundamental Photosynthetic Characteristics of C3 plants.- 5 Number of Gas Changes of the Vessel per Hour.- 6 Diurnal Changes in CO2 Concentration Inside the Tissue Culture Vessel.- 7 Interpretation of the Results of Low CO2 Concentration in the Culture Vessel During the Photoperiod.- 8 Growth of Plantlets in Vitro Under Different Sugar Concentration, CO2 Concentration, and PPF Conditions.- 9 Other Physical Environmental Factors Affecting the Autoor Mixotrophic Growth of Plantlets in Vitro.- 10 Use of a Gas-Permeable, Clear Plastic Film as a Vessel Closure.- 11 An Autotrophic Micropropagation System.- 12 A Novel Approach to Auto- or Mixotrophic Micropropagation.- 13 Increase of Production Costs for Lighting, Cooling, and CO2 Enrichment.- 14 Concluding Remarks.- References.- II.6 In Vitro Nursery System for Vegetable Crops - Tomato and Melon (With 9 Figures).- 1 Introduction.- 2 Breeding Programs and Their Results.- 3 Tissue Culture Propagation of Selected Plants.- 4 Culture of in Vitro-Propagated Plants.- 5 Conclusions.- References.- Section III Storage/Cryopreservation of Cultures, Quiescent Somatic Embryos, Artificial Seed.- III.1 Storage and Cryopreservation of in Vitro Cultures (With 7 Figures).- 1 General Account.- 2 Nonfrozen Storage.- 3 Cryopreservation (196°C) of Cultures.- 4 Conclusions.- References.- III.2 Quiescence and Dormancy in Somatic Embryos (With 3 Figures).- 1 Introduction.- 2 Background and Terminology.- 3 Quiescence.- 4 Dormancy.- 5 Conclusions.- References.- III.3 Artificial Seeds - Encapsulated Somatic Embryos (With 9 Figures).- 1 Introduction.- 2 Artificial Seed Concepts.- 3 Artificial Seed Coating.- 4 Somatic Embryogeny.- 5 Conclusions.- References.- Section IV Automation, Artificial Intelligence, Robots in Transplanting, Information Management, Bioreactors, Computerized Greenhouses.- IV. 1 Automated Systems.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Automated Systems in Plant Tissue Culture.- 3 Automated Plant Culture System Features.- 4 Remarks on the APCS.- 5 Future of the APCS.- References.- IV.2 Artificial Intelligence Technology to Control Plant Environments (With 15 Figures).- 1 Introduction.- 2 The Concept of Control Logic.- 3 Outline of Control Logic.- 4 Rule Base and Performance of the Inference Engine.- 5 Measuring Systems for Controlling Plant Environment.- 6 Experiments of Controlling Plant Environment by Means of the A1 Technique.- 7 Conclusions.- References.- IV.3 Robots in Transplanting (With 15 Figures).- 1 Introduction.- 2 Simulation of the Transplanting Task.- 3 Simulation Results.- 4 Transplanting Validation Tests.- 5 Machine Vision and Image Processing.- 6 Summary and Conclusion.- References.- IV.4 Computing and Information Management in Micropropagation (With 5 Figures).- 1 Introduction.- 2 Basic Concepts.- 3 The Micropropagation Firm as a System.- 4 The Planning Phase.- 5 Production Monitoring and Control.- 6 Planning-Production Feedback Mechanism.- 7 Technical Aspects of Computing and Information Management.- 8 The Micropropagation Firm as a Whole - Prospects of Information Management.- 9 Summary.- References.- IV.5 Mass Propagation of Plants Through Shakeand Bioreactor-Culture Techniques (With 19 Figures).- 1 Introduction.- 2 Advantages and Disadvantages of the Present in Vitro Propagation Techniques.- 3 Present State of Development of Mass Propagation Techniques.- 4 Schematic Outline of Mass Propagation of Plants Using Shake- and Bioreactor-Culture Techniques.- 5 Characteristics of Cultures in the Bioreactor.- 6 Scale-Up Technique.- 7 Shake- and Bioreactor-Culture Techniques Applied to Various Plants.- 8 Concluding Remarks.- References.- IV.6 Climate Control of Greenhouses and Crop Growth (With 8 Figures).- 1 Introduction.- 2 A Greenhouse as a Production Facility.- 3 Greenhouse Climate Control.- 4 Summary and Conclusions.- References.- IV.7 Computer-Controlled Greenhouses in Japan (With 4 Figures).- 1 Introduction.- 2 Examples of Using a Microcomputer for Greenhouse Control.- 3 Examples of Using a General-Purpose Microcomputer.- 4 Conclusion.- References.

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