ISBN-10:
1118396308
ISBN-13:
9781118396308
Pub. Date:
09/15/2014
Publisher:
Wiley
High Throughput Analysis for Food Safety / Edition 1

High Throughput Analysis for Food Safety / Edition 1

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781118396308
Publisher: Wiley
Publication date: 09/15/2014
Series: Chemical Analysis: A Series of Monographs on Analytical Chemistry and Its Applications Series
Pages: 304
Product dimensions: 6.00(w) x 9.30(h) x 0.90(d)

About the Author

Perry G. Wang, PhD is a chemist in the Office of Regulatory Science, US Food and Drug Administration (US FDA). In addition to numerous peer-reviewed papers, he has recently published three books and is currently editing a fourth. Since 2004 he has been an invited speaker at international conferences including the PittCon; FACSS; Beijing Conference and Exhibition on Instrumental Analysis (BCEIA) and International Symposium on Chemical Biology and Combinatorial Chemistry (ICCBCC). He has been invited to teach short courses for the PittCon, ACS, EAS and Calibration and Validation Group (Canada).

Mark F. Vitha is currently an Associate Professor at Drake University. He is the series editor for The Chemical Analysis Series (Wiley) and is the co-editor of Interfaces and Interphases in Analytical Chemistry. In 2011 he was awarded the Windsor Professor of Science and the Ronald D. Troyer Research Fellowship both from Drake University. He has written over 25 articles and over 35 contributed presentations.

Jack F. Kay

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Table of Contents

PREFACE xi

CONTRIBUTORS xiii

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION: BASIC PRINCIPLES OF ASSAYS TO BECOVERED, SAMPLE HANDLING, AND SAMPLE PROCESSING 1
Wanlong Zhou, Eugene Y. Chang, and Perry G. Wang

1.1 Introduction 1

1.1.1 Current Situation and Challenges of Food Safety andRegulations 1

1.1.2 Residues and Matrices of Food Analysis and High-ThroughputAnalysis 2

1.1.3 Food Safety Classifications 3

1.1.4 “High Throughput” Definition 3

1.1.5 Scope of the Book 4

1.2 Advanced Sample Preparation Techniques 5

1.2.1 Automation of Weighing and Preparing Standard Solutions5

1.2.2 QuEChERS 6

1.2.3 Swedish Extraction Technique (SweEt) and Other Fast SamplePreparation Methods 6

1.2.4 Turbulent Flow Chromatography 7

1.2.5 Pressurized Liquid Extraction 7

1.2.6 Automated 96- and 384-Well Formatted Sample Preparation aswell as Automated SPE Workstations 8

1.2.7 Solid-Phase Microextraction 8

1.2.8 Microextraction by Packed Sorbent 9

1.2.9 Liquid Extraction Surface Analysis 9

1.2.10 Headspace GC 10

1.2.11 Summary 10

1.3 Future Perspectives 10

Acknowledgment 11

References 11

CHAPTER 2 SURVEY OF MASS SPECTROMETRY-BASED HIGH-THROUGHPUTMETHODS IN FOOD ANALYSIS 15
Lukas Vaclavik, Tomas Cajka, Wanlong Zhou, and Perry G. Wang

2.1 Introduction 15

2.2 Techniques Employing Chromatographic Separation 15

2.2.1 Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry 15

2.2.2 Liquid Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry 21

2.3 Direct Techniques 30

2.3.1 Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization-MassSpectrometry 30

2.3.2 Headspace (Solid-Phase Microextraction)-Mass SpectrometryE-Nose 37

2.3.3 Ambient Desorption/Ionization-Mass Spectrometry 38

2.4 Concluding Remarks 62

Acknowledgments 62

References 63

CHAPTER 3 QUALITY SYSTEMS, QUALITY CONTROL GUIDELINES ANDSTANDARDS, METHOD
VALIDATION, AND ONGOING ANALYTICAL QUALITY CONTROL 73
David Galsworthy and Stewart Reynolds

3.1 Introduction 73

3.1.1 Quality System Design 73

3.1.2 Procedures 74

3.1.3 Roles and Responsibilities 74

3.1.4 Quality Manual 74

3.1.5 Document Control 74

3.1.6 Control of Records 75

3.1.7 Audits 75

3.1.8 Validation of Methodology 75

3.1.9 Staff Competency 75

3.1.10 Internal Quality Control 76

3.1.11 Method Performance Criteria 76

3.2 Qualitative Screening Methods 76

3.2.1 Selectivity of Mass Spectrometry-Based Methods 78

3.2.2 Confirmatory Methods 78

3.2.3 Validation of Qualitative Screening Multiresidue Methodsfor Pesticide Residues in Foods 79

3.3 Elements of the Analytical Workflow 80

3.3.1 Sample Preparation 80

3.3.2 Effects of Sample Processing 81

3.3.3 Extraction Efficiency 81

3.4 Initial Method Validation 81

3.5 Ongoing Analytical Quality Control 86

3.5.1 Internal Quality Control 86

3.5.2 Proficiency Testing 86

3.6 Validation of Qualitative Screening Multiresidue Methods forVeterinary Drug Residues in Foods 87

3.6.1 EU Legislation Covering Method Validation for VeterinaryDrug Screening 87

3.6.2 Determination of Specificity/Selectivity and DetectionCapability (CCβ) Using the Classical Approach 88

3.6.3 Establishment of a Cutoff Level and Calculation ofCCβ 88

3.6.4 Determination of the Applicability 89

3.7 Conclusions 90

References 90

CHAPTER 4 DELIBERATE CHEMICAL CONTAMINATION AND PROCESSINGCONTAMINATION 93
Stephen Lock

4.1 Introduction 93

4.2 Heat-Induced Food Processing Contaminants 97

4.3 Packaging Migrants 101

4.4 Malicious Contamination of Food 105

References 111

CHAPTER 5 MULTIRESIDUAL DETERMINATION OF 295 PESTICIDES ANDCHEMICAL POLLUTANTS IN ANIMAL FAT BY GEL PERMEATION CHROMATOGRAPHY(GPC) CLEANUP COUPLED WITH GC–MS/MS, GC–NCI-MS, ANDLC–MS/MS 117
Yan-Zhong Cao, Yong-Ming Liu, Na Wang, Xin-Xin Ji, Cui-Cui Yao,Xiang Li, Li-Li Shi, Qiao-Ying Chang, Chun-Lin Fan, and Guo-FangPang

5.1 Introduction 117

5.1.1 Persistent Organic Pollutants 118

5.1.2 Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons 119

5.1.3 Polychlorinated Biphenyls 119

5.1.4 Phthalate Esters 120

5.1.5 Multiclass and Multiresidue Analyses 120

5.2 Experiment 122

5.2.1 Instruments 122

5.2.2 Reagents 122

5.2.3 Preparation of Standard Solutions 122

5.2.4 Sample Preparation 123

5.2.5 Analytical Methods 124

5.2.6 Qualitative and Quantitative Determination 136

5.3 Results and Discussion 136

5.3.1 Selection of GPC Cleanup Conditions 136

5.3.2 Selection of Extraction Solvent 138

5.3.3 Comparison of Sample Extraction Methods 150

5.3.4 Comparison of Sample Cleanup 151

5.3.5 Linear Range, LOD, and LOQ 152

5.3.6 Recoveries and Precisions 152

5.3.7 Actual Sample Analysis 157

5.4 Conclusions 161

References 162

CHAPTER 6 ULTRAHIGH-PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY COUPLEDWITH HIGH-RESOLUTION MASS SPECTROMETRY: A RELIABLE TOOL FORANALYSIS OF VETERINARY DRUGS IN FOOD 167
María del Mar Aguilera-Luiz, Roberto Romero-González,Patricia Plaza-Bolaños, José Luis MartínezVidal,
and Antonia Garrido Frenich

6.1 Introduction 167

6.2 Veterinary Drug Legislation 168

6.3 Analytical Techniques for VD Residue Analysis 172

6.3.1 Chromatographic Separation 174

6.3.2 High-Resolution Mass Spectrometers 175

6.4 Food Control Applications 181

6.4.1 Screening Applications 181

6.4.2 Confirmation and Quantification Methods 191

6.4.3 Comparison Studies 195

6.5 Conclusions and Future Trends 201

Acknowledgments 202

References 203

CHAPTER 7 A ROLE FOR HIGH-RESOLUTION MASS SPECTROMETRY IN THEHIGH-THROUGHPUT ANALYSIS AND IDENTIFICATION OF VETERINARY MEDICINALPRODUCT RESIDUES AND OF THEIR METABOLITES IN FOODS OF ANIMAL ORIGIN213
Eric Verdon, Dominique Hurtaud-Pessel, and Jagadeshwar-ReddyThota

7.1 Introduction 213

7.2 Issues Associated with Veterinary Drug Residues and EuropeanRegulations 215

7.3 Choosing a Strategy: Targeted or Nontargeted Analysis?216

7.3.1 Targeted Analysis Using HRMS 218

7.3.2 Nontargeted Analysis Using HRMS: Screening for UnknownCompounds 219

7.4 Application Number 1: Identification of Brilliant Green andits Metabolites in Fish under High-Resolution Mass SpectralConditions (Targeted and Nontargeted Approaches) 220

7.5 Application Number 2: Targeted and Nontargeted ScreeningApproaches for the Identification of Antimicrobial
Residues in Meat 223

7.6 Conclusions 227

References 227

CHAPTER 8 HIGH-THROUGHPUT ANALYSIS OF MYCOTOXINS231
Marta Vaclavikova, Lukas Vaclavik, and Tomas Cajka

8.1 Introduction 231

8.1.1 Legislation and Regulatory Limits 231

8.1.2 Emerging Mycotoxins 237

8.1.3 Analysis of Mycotoxins in the High-Throughput Environment238

8.2 Sample Preparation 239

8.2.1 Sampling 240

8.2.2 Matrices of Interest 240

8.2.3 Extraction of Mycotoxins 241

8.2.4 Purification of Sample Extracts 246

8.3 Separation and Detection of Mycotoxins 247

8.3.1 Liquid Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry-BasedMethods 248

8.3.2 High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry in Mycotoxins Analysis250

8.4 No-Separation Mass Spectrometry-Based Methods 252

8.4.1 Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–MassSpectrometry 252

8.4.2 Ambient Ionization Mass Spectrometry 253

8.4.3 Ion Mobility Spectrometry 254

8.4.4 Immunochemical Methods 256

8.5 Conclusions 259

Acknowledgments 259

References 259

INDEX 267

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