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Bedford/St. Martin's
History of Western Society, Volume 1: From Antiquity to the Enlightenment / Edition 10

History of Western Society, Volume 1: From Antiquity to the Enlightenment / Edition 10

by John P. McKay
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Long praised by instructors and students alike for its readability and attention to everyday life, the eleventh edition of A History of Western Society includes even more built-in tools to engage today's students and save instructors time. This edition features a brand-new, comprehensive primary source program in-text and online, expanded chapters devoted to the lives of ordinary people that make the past real and relevant, and the best and latest scholarship throughout. Enhanced with a wealth of digital content—including carefully developed online document assignments for each chapter with auto-graded exercises—the eleventh edition provides easily assignable options for instructors and novel ways for students to master the content. Now integrated with LearningCurve, an adaptive online resource that helps students retain the material and come to class prepared.

To see an example of the new Online Document Assignment from Chapter 14, click here.

What's in the LaunchPad

Product Details

ISBN-13: 2900312640599
Publisher: Bedford/St. Martin's
Publication date: 10/13/2010
Edition description: Tenth Edition
Pages: 656
Product dimensions: 6.00(w) x 1.25(h) x 9.00(d)

About the Author

John P. McKay (Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley) is professor emeritus at the University of Illinois. He has written or edited numerous works, including the Herbert Baxter Adams Prize-winning book Pioneers for Profit: Foreign Entrepreneurship and Russian Industrialization, 1885-1913.
Clare Haru Crowston (Ph.D., Cornell University) teaches at the University of Illinois, where she is currently associate professor of history. She is the author of Fabricating Women: The Seamstresses of Old Regime France, 1675-1791, which won the Berkshire and Hagley Prizes. She edited two special issues of the Journal of Women's History, has published numerous journal articles and reviews, and is a past president of the Society for French Historical Studies.


Merry E. Wiesner-Hanks (Ph.D., University of Wisconsin-Madison) taught first at Augustana College in Illinois, and since 1985 at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, where she is currently UWM Distinguished Professor in the department of history. She is the coeditor of the Sixteenth Century Journal and the author or editor of more than twenty books, most recently The Marvelous Hairy Girls: The Gonzales Sisters and Their Worlds and Gender in History. She is the former Chief Reader for Advanced Placement World History.Joe Perry (Ph.D., University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign) is Associate Professor of modern German and European history at Georgia State University. He has published numerous articles and is author of Christmas in Germany: A Cultural History (2010). His current research interests focus on issues of consumption, gender, and popular culture in West Germany and Western Europe after World War II.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1: Origins, to 1200 b.c.e.

Understanding Western History

  Describing the West

  What Is Civilization?

The Earliest Human Societies

  From the First Hominids to the Paleolithic Era

  Planting Crops

  Implications of Agriculture

  Trade and Cross-Cultural Connections

  Primary Source 1.1: Paleolithic Venus Figures

Civilization in Mesopotamia

  Environment and Mesopotamian Development

  The Invention of Writing and the First Schools

  Religion in Mesopotamia

  Sumerian Politics and Society

  Primary Source 1.2: Gilgamesh’s Quest for Immortality

Empires in Mesopotamia

  The Akkadians and the Babylonians

  Life Under Hammurabi

  Cultural Exchange in the Fertile Crescent

  Primary Source 1.3: Enheduana’s "Exaltation of Inanna"

The Egyptians

  The Nile and the God-King

  Egyptian Religion

  Egyptian Society and Work

  Egyptian Family Life

  The Hyksos and New Kingdom Revival

  Conflict and Cooperation with the Hittites

  Primary Source 1.4: Morality in the Egyptian Book of the Dead

  Primary Source 1.5: Egyptian Home Life

Review and Explore — LearningCurve

ONLINE DOCUMENT ASSIGNMENT Individuals in Society: Hatshepsut and Nefertiti

Living in the Past: The Iceman

Mapping the Past: Empires and Migrations in the Eastern Mediterranean

Chapter 2: Small Kingdoms and Mighty Empires in the Near East, 1200–510 b.c.e.

Iron and the Emergence of New States

  Iron Technology

  The Decline of Egypt and the Emergence of Kush

  The Rise of Phoenicia

  Primary Source 2.1: The Report of Wenamun

The Hebrews

  The Hebrew State

  The Jewish Religion

  Hebrew Family and Society

  Primary Source 2.2: The Covenant Between Yahweh and the Hebrews

  Primary Source 2.3: A Jewish Family Contract

Assyria, the Military Monarchy

  Assyria’s Long Road to Power

  Assyrian Rule and Culture

  The Neo-Babylonian Empire

  Primary Source 2.4: Assyrians Besiege a City

The Empire of the Persian Kings

  Consolidation of the Persian Empire

  Persian Religion

  Persian Art and Culture

  Primary Source 2.5: Zoroaster’s Teachings in the Avesta

Review and Explore — LearningCurve

Cyrus the Great

Mapping the Past: The Assyrian and Persian Empires, ca. 1000–500 b.c.e.

Living in the Past: Assyrian Palace Life and Power

Chapter 3: The Development of Greek Society and Culture, ca. 3000–338 b.c.e.

Greece in the Bronze Age

  Geography and Settlement

  The Minoans

  The Mycenaeans

  Homer, Hesiod, and the Epic

  Primary Source 3.1: Hesiod, Works and Days

The Development of the Polis in the Archaic Age

  Organization of the Polis

  Governing Structures

  Overseas Expansion

  The Growth of Sparta

  The Evolution of Athens

War and Turmoil in the Classical Period

  The Persian Wars

  Growth of the Athenian Empire

  The Peloponnesian War

  The Struggle for Dominance

  Philip II and Macedonian Supremacy

  Primary Source 3.2: Thucydides on the Great Plague at Athens

Classical Greek Life and Culture

  Athenian Arts in the Age of Pericles

  Households and Work

  Gender and Sexuality

  Public and Personal Religion

  The Flowering of Philosophy

  Primary Source 3.3: The Acropolis of Athens

  Primary Source 3.4: Sophocles, Antigone

  Primary Source 3.5: Aristotle on Slavery

Review and Explore — LearningCurve

ONLINE DOCUMENT ASSIGNMENT Individuals in Society: Aspasia

Living in the Past: Triremes and Their Crews

Mapping the Past: The Peloponnesian War, 431–404 b.c.e.

Chapter 4: Life in the Hellenistic World, 336–30 b.c.e.

Alexander’s Conquests and Their Political Legacy

  Military Campaigns

  The Political Legacy

  Primary Source 4.1: Arrian on Alexander the Great

Building a Hellenized Society

  Urban Life

  Greeks in Hellenistic Cities

  Greeks and Non-Greeks

  Primary Source 4.2: Theocritus, Idyll 15, "The Women at the Adonis Festival"

The Economy of the Hellenistic World

  Agriculture and Industry


Religion and Philosophy in the Hellenistic World

  Religion and Magic

  Hellenism and the Jews

  Philosophy and the People

  Primary Source 4.3: A Hellenistic Spell of Attraction

Hellenistic Science and Medicine



  Primary Source 4.4: The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea

  Primary Source 4.5: Physician with Young Patient

Review and Explore — LearningCurve


Mapping the Past: The Hellenistic World, ca. 263 b.c.e.

Living in the Past: Farming in the Hellenistic World

The Past Living Now: Container Shipping

Individuals in Society: Archimedes, Scientist and Inventor

Chapter 5: The Rise of Rome, ca. 1000–27 b.c.e.

Rome’s Rise to Power

  The Geography of Italy

  The Etruscans

  The Founding of Rome

  The Roman Conquest of Italy

  Primary Source 5.1: The Temple of Hercules Victor

The Roman Republic

  The Roman State

  Social Conflict in Rome

Roman Expansion

  The Punic Wars

  Rome Turns East

  Primary Source 5.2: Polybius on the Roman Division of Spoils in the Punic Wars

Roman Society

  Roman Families

  Greek Influence on Roman Culture

  Opposing Views: Cato the Elder and Scipio Aemilianus

  Primary Source 5.3: A Woman’s Actions in the Turia Inscription

The Late Republic

  Reforms for Poor and Landless Citizens

  Political Violence

  Civil War

  Primary Source 5.4: Plutarch on the Reforms of Gaius Gracchus

  Primary Source 5.5: Cicero and the Plot to Kill Caesar

Review and Explore — LearningCurve

Queen Cleopatra

Mapping the Past: Roman Expansion During the Republic, ca. 282–44 b.c.e.

Living in the Past: Roman Table Manners

Chapter 6: The Roman Empire, 27 b.c.e.–284 c.e.

Augustus’s Reign

  The Principate

  Roman Expansion

  The Flowering of Latin Literature

  Marriage and Morality

  Primary Source 6.1: Augustus, Res Gestae

  Primary Source 6.2: Ovid, The Art of Love

  Primary Source 6.3: Ara Pacis

Augustus’s Successors

  The Julio-Claudians and the Flavians

  The Age of the "Five Good Emperors"

  Primary Source 6.4: Pliny the Younger, Letter About the Destruction of Pompeii

Rome and the Provinces

  Life in Imperial Rome

  Approaches to Urban Problems

  Popular Entertainment

  Prosperity in the Roman Provinces

  Trade and Commerce

  Primary Source 6.5: Quintilian, Institutes of Oratory

The Coming of Christianity

  Factors Behind the Rise of Christianity

  The Life and Teachings of Jesus

  The Spread of Christianity

  The Growing Acceptance and Evolution of Christianity

The Empire in Disarray

  Civil Wars and Military Commanders

  Turmoil in Economic Life

Review and Explore — LearningCurve

Bithus, a Soldier in the Roman Army

Living in the Past: Roman Epitaphs: Death Remembers Life

Mapping the Past: Production and Trade in the Pax Romana, ca. 27 b.c.e.–180 c.e.

Chapter 7: Late Antiquity, 250–600

Reconstruction Under Diocletian and Constantine

  Political Measures

  Economic Issues

  The Acceptance of Christianity

  Primary Source 7.1: Recruiting and Training Soldiers in the Roman Army

The Growth of the Christian Church

  The Church and Its Leaders

  The Development of Christian Monasticism

  Monastery Life

  Christianity and Classical Culture

  Christian Notions of Gender and Sexuality

  Saint Augustine on Human Nature, Will, and Sin

Barbarian Society

  Village and Family Life

  Tribes and Hierarchies

  Customary and Written Law

  Celtic and Germanic Religion

  Primary Source 7.2: Tacitus on Germanic Society

Migration, Assimilation, and Conflict

  Celtic and Germanic People in Gaul and Britain

  Visigoths and Huns

  Germanic Kingdoms and the End of the Roman Empire

  Primary Source 7.3: Battle Between Romans and Goths

Christian Missionaries and Conversion

  Missionaries’ Actions

  The Process of Conversion

  Primary Source 7.4: Gregory of Tours on the Veneration of Relics

The Byzantine Empire

  Sources of Byzantine Strength

  The Law Code of Justinian

  Byzantine Intellectual Life

  The Orthodox Church

  Primary Source 7.5: Slavery in Justinian’s Law Code

Review and Explore — LearningCurve

Theodora of Constantinople

Mapping the Past: The Barbarian Migrations, ca. 340–500

Living in the Past: The Horses of Spain

Chapter 8: Europe in the Early Middle Ages, 600–1000

The Spread of Islam

  The Arabs

  The Prophet Muhammad

  The Teachings and Expansion of Islam

  Sunni and Shi’a Divisions

  Life in Muslim Spain

  Muslim-Christian Relations

  Cross-Cultural Influences in Science and Medicine

  Primary Source 8.1: The Muslim Conquest of Spain

Frankish Rulers and Their Territories

  The Merovingians

  The Rise of the Carolingians

  The Warrior-Ruler Charlemagne

  Carolingian Government and Society

  The Imperial Coronation of Charlemagne

  Primary Source 8.2: The Capitulary de Villis

  Primary Source 8.3: Charlemagne and His Wife

Early Medieval Culture

  The Carolingian Renaissance

  Northumbrian Learning and Writing

  Primary Source 8.4: The Death of Beowulf

Invasions and Migrations

  Vikings in Western Europe

  Slavs and Vikings in Eastern Europe

  Magyars and Muslims

  Primary Source 8.5: Eirik’s Saga

Political and Economic Decentralization

  Decentralization and the Origins of "Feudalism"

  Manorialism, Serfdom, and the Slave Trade

Review and Explore — LearningCurve

The Venerable Bede

Living in the Past: Muslim Technology: Advances in Papermaking

Mapping the Past: Invasions and Migrations of the Ninth and Tenth Centuries

Chapter 9: State and Church in the High Middle Ages, 1000–1300

Political Revival and the Origins of the Modern State



  Central Europe


  The Iberian Peninsula

  Primary Source 9.1: Marriage and Wardship in the Norman Exchequer

Law and Justice

  Local Laws and Royal Courts

  The Magna Carta

  Law in Everyday Life


  Origins and Status of the Nobility

  Training, Marriage, and Inheritance

  Power and Responsibility

The Papacy

  The Gregorian Reforms

  Emperor Versus Pope

  Criticism and Heresy

  The Popes and Church Law

  Primary Source 9.2: Pope Boniface VIII, Unam Sanctam

Monks, Nuns, and Friars

  Monastic Revival

  Life in Convents and Monasteries

  The Friars

  Primary Source 9.3: Brother Henry as Composer and Singer

The Crusades and the Expansion of Christianity

  Background and Motives of the Crusades

  The Course of the Crusades

  Consequences of the Crusades

  The Expansion of Christianity


  Primary Source 9.4: An Arab View of the Crusades

  Primary Source 9.5: The Capture of Jerusalem in 1099

Review and Explore — LearningCurve

Individuals in Society: Hildegard of Bingen

Living in the Past: Life in an English Castle

Mapping the Past: The Crusades

Chapter 10: Life in Villages and Cities of the High Middle Ages, 1000–1300

Village Life

  Slavery, Serfdom, and Upward Mobility

  The Manor


  Home Life

  Childbirth and Child Abandonment

Popular Religion

  Christian Life in Medieval Villages

  Saints and Sacraments

  Muslims and Jews

  Rituals of Marriage and Birth

  Death and the Afterlife

  Primary Source 10.1: The Pilgrim’s Guide to Santiago de Compostela

Towns and Economic Revival

  The Rise of Towns

  Merchant and Craft Guilds

  The Revival of Long-Distance Trade

  Business Procedures

  The Commercial Revolution

  Primary Source 10.2: Contract for a Trading Venture

Urban Life

  City Life

  Servants and the Poor

  Popular Entertainment

Medieval Universities


  Legal and Medical Training

  Theology and Philosophy

  University Students

  Primary Source 10.3: Healthy Living

  Primary Source 10.4: Thomas Aquinas on Reason and Faith

Literature and Architecture

  Vernacular Literature and Drama

  Churches and Cathedrals

  Primary Source 10.5: Courtly Love Poetry

Review and Explore — LearningCurve

Life in Medieval Towns

Living in the Past: Child’s Play

Mapping the Past: European Population Density, ca. 1300

Individuals in Society: Francesco Datini

The Past Living Now: University Life

Chapter 11: The Later Middle Ages, 1300–1450

Prelude to Disaster

  Climate Change and Famine

  Social Consequences

The Black Death


  Spread of the Disease

  Care of the Sick

  Economic, Religious, and Cultural Effects

  Primary Source 11.1: Dance of Death

The Hundred Years’ War


  English Successes

  Joan of Arc and France’s Victory


  Primary Source 11.2: The Trial of Joan of Arc

Challenges to the Church

  The Babylonian Captivity and Great Schism

  Critiques, Divisions, and Councils

  Lay Piety and Mysticism

  Primary Source 11.3: Raimon de Cornet on the Avignon Papacy

Social Unrest in a Changing Society

  Peasant Revolts

  Urban Conflicts

  Sex in the City

  Fur-Collar Crime

  Ethnic Tensions and Restrictions

  Literacy and Vernacular Literature

  Primary Source 11.4: The Statute of Laborers

  Primary Source 11.5: Christine de Pizan, Advice to the Wives of Artisans

Review and Explore — LearningCurve

Meister Eckhart

Mapping the Past: The Course of the Black Death in Fourteenth-Century Europe

Living in the Past: Treating the Plague

Chapter 12: European Society in the Age of the Renaissance, 1350–1550

Wealth and Power in Renaissance Italy

  Trade and Prosperity

  Communes and Republics of Northern Italy

  City-States and the Balance of Power

  Primary Source 12.1: A Sermon of Savonarola

Intellectual Change



  Political Thought

  Christian Humanism

  The Printed Word

  Primary Source 12.2: Cassandra Fedele on Humanist Learning

  Primary Source 12.3: Pico della Mirandola, "On the Dignity of Man"

  Primary Source 12.4: Thomas More, Utopia

Art and the Artist

  Patronage and Power

  Changing Artistic Styles

  The Renaissance Artist

Social Hierarchies

  Race and Slavery

  Wealth and the Nobility

  Gender Roles

Politics and the State in Western Europe




  Primary Source 12.5: Tax Collectors

Review and Explore — LearningCurve

ONLINE DOCUMENT ASSIGNMENT Individuals in Society: Leonardo da Vinci

Mapping the Past: The Growth of Printing in Europe, 1448–1552

Living in the Past: Male Clothing and Masculinity

Chapter 13: Reformations and Religious Wars, 1500–1600

The Early Reformation

  The Christian Church in the Early Sixteenth Century

  Martin Luther

  Protestant Thought

  The Appeal of Protestant Ideas

  The Radical Reformation and the German Peasants’ War

  Marriage, Sexuality, and the Role of Women

  Primary Source 13.1: Martin Luther, On Christian Liberty

  Primary Source 13.2: Domestic Scene

The Reformation and German Politics

  The Rise of the Habsburg Dynasty

  Religious Wars in Switzerland and Germany

The Spread of Protestant Ideas


  Henry VIII and the Reformation in England

  Upholding Protestantism in England


  The Reformation in Eastern Europe

  Primary Source 13.3: Elizabethan Injunctions About Religion

  Primary Source 13.4: 1547 Ordinances in Calvin’s Geneva

The Catholic Reformation

  Papal Reform and the Council of Trent

  New and Reformed Religious Orders

  Primary Source 13.5: Saint Teresa of Ávila, The Life

Religious Violence

  French Religious Wars

  The Netherlands Under Charles V

  The Great European Witch-Hunt

Review and Explore — LearningCurve

Individuals in Society: Anna Jansz of Rotterdam

Living in the Past: Uses of Art in the Reformation

Mapping the Past: Religious Divisions in Europe, ca. 1555

Chapter 14: European Exploration and Conquest, 1450–1650

World Contacts Before Columbus

  The Trade World of the Indian Ocean

  The Trading States of Africa

  The Ottoman and Persian Empires

  Genoese and Venetian Middlemen

The European Voyages of Discovery

  Causes of European Expansion

  Technology and the Rise of Exploration

  The Portuguese Overseas Empire

  The Problem of Christopher Columbus

  Later Explorers

  Spanish Conquest in the New World

  Early French and English Settlement in the New World

  Primary Source 14.1: A Portuguese Traveler Describes Swahili City-States of East Africa

  Primary Source 14.2: Columbus Describes His First Voyage

  Primary Source 14.3: Doña Marina Translating for Hernando Cortés During His Meeting with Montezuma

  Primary Source 14.4: Interpreting the Spread of Disease Among Natives

The Impact of Conquest

  Colonial Administration

  Impact of European

  Settlement on Indigenous Peoples

  Life in the Colonies

  The Columbian Exchange

  Primary Source 14.5: Tenochtitlán Leaders Respond to Spanish Missionaries

Europe and the World After Columbus

  Sugar and Slavery

  Spanish Silver and Its Economic Effects

  The Birth of the Global Economy

Changing Attitudes and Beliefs

  New Ideas About Race

  Michel de Montaigne and Cultural Curiosity

  William Shakespeare and His Influence

Review and Explore — LearningCurve

Juan de Pareja

Mapping the Past: Overseas Exploration and Conquest in the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries

Living in the Past: Foods of the Columbian Exchange

Chapter 15: Absolutism and Constitutionalism, ca. 1589–1725

Seventeenth-Century Crisis and Rebuilding

  The Social Order and Peasant Life

  Famine and Economic Crisis

  The Thirty Years’ War

  Achievements in State-Building

  Warfare and the Growth of Army Size

  Popular Political Action

Absolutism in France and Spain

  The Foundations of Absolutism

  Louis XIV and Absolutism

  Life at Versailles

  French Financial Management Under Colbert

  Louis XIV’s Wars

  The Decline of Absolutist Spain in the Seventeenth Century

  Primary Source 15.1: Louis XIV, King of France and Navarre, 1701

  Primary Source 15.2: Letter from Versailles

Absolutism in Austria and Prussia

  The Return of Serfdom in the East

  The Austrian Habsburgs

  Prussia in the Seventeenth Century

  The Consolidation of Prussian Absolutism

The Development of Russia and the Ottoman Empire

  The Mongol Yoke and the Rise of Moscow

  The Tsar and His People

  The Reforms of Peter the Great

  The Growth of the Ottoman Empire

  Primary Source 15.3: A German Account of Russian Life

Alternatives to Absolutism in England and the Dutch Republic

  Absolutist Claims in England

  Religious Divides and the English Civil War

  Cromwell and Puritanical Absolutism in England

  The Restoration of the English Monarchy

  Constitutional Monarchy and Cabinet Government

  The Dutch Republic in the Seventeenth Century

  Primary Source 15.4: Diary of an English Villager

  Primary Source 15.5: John Locke, Two Treatises of Government

Baroque Art and Music

Review and Explore — LearningCurve


Living in the Past: The Absolutist Palace

Mapping the Past: Europe After the Peace of Utrecht, 1715

Chapter 16: Toward a New Worldview, 1540–1789

Major Breakthroughs of the Scientific Revolution

  Scientific Thought in 1500

  Origins of the Scientific Revolution

  The Copernican Hypothesis

  Brahe, Kepler, and Galileo: Proving Copernicus Right

  Newton’s Synthesis

  Primary Source 16.1: Galileo Galilei, The Sidereal Messenger

Important Changes in Scientific Thinking

  Bacon, Descartes, and the Scientific Method

  Medicine, the Body, and Chemistry

  Empire and Natural History

  Science and Society

  Primary Source 16.2: "An Account of a Particular Species of Cocoon"

The Enlightenment

  The Emergence of the Enlightenment

  The Influence of the Philosophes

  Jean-Jacques Rousseau

  The International Enlightenment

  Urban Culture and Life in the Public Sphere

  Race and the Enlightenment

  Primary Source 16.3: Du Châtelet, Foundations of Physics

  Primary Source 16.4: Enlightenment Culture

  Primary Source 16.5: Denis Diderot, "Supplement to Bougainville’s Voyage"

Enlightened Absolutism

  Frederick the Great of Prussia

  Catherine the Great of Russia

  The Austrian Habsburgs

  Jewish Life and the Limits of Enlightened Absolutism

Review and Explore — LearningCurve

Moses Mendelssohn and the Jewish Enlightenment

Living in the Past: Coffeehouse Culture

Mapping the Past: The Partition of Poland, 1772–1795

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