Homeland Security and Terrorism, Loose-Leaf Edition

Homeland Security and Terrorism, Loose-Leaf Edition

by Larry K Gaines, Janine Kremling

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780135204931
Publisher: Pearson
Publication date: 04/23/2018
Pages: 448
Sales rank: 817,740
Product dimensions: 8.40(w) x 10.80(h) x 0.50(d)

About the Author

Larry K. Gaines currently is a professor and chair of the Criminal Justice Department at California State University at San Bernardino. He received his doctorate in criminal justice from Sam Houston State University. He has police experience with the Kentucky State Police and the Lexington, Kentucky, Police Department. Additionally, he served as the executive director of the Kentucky Association of Chiefs of Police for 14 years. Dr. Gaines is also a past president of the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences. His research centers on policing and drugs. In addition to numerous articles, he has coauthored a number of books in the field: Police Operations; Police Administration; Managing the Police Organization; Community Policing: A Contemporary Perspective; Policing Perspectives: An Anthology; Policing in America; Drugs, Crime, and Justice; Criminal Justice in Action; and Readings in White Collar Crime. His current research agenda involves the evaluation of police tactics in terms of their effectiveness in reducing problems and fitting within the community policing paradigm. He is also researching the issue of racial profiling in a number of California cities.

Janine Kremling
is an Associate Professor at California State University San Bernardino. She has taught a wide variety of classes, such as transnational crime, which includes components of homeland security and terrorism. She has also published three textbooks: Cyberspace, Cybersecurity, and Cybercrime (2017) with Amanda Sharp-Parker; Why Students Resist Learning (2016) with Anton Tolman; and Drugs, Crime, and Justice (2014) as coauthor with Larry Gaines.

Table of Contents

1. Introduction to Homeland Security
American and Terrorist Attacks
What Is Homeland Security
Homeland Security Missions and Goals
Definitional Issues and Homeland Security
Collateral Benefits from Homeland Security
The Scope of Homeland Security
Pre-9/11 Efforts to Improve Homeland Security
The 9/11 Commission Report
The National Strategy for Homeland Security
Intelligence and Warning
Border and Transportation Security
Domestic Counterterrorism
Protecting Critical Infrastructure
Defend against Catastrophic Events
Emergency Preparedness and Response
Legal Initiatives
Science and Technology
Information Sharing and Systems
International Cooperation
Costs of Homeland Security
Indirect Costs

2. Homeland Security Apparatus
Department of Homeland Security
Political Considerations in the Creation of the Department of Homeland Security
White House and Congressional Oversight
Agency Confusion and Mission Distortion
The Structure of the Department of Homeland Security
DHS Administrative and Support Agencies
Transportation Security Administration
U.S. Customs and Border Protection
U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement
Immigration Enforcement
Investigating Illegal Movement of People and Goods
U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services
U.S. Secret Service
U.S. Coast Guard
Federal Emergency Management Agency
Federal Law Enforcement Training Center
Domestic Nuclear Detection Office
Department of Defense and Homeland Security
State-Level Homeland Security

3. Overview of National Infrastructure Protection
Threats to Critical Infrastructure
Federal Agencies Involved in the Protection of American Assets
Scope of American Critical Infrastructure Assets
Critical Infrastructure Sectors
National Critical Infrastructure Prioritization Program
The National Infrastructure Protection Plan: Conceptual Operation of Homeland Security Protection
Set Goals and Objectives
Identify Infrastructure
Assess and Analyze Risks
Implement Risk Management Activities
Measure Effectiveness
Critique of the National Infrastructure Protection Plan Model
A Bottom-Up Approach
The Buffer Zone Protection Plan
The Reality of Critical Infrastructure Protection: States’ Responsibilities
Key Critical Infrastructure Sectors
Water and Wastewater Systems
Chemical Sector
Commercial Facilities Sector
Communications Sector
Critical Manufacturing Sector
Dams Sector
Defense Industrial Base Sector
Emergency Services Sector
Transportation Security
Ground Transportation
Infrastructure from the Terrorists’ Viewpoint
Complacency: The Threat to Homeland Security

4. The Legal Aspects of Homeland Security
Presidential Executive Orders and Directives
Executive Orders of President Clinton
Executive Orders of President George W. Bush
Executive Orders of President Barack Obama
Executive Orders of President Donald Trump
Federal Antiterrorism Statutes
Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act of 1996
The USA Patriot Act
U.S. Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court

5. Political and Social Foundations of Terrorism
Continuum of Social Conflict
Defining Terrorism
A Brief History of Terrorism
Early Forms of Terrorism
The French Revolution
Late Nineteenth- and Early Twentieth Century Terrorism
Terrorism in the Late Twentieth Century
Terrorism in Early America
Terrorism Today
The Roots and Causes of Terrorism
Israeli-Palestinian Conflict
Russian Invasion of Afghanistan
Authoritarian Governments
Failed States and Terrorism
Individual Explanations of Terrorism
Types of Terrorism
State-Sponsored Terrorism
Dissent Terrorism
Terrorists on the Left and Right
Religious Terrorism
Criminal Terrorism
Level of Terrorist Activities
Strategies for Dealing with Terrorism
Crushing Terrorist Groups Unilaterally
Crushing Terrorist Groups Multilaterally
Transforming Terrorist Breeding Grounds
Women Terrorists

6. The Nature and Geography of Terrorist Groups, State Sponsors of Terror, and Safe Havens
Foreign Terrorist Organizations
Middle East and North Africa Groups
African Groups
Asian Groups
Latin American Groups
European Groups
Terrorism in America
Radical Muslim-Inspired Terrorism
Right-Wing Terrorists and Militias
Eco-Terrorism and Animal Rights Groups

7. Transnational Organized Crime and Terrorism
Defining Transnational Organized Crime
Distinguishing Types or Categories of Crime
Impact of Transnational Organized Crime
Conditions Facilitating Transnational Organized Crime
Networking: The Etiology of Transnational Organized Crime Groups
Political Models
Economic Models
Social Models
How Transnational Crime Is Organized
Standard Hierarchy
Regional Hierarchy
Clustered Hierarchy
Core Group
Criminal Network
Transnational Organized Crime Activities
Drug Trafficking
Human Trafficking
Smuggling of Technology and WMD Materials
Arms Trafficking
Trafficking in Precious Gems
Non-Drug Contraband Smuggling
Financial Fraud
Environmental Crimes
Failed States and Transnational Organized Crime and Terrorism
Links between Transnational Organized Crime and Terrorist Organizations
The Continuum of Terrorism and Transnational Organized Crime
Incentives for TOC and Terrorist Organizations to Cooperate

8. Intelligence and Counterintelligence and Terrorism
Intelligence Failure—What Does It Mean?
The Director of National Intelligence
National Counterterrorism Center
Conceptual Overview of Homeland Security Intelligence
Types of Intelligence Collection Activities
Human Intelligence
Signals Intelligence
Measures and Signatures Intelligence
Imagery Intelligence
Open-Source Intelligence
Agencies within the American Intelligence Community
Central Intelligence Agency
Defense Intelligence Agency
Department of Energy
Department of Homeland Security
Department of State
Department of the Treasury
Drug Enforcement Administration
Federal Bureau of Investigation
National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency
National Reconnaissance Office
National Security Agency
Armed Services Intelligence
Intersection of Policy Decisions and Intelligence: The Intelligence Cycle
Joint Special Operations Command Specialized Military Antiterrorism Agencies
The Globalization of Intelligence
Domestic Industrial Espionage

9. Homeland Security and Weapons of Mass Destruction
The National Terrorism Advisory System: Warning the American People
Defining Weapons of Mass Destruction
National Terrorism Advisory System
History of the Deployment of WMDs
Historical Precedents for Biological WMDs
Historical Precedents for Chemical WMDs
The Threat of Nuclear Weapons of Mass Destruction: Destructiveness, Potential for Use, and Availability
Nuclear and Radiological WMDs
Availability of Nuclear Materials
Nuclear Bombs or Weapons
The Spread of Nuclear Material and Information
Smuggling Nuclear Weapons and Materials
Terrorist Attacks Using Dirty Bombs and Attacks on Nuclear Facilities
Biological Weapons of Mass Destruction
Types of Biological Weapons
How Biological Weapons Work
Creating Biological Weapons
Threat Assessment and Biological Weapons
Chemical Weapons of Mass Destruction
Advantages of Chemical Weapons
Weaponizing Chemicals
Factors Constraining Terrorists from Using WMDs
Relative Destructiveness of WMDs
Examining Which Groups Might Use WMDs

10. Cybercrime and Terrorism
Methods of Attacking Cyber Infrastructure
Tools Used in Hacking and Cyberattacks
What Is Cyber Terrorism?
Distinguishing Hacking, Cybercrime, Cyber Terrorism, and Cyber Warfare
Cyber Warfare
Points of Cyberattacks
Cyber Terrorism
Physical Attacks on Communications Infrastructure
Significant Cyber Gaps
Deterring Cyber Intrusions and Attacks
Terrorists’ Use of the Internet
Terrorists and Social Media
Overview of Terrorist Websites
How Terrorists Use the Internet
Terrorists and Social Media
Agencies Charged with Combating Cyber Terrorism
FBI’s Cybercrime Division
Department of Homeland Security’s Cyber Security Systems

11. Terrorist Financing
Terrorist Financing of the 9/11 Attacks
Distinguishing Terrorist Financing and Money Laundering
Federal Mechanisms Used to Counter Terrorist Financing and Money Laundering
U.S. Enforcement Actions
Financial Action Task Force on Money Laundering
Means and Methods of Terrorist Financial Transactions
Earning and Acquiring Resources
Donor Support of Terrorism
Criminal Activity
Legitimate Businesses
Moving or Laundering Money
Precious Commodities
Banking and Wire Transfers
Money Brokers or Hawaladars
Storing or Banking Money
Black Market Oil and Gas
Saudi Arabia’s Financing of Terrorism: An American Conundrum
Identity Fraud and Theft
Real ID Act
Breeder Documents and the Mechanics of Identity Fraud
Terrorists’ Financial Needs

12. Border Security and Immigration
Originating Countries of American Immigrants
Border Security Issues
Illegal Border Migration: A Case Study in Tucson
Border Apprehensions
Terrorist Infiltration via Illegal Immigration
Border Protection Philosophy after 9/11
Secure Border Initiative
The Border Security and Immigration Enforcement Improvements Executive Order
Increase in Customs and Border Protection Agents
Expanded Detention and Removal Capabilities
Improved Technology
Increased Infrastructure Protection (Fencing)
Enhanced Enforcement of Immigration Laws: Interior Enforcement as Deterrence
Formulating a Coherent Policy for Border Security
US-Visit Program
Types of Visas
Non-Visa or Visa Waiver Program
Vehicular Screening at Border Crossings
Port and Marine Security

13. The Response to Homeland Security Incidents
FEMA: The Primary Response Agency When Disaster Occurs
Response Goals and Objectives
National Response Framework
National Response Framework: An Analysis
Local Responsibilities under the National Response Framework
State Responsibilities under the National Response Framework
Federal Responsibilities under the National Response Framework
Response as Dictated by the National Response Framework
Protection and Prevention Core Capabilities
Roles and Responsibilities of Community Entities
Critique of Past Responses and the National Response Framework
Procedures for Activating Federal Assistance in an Emergency
National Incident Management System
Communications and Information Management
Resource Management
Command and Management at an Incident
Ongoing Management and Maintenance
Medical Response to Critical Incidents
National Response Teams

14. Homeland Security and Policing
Community Policing and Homeland Security
Police Departments and Homeland Security: Where Are We?
Policing Muslim Communities
Homeland Security Public Education Programming
Examining Police Calls for Service for Terrorist Leads
Police Efforts to Safeguard Local Critical Infrastructure
Critical Incident Response Plans
Partnerships between Law Enforcement and Critical Infrastructure Security Personnel
Private Security
Police Organization and Terrorism
Intelligence-Led Policing
The Intelligence Process
Sources of Intelligence Raw Data
Intelligence Products
Tactical and Strategic Intelligence
Fusion Centers
Police Tactical Considerations
Immediate Police Response to an Act of Terrorism
New York City: A Case Study in Local Homeland Security

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