Hope or Despair? asks what promotes and what holds back student learning in Pakistan's government-sponsored primary schools. Using a national sample of schools, students, teachers, and supervisors, it shows how learning is affected by student background, teachers and teaching, school supervision, facilities, and innovation. It is the first book to use achievement tests based on the national curriculum to show influences on learning in the primary schools of an entire developing country. The study also explores why some students complete primary school and others do not.
The overall quality of education in Pakistan's government primary schools is low, but student learning rises with the teacher's formal education and with certain teaching practices. Student social class, a strong influence on learning in the United States, makes little difference in Pakistan. Whether the teacher is male or female has no relationship to learning in science, but it does affect achievement in mathematics. Neither supervision nor school facilities are related to achievement. This unique study will be of great interest to those concerned with schooling effectiveness in developing countries as well as to economists, sociologists, and political scientists interested in human resources in those countries.
Related collections and offers
About the Author
DONALD P. WARWICK is an Institute Fellow at the Harvard Institute for International Development and teaches in Harvard's Department of Sociology and Graduate School of Education.
FERNANDO REIMERS is an Institute Associate at the Harvard Institute for International Development where he specializes in education policy. Both authors have published extensively on education policy and schooling effectiveness.
Table of Contents
Primary Schools in Pakistan
Students: Enrollment, Achievement, and Completion
Teachers: Supply, Morale, and Quality
Teacher Training: Value Added or Money Wasted?
Gender and Achievement
School Buildings, Textbooks, and Supplies
School Organization: Administration, Management, or Leadership?
Explaining Student Achievement
Educational Innovations: Cases and Lessons
From Failure to Success