ISBN-10:
9048135613
ISBN-13:
9789048135615
Pub. Date:
12/17/2009
Publisher:
Springer Netherlands
Human and Nature Minding Automation: An Overview of Concepts, Methods, Tools and Applications / Edition 1

Human and Nature Minding Automation: An Overview of Concepts, Methods, Tools and Applications / Edition 1

by Spyros G. Tzafestas

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9789048135615
Publisher: Springer Netherlands
Publication date: 12/17/2009
Series: Intelligent Systems, Control and Automation: Science and Engineering , #41
Edition description: 2010
Pages: 346
Product dimensions: 6.10(w) x 9.20(h) x 1.00(d)

About the Author

Spyros G. Tzafestas received the B.Sc. in Physics (1963) and Graduate Diploma in Electronics (1965) from Athens University, Diploma of Electrical Engineering, from Imperial College (1967), M.Sc. (Eng.) in Control from London University (1967) and Ph.D. in Systems and Control from Southampton University, England (1969). From 1969 to 1973 he was Research Leader at the Computer Science Division of the Nuclear Research Center "Demokritos", Athens. From 1973 to 1984 he was Professor of Automatic Control at the University of Patras, and from 1985 to 2006 he was Professor of Control and Robotics at the National Technical University of Athens (NTUA), Greece. Temporary visiting teaching and / or research positions include : University of Calabria, Italy (1985, 1987), University of Delft, The Netherlands (1991) and MIT, USA (1992). He is currently Director of the Institute of Communication and Control Systems, and as a Professor Emeritus he is leading the Intelligent Automation Systems Research Group engaged with research carried out in ICCS-NTUA mainly in the framework of national and European projects.

Dr Tzafestas is the Recipient of D.Sc. of Southampton University (1978), and Honorary Doctorates of the Technical University of Munich (Dr.-Ing. E.h., 1997) and the Ecole Centrale de Lille (Dr. Ing.-Honoris Causa, 2003). He has published 30 edited research books, 60 book chapters and over 700 Journal and Conference technical papers in the field of control, robotics and Intelligent Systems. He has been the coordinator of national and EU projects in the fields of IT, Intelligent systems, robotics, control and CIM. He is an associate editor of 15 Journals, and he was the Editor in Chief of the Journal of Intelligent and Robotic Systems (1988-2006) and of the Book Series "Micro processor Based and Intelligent Systems Engineering, Kluwer (1993-2006). Presently, he is the Editor of the Springer book series on Intelligent Control and Automation Systems.

He is a Fellow of IEE, now IET (London), a Life Fellow of IEEE (New York) and a Member of ASME, NYAS and the Hellenic Technical Chamber (TEE). He received the Greek Society of Writers’ Award and the Ktesibios Award from the IEEE Mediterranean Control Association (2001). Dr Tzafestas has over the years organized and / or chaired several international conferences (IEEE, IMACS, SIRES, IASTED, EUCA).

Table of Contents

Everything should be made as simple as possible, but not simpler Albert Einstein

More power, and more choice, and more freedom require more wisdom if they are to add more humanity Emmanuel G. Mesthene

The machine replaced human labor and now human brain-power But I think technology's next step will be to work for the spirit, the heart Sotori Miyagi

1 Automation, Humans, Nature, and Development 1

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 The Field of Automation 2

1.3 Brief History of Control and Automation 3

1.4 The Principle of Feedback 5

1.4.1 Some Examples 6

1.5 The Humans in Automation 9

1.6 Automation in the Nature 10

1.7 Social Issues of Automation 11

1.7.1 Training and Education 12

1.7.2 Unemployment 12

1.7.3 Quality of Working Conditions 12

1.7.4 Productivity and Capital Formation 13

1.7.5 Advantages 13

1.7.6 Disadvantages 14

1.8 Human Development and Modernization 14

1.8.1 Human Development Components 15

1.8.2 Modernization 16

1.8.3 Human Development Index 18

1.8.4 Life Expectancy, Literacy and Standard of Living 19

1.8.5 Human Development Report 20

2 Human Factors in Automation (I): Building Blocks, Scope, and a First Set of Factors 23

2.1 Introduction 23

2.2 The Human Factors Field: Building Blocks and Scope 24

2.2.1 Building Blocks 24

2.2.2 The Human Features 25

2.2.3 Human-Automation Relation 25

2.2.4 Automation 25

2.2.5 Goals and Scope of the Human Factors Field 26

2.3 Human Factors in Automation System Design and Development 27

2.3.1 General Issues 27

2.3.2 Developmental Elements 28

2.3.3 System Development Concepts 29

2.4 The Workload Factor in Automation 30

2.5 Three Key Human Factors in Automation 31

2.5.1 Allocation of Function 31

2.5.2 Stimulus-Response Compatibility 32

2.5.3 Internal Model of the Operator 32

2.6 The Operator Reliance Factor 33

3 Human Factors in Automation (II): Psychological, Physical Strength, Human Error and Human Values Factors 35

3.1 Introduction 35

3.2 Psychological Factors 36

3.2.1 Job Satisfaction 36

3.2.2 Job Stress 37

3.2.3 A Psychosocial Stress Model 38

3.3 Physical Strength 38

3.4 Human Bias 39

3.5 Human Error 40

3.5.1 Skill-Based Error-Shaping Factors 42

3.5.2 Rule-Based Error-Shaping Factors 42

3.5.3 Knowledge-Based Error Shaping Factors 42

3.6 Human Values and Human Rights 43

4 Human-Machine Interaction in Automation (I): Basic Concepts and Devices 47

4.1 Introduction 47

4.2 Applications of Human-Machine Interactive Systems 48

4.3 Methodologies for the Design of Human-Machine Interaction Systems 50

4.4 Keys and Keyboards 51

4.4.1 Keyboard Layout 51

4.5 Pointing Devices 53

4.5.1 Touch Screens 53

4.5.2 Light Pens 54

4.5.3 Graphic Tablets 54

4.5.4 Track Balls 54

4.5.5 Mouse 55

4.5.6 Joysticks 55

4.5.7 Selection of the Input Device 55

4.6 Screen Design 56

4.6.1 Screen Density Reduction Methods 57

4.6.2 Information Grouping and Highlighting 57

4.6.3 Spatial Relationships Among Screen Elements 58

4.7 Work Station Design 58

4.7.1 Physical Layout Factors 59

4.7.2 Work Method Factors 59

4.7.3 Video Display Terminal Factors 60

5 Human-Machine Interaction in Automation (II): Advanced Concepts and Interfaces 61

5.1 Introduction 61

5.2 Graphical User Interfaces 62

5.2.1 General Issues 62

5.2.2 Design Components of Graphical Interfaces 63

5.2.3 Windowing Systems 63

5.2.4 Components of Windowing Systems 64

5.3 Types and Design Features of Visual Displays 65

5.3.1 Visual Display Types 65

5.3.2 Further Design Features of Visual Displays 66

5.4 Intelligent Human-Machine Interfaces 68

5.5 Natural Language Human-Machine Interfaces 71

5.6 Multi-Modal Human-Machine Interfaces 72

5.7 Graphical Interfaces for Knowledge-Based Systems 74

5.7.1 End-User Interfaces 75

5.7.2 Graphical Interfaces for the Knowledge Engineer 75

5.8 Force Sensing Tactile Based Human-Machine Interfaces 76

5.9 Human-Machine Interaction via Virtual Environments 77

5.10 Human-Machine Interfaces in Computer-Aided Design 79

6 Supervisory and Distributed Control in Automation 83

6.1 Introduction 83

6.2 Supervisory Control Architectures 85

6.2.1 Evolution of Supervisory Control 85

6.2.2 Rasmussen's Architecture 86

6.2.3 Sheridan's Architecture 88

6.2.4 Meystel's Nested Architecture 92

6.3 Task Analysis and Task Allocation in Automation 93

6.4 Distributed Control Architectures 97

6.4.1 Historical Remarks 97

6.4.2 Hierarchical Distributed Systems 98

6.4.3 Distributed Control and System Segmentation 101

6.5 Discrete Event Supervisory Control 102

6.6 Behavior-Based Architectures 103

6.6.1 Subsumption Architecture 104

6.6.2 Motor Schemas Architecture 105

6.7 Discussion 107

7 Implications of Industry, Automation, and Human Activity to Nature 109

7.1 Introduction 109

7.1.1 The Concepts of Waste and Pollution Control 110

7.2 Industrial Contaminants 111

7.2.1 Organic Compounds 111

7.2.2 Metals and Inorganic Nonmetals 115

7.3 Impact of Industrial Activity on the Nature 117

7.3.1 Air Pollution 117

7.3.2 The Earth's Carbon Cycle and Balance 119

7.3.3 Global Warming, Ozone Hole, Acid Rain and Urban Smog 120

7.3.4 Solid Waste Disposal 125

7.3.5 Water Pollution 126

7.4 Energy Consumption and Natural Resources Depletion 126

7.5 Three Major Problems of the Globe Caused by Human Activity 128

7.6 Environmental Impact: Classification by Human Activity Type 129

8 Human-Minding Automation 133

8.1 Introduction 133

8.2 System-Minding Design Approach 134

8.3 Human-Minding Automation System Design Approach 135

8.4 Human-Minding Interface Design in Automation Systems 137

8.4.1 User-Needs Analysis 137

8.4.2 Task Analysis 138

8.4.3 Situation Analysis and Function Allocation 138

8.5 The Human Resource Problem in Automation 140

8.5.1 Allocation of System Development Resources 140

8.5.2 Investment in Human Resources 142

8.5.3 Innovation and Technology Transfer 142

8.6 Integrating Decision Aiding and Decision Training in Human-Minding Automation 143

8.6.1 Novice 144

8.6.2 Expert 144

8.7 International Safety Standards for Automation Systems 146

8.8 Overlapping Circles Representation of Human Minding Automation Systems 149

9 Nature-Minding Industrial Activity and Automation 151

9.1 Introduction 151

9.2 Life-Cycle and Environmental Impact Assessments 152

9.2.1 Life-Cycle Assessment 152

9.2.2 Environmental Impact Assessment 157

9.3 Nature-Minding Design 158

9.4 Pollution Control Planning 160

9.5 Natural Resources-Energy Conservation and Residuals Management 162

9.5.1 Water Conservation 162

9.5.2 Energy Conservation 163

9.5.3 Residuals Management 163

9.6 Fugitive Emissions Control and Public Pollution Control Programs 165

9.6.1 Fugitive Emissions Control 165

9.6.2 Public Pollution Control Programs 166

9.7 Environmental Control Regulations 167

9.7.1 General Issues 167

9.7.2 Environmental Regulations in the United States 168

9.7.3 International and European Environmental Control Regulations 170

9.8 The Concept of Sustainability 173

9.9 Environmental Sustainability Index 178

9.10 A Practical Guide Towards Nature-Minding Business-Automation Operation 180

9.10.1 The Four Environmental R-Rules 180

9.10.2 Four More Nature-Minding Rules 181

9.11 Nature-Minding Economic Considerations 183

9.11.1 Cost Allocation: The Polluter-Pays Principle 186

9.11.2 Environmental Standards 186

9.12 Nature-Minding Organizations 187

10 Modern Automation Systems in Practice 193

10.1 Introduction 193

10.2 Office Automation Systems 194

10.3 Automation in Railway Systems 196

10.4 Automation in Aviation Systems 200

10.4.1 Aircraft Automation 200

10.4.2 Air Traffic Control 202

10.4.3 The Free Flight Operational Concept 205

10.5 Automation in Automobile and Sea Transportation 206

10.5.1 Advanced Traveler Information Systems 206

10.5.2 Collision Avoidance and Warning Systems 207

10.5.3 Automated Highway Systems 207

10.5.4 Vision Enhancement Systems 208

10.5.5 Advanced Traffic Management Systems 208

10.5.6 Commercial Vehicle Operations 208

10.5.7 Sea Transportation 209

10.6 Robotic Automation Systems 209

10.6.1 Material Handling and Die Casting 210

10.6.2 Machine Loading and Unloading 210

10.6.3 Welding and Assembly 211

10.6.4 Machining and Inspection 212

10.6.5 Drilling, Forging and Other Fabrication Applications 212

10.6.6 Robot Social and Medical Services 213

10.6.7 Assistive Robotics 215

10.7 Automation in Intelligent Buildings 219

10.8 Automation of Intra- and Inter-Organizational Processes in CIM 220

10.8.1 Intra-Organizational Automation 221

10.8.2 Inter-Organizational Automation 222

10.9 Automation in Continuous Process Plants 224

10.10 Automation in Environmental Systems 226

10.11 Discussion on Human- and Nature-Minding Automation and Technology Applications 227

11 Mathematical Tools for Automation Systems I: Modeling and Simulation 231

11.1 Introduction 231

11.2 Deterministic Models 232

11.3 Probabilistic Models 235

11.3.1 Discrete Probability Model 236

11.3.2 Continuous Probability Model 236

11.3.3 Bayes Updating Formula 237

11.3.4 Statistics 240

11.4 Entropy Model 242

11.5 Reliability and Availability Models 243

11.5.1 Definitions and Properties 243

11.5.2 Markov Reliability Model 246

11.6 Stochastic Processes and Dynamic Models 248

11.6.1 Stochastic Processes 248

11.6.2 Stochastic Dynamic Models 250

11.7 Fuzzy Sets and Fuzzy Models 251

11.7.1 Fuzzy Sets 251

11.7.2 Fuzzy Systems 255

11.8 System Simulation 260

11.8.1 Simulation of Dynamic Systems 260

11.8.2 Simulation of Probabilistic Models 262

12 Mathematical Tools for Automation Systems II: Optimization, Estimation, Decision, and Control 267

12.1 Introduction 267

12.2 System Optimization 268

12.2.1 Static Optimization 269

12.2.2 Dynamic Optimization 274

12.2.3 Genetic Optimization 278

12.3 Learning and Estimation 280

12.3.1 Least-Squares Parameter Estimation 280

12.3.2 Recursive Least Squares Parameter Estimation 282

12.3.3 Least Squares State Estimation: Kalman Filter 285

12.3.4 Neural Network Learning 290

12.4 Decision Analysis 293

12.4.1 General Issues 293

12.4.2 Decision Matrix and Average Value Operators 295

12.4.3 Fuzzy Utility Functions 296

12.5 Control 302

12.5.1 Classical Control 303

12.5.2 Modern Control 306

12.6 Concluding Remarks 316

Reference 319

Index 343

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