A. AULICIEMS Living organisms respond to atmospheric variability and variation, and over time morphological and process differentiations occur both within individuals and the species, as well as in the environment itself. In systems language, the concern is with the atmospheric process-response system of energy and matter flows within the biosphere. The study of such interactions between living organ isms and the atmospheric environment falls within the field of bioclimatology, alternatively referred to as biometeorology. Amongst the more readily recognizable study areas under the bioclimatolog that investigate the effects of atmospheric variation and ical umbrella are those variability upon 1. Terrestrial and aquatic ecology (zoological, botanical and ethological), natural resource production and management (including silviculture, agri culture, horticulture, and grassland, wetland, and marine systems). 2. Stress, morbidity and mortality in animals and humans (including physiolog ical and psychological adaptations). 3. The built environment (all aspects of planning, urban design, and architec ture). 4. Economic systems and social activities (including organizational, individual, and group behavior and management). In addition, bioclimatology is very much concerned with the feedback loop, that is both 5. The inadvertent modification of the atmosphere by living systems, especially human, i.e., studies of pollution, changes to atmospheric amenity, and the processes of deterioration of landscape (deforestation and desertification), and 6. The advertent modifications of natural energy and matter flows within urban areas and indoor climate constructions.
Table of ContentsHuman Bioclimatology: An Introduction.- References.- Techniques for Measuring Solar Ultraviolet Radiation.- 1 Introduction.- 1.1 A Global View of UV Radiation.- 1.2 Determining UV Radiation Intensity at the Ground.- 1.2.1 UV Radiation Models.- 1.2.2 Satellite Remote Sensing.- 2 Techniques for UV Measurement.- 2.1 Spectral Measurements.- 2.2 Broadband Measurements.- 2.3 Dosimetry.- 3 Calibration Techniques.- 3.1 Standard Lamps.- 3.2 Standard Instruments.- 3.3 Frequency of Calibration.- 4 The History of Measurements.- 5 Networking.- 5.1 Formal Networks.- 5.2 Informal Networks.- 5.3 Intercomparisons.- 5.4 Plans for the Future.- 6 Using UV Data.- 6.1 Ancillary Data.- 6.2 Effect of UV Radiation.- 6.2.1 Human Health.- 6.2.2 Animal Health.- 6.2.3 Aquatic Life.- 6.2.4 Plant Life.- 6.2.5 Weathering of Materials.- 7 Conclusion.- Appendix A List of Instrument Manufacturers.- Appendix B List of National Standards Laboratories and Other Sources of Standard Lamps.- AppendixC Glossary of Terms.- References.- Thermal Adaptation and Variable Indoor Climate Control.- 1 Introduction.- 2 The Biophysics and Thermophysiology of Comfort.- 2.1 The Human Energy Budget.- 2.2 Thermal Indices.- 2.3 Localized Discomforts and Draughts.- 2.4 Comparison of Thermal Indices.- 3 An Adaptive Model.- 3.1 Behavioral Adjustments and Preferences.- 3.2 The Effect of Outdoor Climate.- 3.3 The Role of Thermal Expectation.- 3.4 Testing the Adaptive Model.- 4 An Evaluation of Air Conditioning.- 4.1 Achieving Acceptance of Adaptive Control Strategies.- 4.2 Adaptive Alternatives to the Thermostat.- 5 Summary.- References.- Sick Building Syndrome and Appropriate Design.- 1 Introduction.- 1.1 Definitions.- 1.2 Significance.- 2 Physical, Chemical and Biological Hypotheses of SBS.- 2.1 Inadequate Ventilation.- 2.2 Specific Pollutants in Indoor Air.- 2.2.1 Volatile Organic Compounds.- 2.2.2 Bioaerosols.- 2.2.3 Inorganic Dust and Other Particulates in Indoor Air.- 3 Psychosocial Dimensions of SBS.- 3.1 Are SBS Symptoms Real?.- 3.2 The Plethora of SBS Risk Factors.- 3.3 Perceived Control Over the Workstation Environment.- 3.3.1 Stress as a Mediating Variable for SBS.- 3.3.2 Perceived Environmental Control, SBS and Productivity.- 4 Appropriate Design for the Avoidance of SBS: Task Conditioning.- 4.1 Design Strategies for Personal Environmental Control.- 4.2 Advantages of Task Conditioning.- 4.2.1 Task Conditioning and SBS.- 4.2.2 Task Conditioning and Employee Productivity.- 4.2.3 Task Conditioning and Energy Conservation.- 5 Conclusion.- References.- Bioclimatic Architecture and Solar Energy.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Bioclimatic Architecture.- 3 Energy Conservation.- 4 Solar-Heated Houses.- 4.1 Passive Systems.- 5 Design Methods.- 6 Integration.- 7 The CPZ Method.- 8 Recent Developments.- 9 Current Issues.- 9.1 Comfort: Humidity Limit.- 9.2 Comfort in Solar Houses.- 9.3 The Mass Effect: Psychological Limits.- 9.4 Energy Rating of Houses.- 9.5 Tropical Design.- 10 Conclusions.- References.- Migration, Recreation and Tourism: Human Responses to Climate Differences.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Seasonal Migration.- 2.1 Temporary Migration to More Hospitable Regions.- 2.2 Searching for Health Cures.- 3 Climate as an Influence on the Decision to Travel.- 4 Indicators of Tourism-Climate Interdependency.- 4.1 Tourism-Climate Indices and Zones.- 4.2 Indicators of “Suitable Days”.- 4.3 Indicators of Weather Sensitivity.- 5 Human Adaptation: Acclimatization, Preparation and Precaution.- 5.1 Body Responses to Changes of Climate: Acclimatization.- 5.2 The Hazards of “Sun Workship”.- 5.3 Preparations for Travel.- 6 Conclusion.- 6.1 Research Difficulties.- 6.2 Research Opportunities.- References.- Climate and Human Mortality: Relationships and Mitigating Measures.- 1 Introduction.- 2 What Is Affecting Weather-Related Mortality?.- 2.1 Meteorological Issues.- 2.2 Socioeconomic Issues Affecting Weather-Related Mortality.- 3 Weather-Related Mortality in a Warmer World.- 4 Mitigating Measures to Lessen the Impact of Weather-Related Mortality.- References.