ISBN-10:
0321981227
ISBN-13:
9780321981226
Pub. Date:
01/13/2015
Publisher:
Pearson
Human Physiology: An Integrated Approach / Edition 7

Human Physiology: An Integrated Approach / Edition 7

by Dee Unglaub Silverthorn

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780321981226
Publisher: Pearson
Publication date: 01/13/2015
Edition description: Older Edition
Pages: 960
Product dimensions: 9.30(w) x 10.90(h) x 1.30(d)

About the Author

Dee Unglaub Silverthorn studied biology as an undergraduate at Newcomb College of Tulane University, where she did research on cockroaches. For graduate school she switched to studying crabs and received a Ph.D. in marine science from the Belle W. Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences at the University of South Carolina. Her research interest is epithelial transport, and most recently work in her laboratory has focused on transport properties of the chick allantoic membrane. Her teaching career started in the Physiology Department at the Medical University of South Carolina but over the years she has taught a wide range of students, from medical and college students to those still preparing for higher education. At the University of Texas-Austin she teaches physiology in both lecture and laboratory settings, and instructs graduate students on developing teaching skills in the life sciences. She has received numerous teaching awards and honors, including a 2011 UT System Regents’ Outstanding Teaching Award, the 2009 Outstanding Undergraduate Science Teacher Award from the Society for College Science Teachers, the American Physiological Society’s Claude Bernard Distinguished Lecturer and Arthur C. Guyton Physiology Educator of the Year, and multiple awards from UT-Austin, including the Burnt Orange Apple Award. The first edition of her textbook won the 1998 Robert W. Hamilton Author Award for best textbook published in 1997—98 by a University of Texas faculty member. Dee was the president of the Human Anatomy and Physiology Society in 2012—13, has served as editor-in-chief of Advances in Physiology Education, and is currently chair of the American Physiological Society Book Committee. She works with members of the International Union of Physiological Sciences to improve physiology education in developing countries, and this book has been translated into seven languages. Her free time is spent creating multimedia fiber art and enjoying the Texas hill country with her husband, Andy, and their dogs.

Read an Excerpt

PREFACE:

Preface

As we move into the 21st century, there has never been a more exciting time to study physiology. The human genome has almost been sequenced, but we are still a long way from fully understanding the physiology of the human body. We have the genetic sequence for many proteins, but we still don't know what many of them do in the living organism. Research with genetically engineered mice has shown us that we don't always understand the proteins we thought we knew. In more than one instance, researchers have created "knockout" mice that lack a certain protein, only to find that the protein was not as essential to the animal's function as they believed.

Scientists are turning back to whole animal and tissue studies in an effort to understand the integrated function of the body. Molecular biology and its technology are now merely tools to be used in the growing areas of physiology and molecular medicine. There is so much new and exciting information being reported daily, and one of the challenges of writing an undergraduate textbook is deciding what to include, and how to include it. However, as the alphabet soup of nicknamed proteins grows, it becomes more and more important for teachers and students to keep the basic themes of physiology in mind.

KEY THEMES OF THIS BOOK

In the second edition we have kept the four themes that proved so popular in the first edition.

1. Focus on Problem Solving.

One of the most valuable skills we can teach our students is the ability to think critically and use the inforh3nation they learn to solve new problems. A number of features in the book are designed to helpstudents practice these skills as they read, including Concept Checks, v tinning Problems, and Graph and Figure Questions. In this edition we added a fourth level with quantitative problems to the end-of-chapter questions.

2. An Emphasis on Integration.

The second edition of Human Physiology has retained the three chapters (Chapters 13,19, and 23) that highlight the integrative nature of physiology and the cooperative function of multiple systems in the human body when homeostasis is disturbed. In addition, I selected diabetes mellitus as a disease whose causes, complications, and treatments involve nearly every system of the body. You will find special diabetes focus boxes that run throughout the book to highlight the systemic effects of this common pathology.

3. Cellular and Molecular Physiology.

Most physiology research today is being done at the cellular and molecular level, and this edition continues to integrate physiology with cellular and molecular biology. There have been many exciting developments in molecular medicine and physiology since the first edition. For example, electrical signaling is not just for neurons and muscles any more, as you will learn in Chapter 5. And scientists have learned enough about membrane receptors to classify them into four major categories (Chapter 6). As a result, the first section of Chapter 6 has been reorganized, with seven new figures to explain signal transduction and second messenger pathways. The new information on membrane receptors is integrated with discussions of enzymes and membrane transporters to emphasize the commonalities of protein-protein binding: saturation, specificity, competition, and isoforms.

4. Physiology as a Dynamic Field.

In the book, I have tried to present physiology as a dynamic discipline with numerous unanswered questions that merit further investigation and research. It is essential that students appreciate that many of the "facts" they are learning are really only our current theories, especially as new information emerges from the union of the human genome project and basic research.

There is a tremendous need for systems level physiologists to come back into the research field to pull together clinical observations and the information uncovered by cellular and molecular research. I came across a perfect example the other day as I was doing research on guanylin and uroguanylin for this edition (see p. 583).

Leonard Forte et al. began their recent review of guanylin and uroguanylin by describing the whole-animal research from the 1970s that suggested that Na+ sensors in the digestive system monitor salt ingestion and cause release of a blood-borne substance that enhances renal salt excretion. The bulk of their review then goes on to describe what we know about guanylin and uroguanylin, from the genes that encode the guanylin family peptides to their receptors and second messengers. But the key physiological experiments that confirm the relationship between salt intake and salt excretion have yet to be done.

The physiology students of today are the next generation of scientists and healthcare providers, the people who will try to answer the unanswered questions. It is my hope that this book will provide them with an integrated view of physiology so that they enter their chosen professions with respect for the complexity of the human body and a clear vision of the potential of physiological and biomedical research.

1 SPECIAL FEATURES

This textbook has some special features that are designed to make the study of physiology easier. Please take a few minutes to look at the Owner's Manual on page vii. That section explains the symbols, boxes, and features that make this book unique.

More than a Textbook

As we begin the 21st century, computers provide us with an additional dimension to use in teaching. The book itself remains the single most important component of any physiology course, but it takes more than a textbook to improve teaching and learning.

I truly believe that HOW we teach is almost as important as WHAT we teach, particularly in this age of the Internet when students have so many options for gathering information in addition to coming to lecture and reading their textbook. What is the instructor's role in today's classroom? What can we do for our students besides be "talking heads" that convey content? I believe that we should be there to inspire our students and get them excited about physiology. We need to help them understand why the "facts" they memorize today may be "wrong" tomorrow. We are there to bridge the gap between systems physiology, which is what we teach, and physiology as it is practiced in the clinics and the research laboratory. With this in mind, we have assembled an array of innovative supplements for both students and instructors.

The Human Physiology Student Workbook

One of the most common reasons that faculty give for not including active learning in the classroom is that they are afraid that they will not be able to cover all the content their students need to know. The Student Workbook that accompanies Human Physiology is my solution to this problem, and it is derived from one that I use in my own teaching.

The Teach Yourself the Basics section of the workbook provides guided notetaking as students read the text. It is organized with the same headers as the chapter and it asks students to answer basic knowledge questions, such as "List the functions..." or "Define..." The workbook also has a complete list of vocabulary words for each chapter (Talk the Talk). Students can test their understanding with the questions in Practice Makes Perfect and Quantitative Thinking. A section on Maps provides additional lists of terms for students to compile into concept and reflex maps.

For students who want to extend their learning, each workbook chapter includes additional reading and information about the pathology discussed in the chapter's Running Problem. In Beyond the Basics, students and faculty alike will find suggestions for mini-demonstrations (Try It) and a list of articles about topics covered in the chapter. 0-13-019554-5

The Silverthorn Physiology WebSite

The Companion Website for this text can be found at prenhall.com/silverthornn. This interactive site contains study questions and the answers to all end-of-chapter questions in the book. Additionally, there are links to other interesting physiology-related sites. Because the World Wide Web is such a fluid medium, you never know what you might find on this site, so I encourage you to be a regular visitor.

Problem Solving in Physiology

Written by Joel Michael and Allen Rovick, this workbook contains a wealth of real-world problems designed to help students truly understand physiology. Utilizing clinical data and realistic scenarios, students develop active learning skills. Instructor's Edition: 0-13-959933-9

The New York Times "Themes of the Times"

Themes of the Times is a program sponsored jointly by Prentice Hall and The New York Times. Physiology-related articles have been compiled into a free supplement that helps students make the connection between the classroom and the outside world. It is designed to enhance student access to current, relevant information.

Video Tutor for Anatomy and Physiology

This videotape gives students the opportunity to see the dynamics of the most difficult physiological processes from the comfort of a favorite couch or chair. This two-hour video focuses on concepts that instructors across the country have consistently identified as the most challenging. Physiological concepts are highlighted using three-dimensional animations and video footage. On-camera narration and built-in review questions insure that these concepts come to life for the viewer. 0-13-751843-9

Instructor's Resource Guide

This Instructor's Resource Guide is currently the only one for human physiology that was written by the author of the text. I believe very strongly that active and inquiry learning should be incorporated into the lecture setting on a regular basis, so I created a resource to assist faculty with this task. The IRG contains annotated chapter outlines with class-tested demonstrations and activities. Each chapter also contains additional detail that instructors will find useful in writing their lectures, as well as references from the research and clinical literature. I have also included some higher-level questions and problems that faculty can use in the classroom or on tests. 0-13-019026-8

Test Item File and Computerized Quiz Management System

A printed bank of over 3,000 questions is available with this text. Written in the same configuration as the end-of-chapter questions in the text, the test bank is a valuable compliment to an instructor's own test/quiz files. Available in Macintosh and Microsoft Windows formats, this powerful software includes easy-to-use Wizards (the Wizard asks the user questions and offers prompts to make test creation simple), an editing function, and a grade book program. This software also includes a test item analysis program that generates helpful statistics on class performance. Print version: 013-0190284; Windows: 0-13-019029-2; Macintosh: 0-13-0190209

Transparency Acetates and Transparency Masters

Prentice Hall has prepared 250 full-color acetates and 50 black-and-white masters containing key illustrations from the text. Labels and figures have been enlarged for optimal viewing in the classroom. 013-019031-4

Image Bank and PowerPoint Gallery CDROM for the Lab or Classroom

Think of this supplement as a bank of images from the text, which you can integrate into your lecture notes, handouts, homework, exams, etc..., along with a series of pre-assembled PowerPoint slides for easy inclusion with your current presentations. With this CD, you have the tools to visually enhance your curriculum. 0-13-019551-0

For the Laboratory

Dicarlo/Sipe/Layshock/Rosian, Experiments and Demonstrations in Physiology. 1998. This laboratory manual is appropriate for courses in physiology or the physiology component of an Anatomy and Physiology lab where there is very little equipment. The emphasis of the manual is on critical thinking and problem-solving. 0-13636457-8

Gerald Tharp, Experiments in Physiology, 7th edition. 1997. This traditional laboratory manual includes new computer exercises for key physiology experiments. 0-13-575788-6

In addition, Dee Silverthorn will publish two laboratory manuals in human physiology, including a selection of over 150 class-tested laboratory exercises which can be customized for individual adoptions. Both will be available in 2001. Please contact a Prentice Hall sales representative for further information.

Table of Contents

I. BASIC CELL PROCESSES: INTEGRATION AND COORDINATION

1. Introduction to Physiology

2. Molecular Interactions

3. Compartmentation: Cells and Tissues

4. Energy and Cellular Metabolism

5. Membrane Dynamics

6. Communication, Integration, and Homeostasis

II. HOMEOSTASIS AND CONTROL

7. Introduction to the Endocrine System

8. Neurons: Cellular and Network Properties

9. The Central Nervous System

10. Sensory Physiology

11. Efferent Division: Autonomic and Somatic Motor Control

12. Muscles

13. Integrative Physiology I: Control of Body Movement

III. INTEGRATION OF FUNCTION

14. Cardiovascular Physiology

15. Blood Flow and the Control of Blood Pressure

16. Blood

17. Mechanics of Breathing

18. Gas Exchange and Transport

19. The Kidneys

20. Integrative Physiology II: Fluid and Electrolyte Balance

IV. METABOLISM, GROWTH, AND AGING

21. The Digestive System

22. Metabolism and Energy Balance

23. Endocrine Control of Growth and Metabolism

24. The Immune System

25. Integrative Physiology III: Exercise

26. Reproduction and Development

Preface

Preface

As we move into the 21st century, there has never been a more exciting time to study physiology. The human genome has almost been sequenced, but we are still a long way from fully understanding the physiology of the human body. We have the genetic sequence for many proteins, but we still don't know what many of them do in the living organism. Research with genetically engineered mice has shown us that we don't always understand the proteins we thought we knew. In more than one instance, researchers have created "knockout" mice that lack a certain protein, only to find that the protein was not as essential to the animal's function as they believed.

Scientists are turning back to whole animal and tissue studies in an effort to understand the integrated function of the body. Molecular biology and its technology are now merely tools to be used in the growing areas of physiology and molecular medicine. There is so much new and exciting information being reported daily, and one of the challenges of writing an undergraduate textbook is deciding what to include, and how to include it. However, as the alphabet soup of nicknamed proteins grows, it becomes more and more important for teachers and students to keep the basic themes of physiology in mind.

KEY THEMES OF THIS BOOK

In the second edition we have kept the four themes that proved so popular in the first edition.

1. Focus on Problem Solving.

One of the most valuable skills we can teach our students is the ability to think critically and use the inforh3nation they learn to solve new problems. A number of features in the book are designed to help studentspractice these skills as they read, including Concept Checks, v tinning Problems, and Graph and Figure Questions. In this edition we added a fourth level with quantitative problems to the end-of-chapter questions.

2. An Emphasis on Integration.

The second edition of Human Physiology has retained the three chapters (Chapters 13,19, and 23) that highlight the integrative nature of physiology and the cooperative function of multiple systems in the human body when homeostasis is disturbed. In addition, I selected diabetes mellitus as a disease whose causes, complications, and treatments involve nearly every system of the body. You will find special diabetes focus boxes that run throughout the book to highlight the systemic effects of this common pathology.

3. Cellular and Molecular Physiology.

Most physiology research today is being done at the cellular and molecular level, and this edition continues to integrate physiology with cellular and molecular biology. There have been many exciting developments in molecular medicine and physiology since the first edition. For example, electrical signaling is not just for neurons and muscles any more, as you will learn in Chapter 5. And scientists have learned enough about membrane receptors to classify them into four major categories (Chapter 6). As a result, the first section of Chapter 6 has been reorganized, with seven new figures to explain signal transduction and second messenger pathways. The new information on membrane receptors is integrated with discussions of enzymes and membrane transporters to emphasize the commonalities of protein-protein binding: saturation, specificity, competition, and isoforms.

4. Physiology as a Dynamic Field.

In the book, I have tried to present physiology as a dynamic discipline with numerous unanswered questions that merit further investigation and research. It is essential that students appreciate that many of the "facts" they are learning are really only our current theories, especially as new information emerges from the union of the human genome project and basic research.

There is a tremendous need for systems level physiologists to come back into the research field to pull together clinical observations and the information uncovered by cellular and molecular research. I came across a perfect example the other day as I was doing research on guanylin and uroguanylin for this edition (see p. 583).

Leonard Forte et al. began their recent review of guanylin and uroguanylin by describing the whole-animal research from the 1970s that suggested that Na+ sensors in the digestive system monitor salt ingestion and cause release of a blood-borne substance that enhances renal salt excretion. The bulk of their review then goes on to describe what we know about guanylin and uroguanylin, from the genes that encode the guanylin family peptides to their receptors and second messengers. But the key physiological experiments that confirm the relationship between salt intake and salt excretion have yet to be done.

The physiology students of today are the next generation of scientists and healthcare providers, the people who will try to answer the unanswered questions. It is my hope that this book will provide them with an integrated view of physiology so that they enter their chosen professions with respect for the complexity of the human body and a clear vision of the potential of physiological and biomedical research.

1 SPECIAL FEATURES

This textbook has some special features that are designed to make the study of physiology easier. Please take a few minutes to look at the Owner's Manual on page vii. That section explains the symbols, boxes, and features that make this book unique.

More than a Textbook

As we begin the 21st century, computers provide us with an additional dimension to use in teaching. The book itself remains the single most important component of any physiology course, but it takes more than a textbook to improve teaching and learning.

I truly believe that HOW we teach is almost as important as WHAT we teach, particularly in this age of the Internet when students have so many options for gathering information in addition to coming to lecture and reading their textbook. What is the instructor's role in today's classroom? What can we do for our students besides be "talking heads" that convey content? I believe that we should be there to inspire our students and get them excited about physiology. We need to help them understand why the "facts" they memorize today may be "wrong" tomorrow. We are there to bridge the gap between systems physiology, which is what we teach, and physiology as it is practiced in the clinics and the research laboratory. With this in mind, we have assembled an array of innovative supplements for both students and instructors.

The Human Physiology Student Workbook

One of the most common reasons that faculty give for not including active learning in the classroom is that they are afraid that they will not be able to cover all the content their students need to know. The Student Workbook that accompanies Human Physiology is my solution to this problem, and it is derived from one that I use in my own teaching.

The Teach Yourself the Basics section of the workbook provides guided notetaking as students read the text. It is organized with the same headers as the chapter and it asks students to answer basic knowledge questions, such as "List the functions..." or "Define..." The workbook also has a complete list of vocabulary words for each chapter (Talk the Talk). Students can test their understanding with the questions in Practice Makes Perfect and Quantitative Thinking. A section on Maps provides additional lists of terms for students to compile into concept and reflex maps.

For students who want to extend their learning, each workbook chapter includes additional reading and information about the pathology discussed in the chapter's Running Problem. In Beyond the Basics, students and faculty alike will find suggestions for mini-demonstrations (Try It) and a list of articles about topics covered in the chapter. 0-13-019554-5

The Silverthorn Physiology WebSite

The Companion Website for this text can be found at www.prenhall.com/silverthornn. This interactive site contains study questions and the answers to all end-of-chapter questions in the book. Additionally, there are links to other interesting physiology-related sites. Because the World Wide Web is such a fluid medium, you never know what you might find on this site, so I encourage you to be a regular visitor.

Problem Solving in Physiology

Written by Joel Michael and Allen Rovick, this workbook contains a wealth of real-world problems designed to help students truly understand physiology. Utilizing clinical data and realistic scenarios, students develop active learning skills. Instructor's Edition: 0-13-959933-9

The New York Times "Themes of the Times"

Themes of the Times is a program sponsored jointly by Prentice Hall and The New York Times. Physiology-related articles have been compiled into a free supplement that helps students make the connection between the classroom and the outside world. It is designed to enhance student access to current, relevant information.

Video Tutor for Anatomy and Physiology

This videotape gives students the opportunity to see the dynamics of the most difficult physiological processes from the comfort of a favorite couch or chair. This two-hour video focuses on concepts that instructors across the country have consistently identified as the most challenging. Physiological concepts are highlighted using three-dimensional animations and video footage. On-camera narration and built-in review questions insure that these concepts come to life for the viewer. 0-13-751843-9

Instructor's Resource Guide

This Instructor's Resource Guide is currently the only one for human physiology that was written by the author of the text. I believe very strongly that active and inquiry learning should be incorporated into the lecture setting on a regular basis, so I created a resource to assist faculty with this task. The IRG contains annotated chapter outlines with class-tested demonstrations and activities. Each chapter also contains additional detail that instructors will find useful in writing their lectures, as well as references from the research and clinical literature. I have also included some higher-level questions and problems that faculty can use in the classroom or on tests. 0-13-019026-8

Test Item File and Computerized Quiz Management System

A printed bank of over 3,000 questions is available with this text. Written in the same configuration as the end-of-chapter questions in the text, the test bank is a valuable compliment to an instructor's own test/quiz files. Available in Macintosh and Microsoft Windows formats, this powerful software includes easy-to-use Wizards (the Wizard asks the user questions and offers prompts to make test creation simple), an editing function, and a grade book program. This software also includes a test item analysis program that generates helpful statistics on class performance. Print version: 013-0190284; Windows: 0-13-019029-2; Macintosh: 0-13-0190209

Transparency Acetates and Transparency Masters

Prentice Hall has prepared 250 full-color acetates and 50 black-and-white masters containing key illustrations from the text. Labels and figures have been enlarged for optimal viewing in the classroom. 013-019031-4

Image Bank and PowerPoint Gallery CDROM for the Lab or Classroom

Think of this supplement as a bank of images from the text, which you can integrate into your lecture notes, handouts, homework, exams, etc..., along with a series of pre-assembled PowerPoint slides for easy inclusion with your current presentations. With this CD, you have the tools to visually enhance your curriculum. 0-13-019551-0

For the Laboratory

Dicarlo/Sipe/Layshock/Rosian, Experiments and Demonstrations in Physiology. 1998. This laboratory manual is appropriate for courses in physiology or the physiology component of an Anatomy and Physiology lab where there is very little equipment. The emphasis of the manual is on critical thinking and problem-solving. 0-13636457-8

Gerald Tharp, Experiments in Physiology, 7th edition. 1997. This traditional laboratory manual includes new computer exercises for key physiology experiments. 0-13-575788-6

In addition, Dee Silverthorn will publish two laboratory manuals in human physiology, including a selection of over 150 class-tested laboratory exercises which can be customized for individual adoptions. Both will be available in 2001. Please contact a Prentice Hall sales representative for further information.

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