Human rights for victims of non-state crime: Taking victims seriously

Human rights for victims of non-state crime: Taking victims seriously

by Anna Wergens

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9789462401853
Publisher: Wolf Legal Publishers
Publication date: 12/30/2014
Pages: 538
Product dimensions: 6.20(w) x 9.40(h) x 1.30(d)

Table of Contents

Acknowledgements 1

Abstract 3

Table of acronyms 5

Case law of the European Court of Human Rights 7

Chapter 1 A Study on Victims and Their Rights 11

1.1 Background 11

1.1.1 The problem 13

1.2 The aim of the study 14

1.2.1 The research questions 14

1.2.1.1 What is the legal significance of human rights for victims of non-state crime? 15

1.2.1.2 Can the rights of crime victims be considered to be a human right? 16

1.2.1.3 What is the resonance of human rights on crime victims at national level? 19

1.2.2 Why is this an important issue? 20

1.3 The starting-points 25

1.3.1 The proliferation of rights 25

1.3.2 Victims' rights and the human rights of victims 26

1.3.3 The victim from two perspectives 27

1.4 The dimensions of the research questions 28

1.4.1 Horizontal relationships in human rights law and state responsibility 28

1.4.2 Correspondence 29

1.4.3 Universality versus particularism 29

1.4.4 Normativity 29

1.4.5 Justice 30

1.5 A change of discourse - crime victims as a matter of human rights? 32

1.6 Previous research 34

1.7 Delimitations and terminology 38

1.8 Theoretical and methodological concerns 41

1.8.1 Introduction on methodology 41

1.8.2 Theoretical approaches 45

1.8.2.1 The victimological approach 45

1.8.2.2 Human rights as a theoretical framework 47

1.9 The structure of the thesis 51

Chapter 2 Victims' Rights 55

2.1 The Background 55

2.1.1 Introduction 55

2.1.2 The development of international victims' rights 55

2.1.3 The conceptualization of victims' rights 61

2.1.4 The justification of international victims' rights instruments 64

2.1.5 The needs of crime victims 68

2.1.6 Victims' rights in victimology 70

2.1.7 The core victims' rights 71

2.1.8 The character of victims' rights 75

2.1.9 Implementation of victims' rights instruments 76

2.1.10 Reflections 80

2.2 The normative basis of victims' rights 84

2.2.1 Human Rights Instruments 85

2.2.1.1 Binding and general human rights instruments 85

2.2.1.2 Binding and specialized human rights instruments 87

2.2.1.3 Non-binding general human rights instruments 94

2.2.1.4 Non-binding specialized human rights instruments 95

2.2.2 Victims' Rights Instruments 97

2.2.2.1 Binding and general victims' rights instruments 97

2.2.2.2 Binding and specialised victims' rights instruments 101

2.2.2.3 Non-binding general victims' rights instruments 104

2.2.2.4 Non-binding specialized victims' rights instruments 108

2.3 Victims' rights and the human rights of victims-some reflections 110

Chapter 3 Human Rights 115

3.1 Introduction 115

3.2 An historical review of the human rights 115

3.2.1 Antiquity and the middle-ages 115

3.2.2 The Enlightenment 118

3.2.3 The nineteenth century 119

3.2.4 The modern human rights movement 121

3.3 The nature of human rights 125

3.3.1 Introduction 125

3.3.2 The rights-concept 125

3.3.3 Basic elements of human rights 127

3.3.3.1 Rights-holders and duty-bearers 127

3.3.3.2 The scope of human rights 128

3.3.3.3 The importance argument 129

3.4 Classifying human rights 130

3.4.1 Introduction 130

3.4.2 Three generations of rights 132

3.4.3 Individual rights and group rights 135

3.4.4 The dual role of human rights 136

3.4.5 The hierarchy of rights 137

3.4.6 Human rights and state sovereignty 138

3.5 Human Rights Principles 139

3.5.1 Human Dignity 139

3.5.2 Inalienability, indivisibility and interdependence 141

3.5.3 Universality 142

3.5.4 Equality and non-discrimination 145

3.5.4.1 Introduction 145

3.5.4.2 The right to a fair trial 146

3.5.4.3 Equality of arms 147

3.5.4.4 Equality before the law 148

3.5.4.5 Access to justice 148

3.6 Justifications of Human Rights 151

3.6.1 The need for justifications 151

3.6.2 Pragmatic justifications 154

3.6.3 Justifications based on the human nature 155

3.7 Reflections 155

3.7.1 Victims in the history of human rights 155

3.7.2 Victims' rights and justifications of human rights 159

Chapter 4 A New Paradigm 161

4.1 The role of the non-state actor in human rights law 161

4.1.1 Introduction 161

4.1.2 The distinction between public and private 163

4.2 Women and human rights 167

4.2.1 The Women's Rights Movement 167

4.2.2 Violence against women 169

4.2.3 The normative development 170

4.2.4 Violence against women as a matter of non-discrimination 172

4.2.5 Towards a paradigm shift 173

4.3 The character of human rights 175

4.3.1 Introduction 175

4.3.2 Human rights obligations 176

4.3.3 Positive obligations 178

4.3.4 The Due Diligence Standard 181

4.3.4.1 Introduction 181

4.3.4.2 The normative basis 182

4.3.4.3 Prosecution and Punishment 185

4.4 The concept of state responsibility 186

4.4.1 Introduction 186

4.4.2 State responsibility and human rights 187

4.4.3 The Articles on the Responsibility of States for Internationally Wrongful Acts 189

4.4.4 Three elements of state responsibility 190

4.4.5 The consequences of breaching international human rights 191

4.4.6 Concluding observations 193

Chapter 5 The Common Denominators 197

5.1 Introduction - two fundamental notions 197

5.2 The right to protection 198

5.2.1 The right to protection in human rights law 198

5.2.2 Protection in victims' rights standards 199

5.3 The right to a remedy 203

5.3.1 The right to a remedy in human rights law 203

5.3.2 The normative basis 205

5.3.3 The scope of the right to remedies 206

5.3.4 Remedies at different levels 211

5.4 Crime victims and remedies 212

5.4.1 Introduction 212

5.4.2 Remedies for victims of non-state crime? 213

5.4.3 Victims' rights as a specific form of remedy 214

5.5 Introduction Case law of the European Court of Human Rights 216

5.5.1 The right to life 217

5.5.1.1 The substantive aspect of the right to life 217

5.5.1.2 The procedural aspect of the right to life 221

5.5.2 The right not to be subjected to torture and ill-treatment 222

5.5.2.1 The substantive aspect of the right not to be subjected to torture and ill treatment 222

5.5.2.2 The procedural aspect of the right not to be subjected to torture 229

5.5.3 The right to private life 230

5.5.3.1 The substantive aspect of the right to private life 232

5.5.3.2 The procedural aspect of the right to private life 234

5.5.4 The prohibition of slavery 234

5.5.4.1 The substantive aspect of the prohibition of slavery 234

5.5.4.2 The procedural aspect of the prohibition of slavery 236

5.5.5 Violation of the prohibition of discrimination 237

5.5.5.1 Discrimination based on sex 238

5.5.5.2 Ethnic discrimination 239

5.5.6 The right to a fair trial 240

5.5.6.1 The general aspect of fair trial 240

5.5.6.2 The right to have access to a court 242

5.5.6.3 The right to proceedings in reasonable time 244

5.5.6.4 The right to examine witnesses 245

5.5.6.5 Public trials 247

5.5.7 The right to remedies 249

5.5.7.1 The duty to investigate crime as a remedy 251

5.5.8 Conclusions on the case law of the European Court of Human Rights 254

5.5.8.1 Introduction 254

5.5.8.2 A focus on criminal law 256

5.5.8.3 The severity of violations 258

5.5.8.4 The victim at the heart of the golden rule 259

5.5.8.5 Individual rights or protection of public interests? 261

5.5.8.6 Vulnerability in focus 262

5.5.8.7 Protection of victims' rights under the Convention 263

5.5.8.8 In sum 264

Chapter 6 Sweden 267

6.1 The background 267

6.1.1 Introduction 267

6.1.2 A contextual backdrop to the Swedish approach 269

6.1.3 The relationship between international and national law 270

6.1.4 The Constitution 272

6.1.5 The status of the European Convention for Human Rights 274

6.1.6 Protection of human rights in Sweden 276

6.2 Policy-making on victims 280

6.2.1 Towards a victim-oriented legislation 280

6.2.2 A specific direction of victim policies; the treatment of victims 284

6.2.3 The treatment direction - some reflections 286

6.3 Victims' rights in Sweden 289

6.3.1 Introduction 289

6.3.2 Victims' rights in Swedish policy-making 290

6.3.3 The crime victim in the framework of human rights 292

6.3.4 Taking rights seriously? Victims' rights and the human rights of victims in Swedish policies - some reflections 293

6.4 The child victim in Sweden 296

6.4.1 Policies on children 296

6.4.2 Legislation specific to the child victim 297

6.4.3 The specific problem of lengthy proceedings 301

6.4.4 Protection of child victims in practice 302

6.4.5 Justice delayed is justice denied - some reflections 304

6.4.6 Human rights protection of child victims - some reflections 308

6.5 Remedies for child victims 310

6.5.1 Introduction 310

6.5.2 The rights of victims in Sweden 311

6.5.2.1 The right to respect 311

6.5.2.2 The right to information 313

6.5.2.3 The right to support and assistance 314

6.5.2.4 The right to compensation 316

6.5.3 The Convention on the Rights of the Child 319

6.5.3.1 Reflections on the Status of the Convention on the Rights of the Child 321

6.5.4 The Children's Ombudsman 324

6.5.4.1 Reflections on the Children's Ombudsman 326

6.5.5 Compensation for violations of human rights 328

6.6 Final Conclusions 334

Chapter 7 Victims and Human Rights - An Appraisal 339

7.1 Victims and human rights principles 339

7.1.1 The principle of equality 339

7.1.1.1 Introduction 339

7.1.1.2 Equality in human rights law 342

7.1.1.3 The civil and political rights approach 346

7.1.1.4 The access to justice paradigm 347

7.1.1.5 Access to justice as a basis for the discourse on victims' and human rights 351

7.1.2 The principle of human dignity 352

7.1.2.1 Dignity as a justification for new rights 352

7.1.2.2 Primary victimization as a violation of human dignity 354

7.1.2.3 Secondary victimization as a violation of human dignity 354

7.1.2.4 Dignity in case law 356

7.1.2.5 Conclusions about human dignity 357

7.1.3 The principle of indivisibility 358

7.2 Normativity - victims' rights in the brave new world of international law 362

7.2.1 The legal status of victims' rights 364

7.2.2 Human rights protection of victims 366

7.2.3 Reflections - normativity of victims' rights - in the eye of the beholder? 367

7.3 Assessing victims' rights in the human rights framework 369

7.3.1 The background 369

7.3.2 A framework for assessing victims' rights as new rights 370

7.3.2.1 Victims' rights as new rights 371

7.3.3 Victims' rights as group rights 376

7.4 The process towards recognition of new rights 381

7.5 Comparing victims of crime with other rights-claimants 384

7.5.1 Introduction 384

7.5.2 The rights of disabled persons 384

7.5.3 Rights of the disabled - old or new rights? 385

7.5.3.1 Revising Megrét - victims' rights from a different angle 386

7.5.3.2 Victims' rights - affirming the human rights? 387

7.5.3.3 Reformulating the human rights in the context of victimisation 387

7.5.3.4 Extending the human rights to match the situation of crime victims 387

7.5.3.5 The innovation of victims' rights 388

7.5.3.6 Conclusions 388

7.6 Making rights effective 389

76.1 Introduction 389

7.6.2 Justiciability of rights 395

7.6.3 Accountability for obligations set victims' rights standards 398

7.7 The rights-based approach 403

7.7.1 Introduction 403

7.7.2 A rights-based approach for victims of non-state crime 405

7.7.3 The essence; victims as rights-bearers 407

7.7.4 Back to basics? 408

7.7.5 The practical implications of the rights-based approach 413

7.8 The prospect for human rights protection of victims 420

7.8.1 Normative strengthening and supranational jurisdiction 422

7.8.2 The indivisibility of human rights 423

7.8.3 The interpretation of the European Convention of Human Rights 423

7.8.4 The evolutive interpretation 425

7.8.5 Autonomous concepts 426

7.8.6 The integrated approach 427

7.8.7 Conclusions with respect to the European Convention 428

7.8.8 An outlook from the perspective of rights-proliferation 429

Chapter 8 Summary and Conclusions 431

8.1 Introduction 431

8.2 The justifications revisited 432

8.3 The course towards inclusion 435

8.4 Victims' rights and the human rights of victims - towards convergence 437

8.5 What is the legal significance of human rights to victims? 439

8.5.1 Accountability 439

8.5.2 An holistic view of victim protection 439

8.5.3 The remedial perspective 440

8.5.4 Victims of crime in international human rights case law 441

8.5.5 The discrimination dilemma and access to justice 442

8.5.6 The rights-based approach 443

8.5.7 The potential of human rights to victims 444

8.6 Can the rights of crime victims be considered as human rights? 444

8.6.1 Victims' rights as implied rights 447

8.6.2 Reflections 448

8.7 Final observations 449

References 451

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