Soldier-robot teams will be an important component of future battle spaces, creating a complex but potentially more survivable and effective combat force. The complexity of the battlefield of the future presents its own problems. The variety of robotic systems and the almost infinite number of possible military missions create a dilemma for researchers who wish to predict human-robot interactions (HRI) performance in future environments.
Human-Robot Interactions in Future Military Operations provides an opportunity for scientists investigating military issues related to HRI to present their results cohesively within a single volume. The issues range from operators interacting with small ground robots and aerial vehicles to supervising large, near-autonomous vehicles capable of intelligent battlefield behaviors. The ability of the human to 'team' with intelligent unmanned systems in such environments is the focus of the volume. As such, chapters are written by recognized leaders within their disciplines and they discuss their research in the context of a broad-based approach. Therefore the book allows researchers from differing disciplines to be brought up to date on both theoretical and methodological issues surrounding human-robot interaction in military environments.
The overall objective of this volume is to illuminate the challenges and potential solutions for military HRI through discussion of the many approaches that have been utilized in order to converge on a better understanding of this relatively complex concept. It should be noted that many of these issues will generalize to civilian applications as robotic technology matures. An important outcome is the focus on developing general human-robot teaming principles and guidelines to help both the human factors design and training community develop a better understanding of this nascent but revolutionary technology.
Much of the research within the book is based on the Human Research and Engineering Directorate (HRED), U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL) 5-year Army Technology Objective (ATO) research program. The program addressed HRI and teaming for both aerial and ground robotic assets in conjunction with the U.S. Army Tank and Automotive Research and Development Center (TARDEC) and the Aviation and Missile Development Center (AMRDEC) The purpose of the program was to understand HRI issues in order to develop and evaluate technologies to improve HRI battlefield performance for Future Combat Systems (FCS). The work within this volume goes beyond the research results to encapsulate the ATO's findings and discuss them in a broader context in order to understand both their military and civilian implications. For this reason, scientists conducting related research have contributed additional chapters to widen the scope of the original research boundaries.
About the Author
Michael Barnes is a Research Psychologist with the US Army Research Laboratory (ARL). For the past five years, he was the lead for the human robotic interaction (HRI) program that included both military and university research as part of an Army Technology Objective: Robotic Collaboration. His past experience includes tenure with the US Navy and as a human factors manager with General Electric. Also, he has served on a number of international committees related to HRI. He has authored or co-authored over 60 articles on the human element of military systems. Located at Ft. Huachuca, AZ, his research interests include investigations of risk visualization, intelligence processes and unmanned aerial vehicles crew systems.
Florian Jentsch, Ph.D., is an Associate Professor at the University of Central Florida, Orlando, with joint appointments in the Department of Psychology and the Institute for Simulation & Training. He is also the Director of the Team Performance Laboratory. He received his Ph.D. in Human Factors Psychology in 1997, and he holds master’s degrees in aeronautical science and aeronautical engineering. Dr. Jentsch is associate editor for Human Factors and for Cognitive Technology, and consulting editor for the International Journal of Applied Aviation Studies. His research interests are in team performance and training, pilot training and performance, human-robot interaction, and simulation methodology. Dr. Jentsch has co-authored over 200 publications and presentations; this is his second edited book.
A. William Evans III, Michael J. Barnes, Robin R. Murphy, Jennifer L. Burke, Douglas J. Gillan, Jennifer Riley, Patricia McDermott, Lori Foster Thompson, Skye L. Pazuchanics, Roger A. Chadwick, Merrill V. Sapp, Keryl Cosenzo, Raja Parasuraman, Ewart de Visser, Diane Kuhl Mitchell, Charneta Samms, Axel Schulte, Claudia Meitinger, Laura D. Strater, Sheryl L. Chappell, Erik S. Connors, Mica R. Endsley, Christopher D. Wickens, Brian Levinthal, Stephen Rice, Tal Oron-Gilad, Yaniv Minkov, Gloria Calhoun, Mark Draper, Chris Jansen, Jan B.F. van Erp, Ellen C. Haas, Jessie Y.C. Chen, Laurel Allender, Elizabeth S. Redden, Linda R. Elliott, Nancy J. Cooke, Roger A. Chadwick, Michael A. Goodrich, Michael Lewis, Jijun Wang, Florian Jenstch, Scott Ososky.
Table of Contents
Contents: Part I Introduction to HRI: An introduction to human-robot interaction in military applications, A. William Evans III; Soldier-robot teams in future battlefields: an overview, Michael J. Barnes and A. William Evans III; The safe human-robot ratio, Robin R. Murphy and Jennifer L. Burke. Part II Foundations of HRI: The cognitive psychology of human-robot interaction, Douglas J. Gillan, Jennifer Riley and Patricia McDermott; Social factors in human-robot interactions, Lori Foster Thompson and Douglas J. Gillan; Robots in space and time: the role of object, motion and spatial perception in the control and monitoring of uninhabited ground vehicles, Skye L. Pazuchanics, Roger A. Chadwick, Merrill V. Sapp and Douglas J. Gillan; Automation strategies for facilitating human interaction with military unmanned vehicles, Keryl Cosenzo, Raja Parasuraman and Ewart de Visser; An analytical approach for predicting soldier workload and performance using human performance modeling, Diane Kuhl Mitchell and Charneta Samms. Part III UAV Research: Introducing cognitive and co-operative automation into uninhabited aerial vehicle guidance work systems, Axel Schulte and Claudia Meitinger; Situation awareness in human-robot interaction: challenges and user interface requirements, Jennifer M. Riley, Laura D. Strater, Sheryl L. Chappell, Erik S. Connors and Mica R. Endsley; Imperfect reliability in unmanned air vehicle supervision and control, Christopher D. Wickens, Brian Levinthal and Stephen Rice; Remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) from the bottom-up operational perspective, Tal Oron-Gilad and Yaniv Minkov; Unmanned aerial vehicles: enhancing video display utility with synthetic vision technology, Gloria Calhoun and Mark Draper. Part IV UGV Research: Telepresence control of unmanned systems, Chris Jansen and Jan B.F. van Erp; Multimodal research for human robot interactions, Ellen C. Haas and Jan B.F. van Erp; Robotics operator performance in a multi-tasking environment, Jessie Y.C. Chen; A cognitive systems engineering approach for human-robot interaction: lessons from an examination of temporal latency, Laurel Allender; Robotic control systems for dismounted soldiers, Elizabeth S. Redden and Linda R. Elliott; Part V Cross-Platform Research: Lessons learned from human-robotic interactions on the ground and in the air, Nancy J. Cooke and Roger A. Chadwick; On maximizing fan-out: towards controlling multiple unmanned vehicles, Michael A. Goodrich; Coordination and automation for controlling robot teams, Michael Lewis and Jijun Wang; Model world: military HRI research conducted using a scale MOUT facility, Florian Jenstch, A. William Evans III and Scott Ososky. Part VI Future Directions: The future of HRI: alternate research trajectories and their influence on the future of unmanned systems, A. William Evans, III and Florian G. Jentsch; Index.