This reader provides a balanced approach to the Humanities course by focusing on intellectual history. Highlighting the human aspect of great artists and thinkers, this text's coverage spans from the Greco-Roman and Judeo-Christian heritage to Modernism and beyond. This book follows the organization of The Humanities in the Western Tradition text, yet may be used to supplement other humanities texts.
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Table of Contents
VOLUME I I. The Birth of the West: The Greco-Roman and Judeo-Christian Heritage 1. The Ancient Near East 1. Mesopotamian Protest Against Death and the Flood The Epic of Gilgamesh 2. A Pessimistic View of Life Mesopotamian Wisdom Literature 3. Mesopotamian Concepts of Justice Code of Hammurabi 4. Religious Inspiration of Akhenaten Hymn to Aton 5. Love, Passion, and Misogyny in Ancient Egypt Love Poetry The Instruction of Ankhsheshonq 2. The Hebrews 1. Hebrew Cosmogony and Anthropology Genesis 2. The Covenant and the Ten Commandments Exodus, The Covenant Exodus, The Ten Commandments 3. Humaneness of Hebrew Law Leviticus, Neighbor and Community Deuteronomy, Judges, Witnesses, and Justice 4. Human Sinfulness Genesis, The Origins of Sin Job, The Problem of Undeserved Suffering 5. The Age of Classical Prophecy Amos and Isaiah, Social Justice Isaiah, Peace and Humanity 3. Hellenic Civilization 1. Homer: The Educator of Greece Homer, Iliad 2. Hesiod: An Plea for Justice Hesiod, Works and Days 3. Humanism Pindar, The Pursuit of Excellence Sophocles, Lauding Human Talents Thucydides, The Funeral Oration of Pericles 4. The Climax of Lyric Poetry in Greece Sappho, Love, Passion, and Friendship 5. Classical Greek Tragedy Sophocles, Oedipus the King 6. Timeless Themes in Greek Drama Sophocles, Antigone: Conflict Between Individual Conscience and the State's Laws Aeschylus, The Persian: Hybris Euripides, Medea: The Ordeal of Women Aristophanes, Lysistrata: Political Satire 7. Socrates: The Rational Individual Plato, The Apology 8. Plato: The Philosopher-King Plato, The Republic 9. The Mystical Side of Plato's Thought Plato, Phaedo 10. Aristotle: Political and Ethical Thought Aristotle, Politics and Nicomachean Ethics 4. Hellenistic Civilization 1. Hellenistic Culture: Universalism and Cosmopolitanism Plutarch, Cultural Fusion 2. Greek Culture and the Jews in the Hellenistic Age First Book of Maccabees, Jewish Resistance to Forced Hellenization Philo of Alexandria, Appreciation of Greek Culture and Synthesis of Reason and Revelation 3. Hellenistic Philosophy: Epicureanism Epicurus, Self-Sufficiency 4. Hellenistic Literature: Romance and Epic Longus, Daphnis and Chloe: A Hellenistic Romance Apollonius of Rhodes, Argonautica: A Homeric-style Epic 5. Roman Civilization 1. The Spread of Greek Philosophy to Rome Lucretius, Denunciation of Religion 2. Roman Stoicism Cicero, Advocate of Stoicism Seneca, The Moral Epistles Marcus Aurelius, Meditations 3. Catullus: Republican Rome's Greatest Poet Catullus, Lyric Poems 4. The Golden Age of Latin Poetry Virgil, The Aeneid Horace, Epodes Ovid, The Art of Love 5. A Satirical Attack on Roman Vices Juvenal, The Satires 6. Early Christianity 1. The Teachings of Jesus Gospel According to Matthew, Signs of the End of the World 2. Jesus the Logos The Gospel According to John, Creation from "The Word" 3. The Apostle Paul Paul's First Letter to the Corinthians, The Resurrection of Jesus Paul's Letter to the Romans, Obedience to Government 4. Christianity and Greco-Roman Learning Tertullian, What Has Jerusalem to Do with Athens? Clement of Alexandria, In Defense of Greek Learning 5. Christianity and Society Clement of Alexandria, Christ the Educator Saint Benedict of Nursia, The Christian Way of Life: What Are the Instruments of Good Works? The Apostle Paul, The Submissive Role of Women Augustine of Hippo, Women, Sex, and Marriage 6. The Christian World-View Augustine of Hippo, The City of God II. The Middle Ages: The Christian Centuries 7. The Early Middle Ages 1. The Byzantine Cultural Achievement Theophylact Simocattes, The Value of Reason and History Procopius: The Building of Saint Sophia 2. Islam Muhammad, The Koran 3. Islam and Greek Learning Avicenna, Love of Learning 4. Islamic Literature Thousand and One Arabian Nights 5. The Transmission of Learning Cassiodorus, The Monk as Scribe Boethius, The Consolation of Philosophy 6. The Carolingian Renaissance Einhard, Charlemagne's Appreciation of Learning Charlemagne, An Injunction to Monasteries to Cultivate Letters 7. Anglo-Saxon Mythology Beowulf 8. An Early Medieval Drama Hroswitha, Abraham 8. The High Middle Ages: The Flowering of Medieval Civilization 1. The Medieval Church Pope Gregory VII, Rules of the Pope Emperor Frederick II, Heretics: Enemies of God and Humanity 2. Medieval Contributions to the Tradition of Liberty John of Salisbury, Policraticus: A Defense of Tyrannicide 3. Synthesis of Reason and Christian Faith: Proofs of God's Existence Anselm of Canterbury, Proslogion Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologica 4. A Visionary Author and Composer Hildegard of Bingen, Symphony of the Harmony of Celestial Revelations: Mary, the Antithesis of Eve 5. A Forbidden Love Abelard and Heloise, Letters 6. Medieval Universities John of Salisbury, On the Liberal Arts Student Letters A Wandering Scholar, "In the Tavern Let Me Die" 7. Jewish Learning Maimonides, On Education and Charity 8. Troubadour Love Songs Love as Joyous, Painful, and Humorous 9. Marie de France, a Female Troubadour Poet Marie de France, Yonec: A Poem of Love, Treachery, and Vengeance 10. The French chansons de geste The Song of Roland: Conflict between Christianity and Islam 11. The Iliad of the German People The Nibelungenlied 9. The Late Middle Ages 1. A Medieval Morality Play Everyman 2. Italian Vernacular Literature Giovanni Boccaccio, The Decameron 3. An Early Masterpiece of Vernacular Literature Geoffrey Chaucer, The Canterbury Tales: The Prologue Geoffrey Chaucer, The Canterbury Tales: The Nun's Priest's Tale 4. The Petrarchan Sonnet Francesco Petrarch, Sonnets to Laura 5. The Status of Women in Medieval Society Jacopone da Todi, Praise of the Virgin Mary "O Thou Mother, Fount of Love" Christine de Pizan, The Book of the City of Ladies and Joan of Arc 6. The Medieval World-View Lothario dei Segni (Pope Innocent III), On the Misery of the Human Condition The Vanity of This World Dante Alighieri, The Divine Comedy VOLUME II III. The Early Modern West: From the Renaissance to the Enlightenment 10. The Renaissance 1. The Humanists' Fascination with Antiquity Petrarch, The Father of Humanism Leonardo Bruni, Study of Greek Literature and a Humanist Educational Program Petrus Paulus Vergerius, The Importance of Liberal Studies 2. Human Dignity Pico della Mirandola, Oration on the Dignity of Man 3. Break with Medieval Political Theory Niccolò Machiavelli, The Prince 4. The Ideal Gentleman Baldassare Castiglione, The Book of the Courtier 5. The Spread of the Renaissance François Rabelais, Celebration of the Worldly Life 6. Thomas More: Prince of English Humanists Thomas More, Utopia 7. Skepticism and Fideism Michel de Montaigne, An Apology for Raymond Sebond 8. Human Nature and the Human Condition William Shakespeare, The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark 9. The Golden Age of Spanish Literature Miguel de Cervantes, Don Quixote of La Mancha 11. The Reformation 1. Erasmus: A Catholic Critic of the Church Erasmus, In Praise of Folly Erasmus, "Paraclesis" 2. The Lutheran Reformation Martin Luther, Address to the Christian Nobility, The Babylonian Captivity of the Church, and The Freedom of the Christian: Challenging the Church 3. The Origins of Refomed Protestantism John Calvin, The Institutes of the Christian Religion: Predestination John Calvin, Ecclesiastical Ordinances: Regulatory Behavior John Calvin, Commentary on the Book of the Prophet Daniel: Resistance to Tyranny 4. The Catholic Response to Protestantism Saint Ignatius Loyola, The Spiritual Exercises 12. Age of the Baroque 1. Justification of Absolute Monarchy by Divine Right Bishop Jacques-Benigne Bossuet, Politics Drawn from the Very Words of Holy Scripture James I, True Law of Free Monarchies and a Speech to Parliament 2. A Secular Defense of Absolutism Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan 3. Seventeenth-Century English Literature John Milton, Paradise Lost John Bunyan, The Pilgrim's Progress 4. French Theater Pierre Corneille, Le Cid Molière, Tartuffe 13. Intellectual Transformations: The Scientific Revolution and the Age of Enlightenment 1. Critique of Authority Galileo Galilei, Letter to the Grand Duchess Christina and Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems--Ptolemaic and Copernican 2. The Autonomy of the Mind Rene Descartes, Discourse on Method 3. The Outlook of the Philosophes Voltaire, A Plea for Tolerance and Reason Denis Diderot, Encyclopedia: Compendium of Knowledge 4. Protection of Natural Rights John Locke, Second Treatise on Government Thomas Jefferson, Declaration of Independence 5. Literature as Satire: Critiques of European Society Voltaire, Candide Denis Diderot, Supplement to the Voyage of Bouganville Montesquieu, The Persian Letters Jonathan Swift, Gulliver's Travels 6. The French Revolution and Human Rights Declaration of the Rights of Man and of Citizens Mary Wollstonecraft, Vindication of the Rights of Woman Society of the Friends of Blacks, Address to the National Assembly in Favor of the Abolition of the Slave Trade Petition of the Jews of Paris, Alsace, and Lorraine to the National Assembly, January 28, 1790 IV. The Modern West: From Classicism to Modernism 14. Age of Romanticism 1. Conservatism Edmund Burke, Reflections on the Revolution in France Klemens von Metternich, The Odious Ideas of the Philosophes 2. Liberalism John Stuart Mill, On Liberty 3. English Romantic Poetry William Wordsworth, "The Tables Turned" William Wordsworth, Ode: Intimations of Immortality from Recollections of Early Childhood William Blake, "Milton" John Keats, "La Belle Dame Sans Merci" John Keats, "Ode on a Grecian Urn" Percy Bysshe Shelley, "Sonnet" Percy Bysshe Shelley, "Ode to the West Wind" George Gordon-Lord Byron, Childe Harold's Pilgrimage 4. German Romanticism Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Faust: A Tragedy 5. French Romanticism Victor Hugo, Les Miserables 6. The English Gothic Novel Emily Brontë, Wuthering Heights 7. American Romanticism Nathaniel Hawthorne, The Scarlet Letter Herman Melville, Moby Dick 15. Realism and Reform 1. The Socialist Revolution Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, Communist Manifesto 2. The Realist Novel Honore Balzac, Le Père Goriot Gustave Flaubert, Madame Bovary Charles Dickens, Hard Times Charles Dickens, Nicholas Nickleby 3. The Realist Drama Henrik Ibsen, A Doll's House 4. The Golden Age of Russian Literature Leo Tolstoy, Anna Karenina Fyodor Dostoyevsky, Crime and Punishment Fyodor Dostoyevsky, Notes from Underground 5. American Realism Mark Twain, The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn Walt Whitman, Leaves of Grass Emily Dickinson, Selected Poems 16. Modern Consciousness 1. The Overman and the Will to Power Friedrich Nietzsche, The Will to Power, The Antichrist, and The Gay Science 2. The Unconscious Mind Sigmund Freud, The Unconscious, Psychoanalysis, and Civilization and Its Discontents 3. Human Irrationality in the Modernist Novel Joseph Conrad, Heart of Darkness Franz Kafka, The Trial 4. The Stream of Consciousness Novel Virginia Woolf, Mrs. Dalloway William Faulkner, The Sound and the Fury 5. Sex Outside the Victorian Closet Kate Chopin, The Awakening D. H. Lawrence, Lady Chatterley's Lover 6. The Problem Play George Bernard Shaw, Mrs. Warren's Profession 7. Modern Art and the Questioning of Western Values Filippo Tommaso Marinetti, Manifesto of Futurism Tristan Tzara, Dada Andre Breton, Manifestoes of Surrealism V. Modernism and Beyond 17. World War I and Its Aftermath 1. Trench Warfare Siegfried Sassoon, "Base Details" and "Aftermath" Wilfred Owen, "Disabled" Erich Maria Remarque, All Quiet on the Western Front 2. American Expatriates: Stein and Hemingway Gertrude Stein, The Autobiography of Alice B. Toklas Ernest Hemingway, The Sun Also Rises 3. Modernist Poetry T.S. Eliot, "The Hollow Men" William Butler Yeats, "The Second Coming" and "Sailing to Byzantium" 4. Modernist Drama Eugene O'Neill, The Hairy Ape 5. The Harlem Renaissance Langston Hughes, "The Negro Speaks of Rivers" and "The Weary Blues" 18. The Era of Totalitarianism 1. The Rise of Nazism Adolf Hitler, Mein Kampf 2. Totalitarianism and the Corruption of the Arts and Sciences Yevgeny Yevtushenko, Literature as Propaganda Vladimir Polyakov, The Story of Fireman Prokhorchuk: An Attack on Censorship Johannes Stark, "Jewish Science" Versus "German Science" Jakob Graf, Heredity and Racial Biology for Students 3. Intellectuals Confront Totalitarianism Ignazio Silone, Bread and Wine Arthur Koestler, Darkness at Noon George Orwell, 1984 Nicolas Berdyaev, Modern Ideologies at Variance with Christianity 4. The Great Depression: Literature as Social Protest John Steinbeck, The Grapes of Wrath 5. American Novelists and World War II Joseph Heller, Catch-22 6. The Holocaust Elie Wiesel, Night Andre Schwartz-Bart, Last of the Just 19. The Contemporary Age 1. Existentialism: Life with Meaning or Without Jean-Paul Sartre, "Existence Precedes Essence" 2. Anti-Utopianism: The Perilous Future Ray Bradbury, Fahrenheit 451 3. The Dark Side of Human Nature William Golding, Lord of the Flies 4. Feminism Simone de Beauvoir, The Second Sex 5. American Drama as Social Commentary Arthur Miller, Death of a Salesman Tennessee Williams, A Streetcar Named Desire 6. Jewish-American Writers: The Centricity of Moral Values Bernard Malamud, The Fixer Saul Bellow, Mr. Sammler's Planet 7. Black American Writers: Critiques of Racism Ralph Ellison, Invisible Man Toni Morrison, Song of Solomon 8. A "Novel" Approach to the History of Philosophy Jostein Gaarder, Sophie's World 9. The Controversy over the Canon James Atlas, "On Campus: The Battle of the Books"