For undergraduate and graduate courses in Hydrology.
This text offers a clear and up-to-date presentation of fundamental concepts and design methods required to understand hydrology and floodplain analysis. It addresses the computational emphasis of modern hydrology and provides a balanced approach to important applications in watershed analysis, floodplain computation, flood control, urban hydrology, stormwater design, and computer modeling. This text is perfect for engineers and hydrologists.
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About the Author
Philip B. Bedient is the Herman Brown Professor of Engineering, with the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Rice University, Houston, TX. He received the Ph.D. degree in environmental engineering sciences from the University of Florida. He is a registered professional engineer and teaches and performs research in surface hydrology, modeling, and flood prediction systems, and ground water hydrology. He has directed over 50 research projects over the past 31 years, and has written over 180 journal articles and conference proceedings over that time. He has also written four textbooks in the area of surface and groundwater hydrology. He received the Shell Distinguished Chair in environmental science (1988–92), the C.V. Theis award in 2007, and he was elected Fellow of ASCE in 2006. Dr. Bedient has worked on a variety of hydrologic problems, including river basin analyses, major floodplain studies, groundwater contamination models, and hydrologic/GIS models in water resources. He has been actively involved in developing computer systems for flood prediction and warning, and recently directed the development of a real-time flood alert system (FAS2) for the Texas Medical Center (TMC) in Houston. The FAS2 is based on converting NEXRAD radar data directly to rainfall in a GIS framework, which is then used to predict peak channel flows. Dr. Bedient is organizing the Houston test bed for the Center for Collaborative Adaptive Sensing of the Atmosphere (CASA), an NSF Engineering Research Center led by University of Massachusetts-Amherst, and Rice University is a strategic outreach partners. CASA’s revolutionary sensing technology is expected to increase the warning time for flash floods and other severe weather events with greater accuracy than existing systems. The first high technology radar was deployed in 2007 in the TMC in Houston as part of the on-going flood warning system developed for the Texas Medical Center. Dr. Bedient has overseen the monitoring, modeling, and remediation at numerous hazardous waste sites, including six Superfund sites, and U.S. Air Force bases in five states. He has extensive experience in contaminant transport at sites impacted with chlorinated solvents and fuels. He has served on two National Academy of Science committees relating to environmental remediation and technology, and has received research funding from NSF, the U.S. EPA, the U.S. Department of Defense, the State of Texas, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and the City of Houston.
Wayne C. Huber is Professor of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering at Oregon State University, Corvallis. His doctoral work at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology dealt with thermal stratification in reservoirs, for which he received the Lorenz G. Straub Award from the University of Minnesota and the Hilgard Hydraulic Prize from the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE). He is a member of several technical societies and has served several administrative functions within the ASCE. He is the author of over 120 reports and technical papers, is a registered professional engineer, and has served as a consultant on numerous studies done by public agencies and private engineering firms. Beginning at the University of Florida and continuing at Oregon State University, Dr. Huber’s research has included studies of urban hydrology, Storm water management, nonpoint source runoff, river basin hydrology, lake eutrophication, rainfall statistics, and hydrologic and water quality modeling. He is one of the original authors of the EPA Storm Water Management Model and has helped to maintain and improve the model continuously since 1971. Dr. Huber is an internationally recognized authority on runoff quantity and quality processes in urban areas.
Baxter E. Vieux is Director of the Natural Hazards and Disaster Research Center and Professor in the School of Civil Engineering and Environmental Science, University of Oklahoma, Norman where he teaches courses in hydrology, GIS, surveying, measurements, water quality management, and engineering graphics and design. Before joining OU in 1990, he held a professorship at Michigan State University teaching watershed management after earning his PhD there. Dr. Vieux was recently appointed as Adjunct Professor with the Department of Environmental Engineering and Science, Rice University, Houston, Prior to his academic career, he spent ten years with the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service serving as Acting State Engineer, and being responsible for statewide engineering design and construction programs in Michigan. He is a registered professional engineer in three states and is co-principal and founder of Vieux & Associates, Inc., an engineering technology company with clients in the US and internationally in radar rainfall, GIS, and hydrology. Dr. Vieux is the innovator and architect of the first commercially available physics-based distributed hydrologic model, Vflo™, which uses real-time radar inputs for hydrologic analysis and prediction. Span urban and rural hydrology, the model has worldwide applicability. A patent is held for a method of realtime distributed model calibration. Consultative services include major corporations and engineering companies, and domestic and international water agencies. Externally sponsored academic research has been funded by NASA, EPA, NWS, NOAA, Army Corps of Engineers, NSF, and state/local agencies. Internationally, he has conducted research and worked on projects in France, Japan, Poland, Niger, Nicaragua, Taiwan, Paraguay, Korea and Romania. He has authored over 110 publications in hydrology including a recent book in its second edition, Distributed Hydrologic Modeling Using GIS, Kluwer Academic Press,Vol. 48.
Table of Contents
1 Hydrologic Principles 1.1 Introduction to Hydrology 1.2 Weather Systems 1.3 Precipitation 1.4 The Hydrologic Cycle 1.5 Simple Rainfall-Runoff 1.6 Streamflow and the Hydrograph 1.7 Hydrograph Analysis 1.8 Hydrologic Measurement Summary Problems References
2 Hydrologic Analysis 2.1 Watershed Concepts 2.2 Unit Hydrograph Theory 2.3 Synthetic Unit Hydrograph Development 2.4 Applications of Unit Hydrographs 2.5 Linear and Kinematic Wave Models 2.6 Hydrologic Loss —Evaporation and ET 2.7 Hydrologic Loss —Infiltration 2.8 Green and Ampt Infiltration Method 2.9 Snowfall and Snowmelt Summary Problems References
3 Frequency Analysis 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Probability Concepts 3.3 Random Variables and Probability Distributions 3.4 Return Period or Recurrence Interval 3.5 Common Probabilistic Models 3.6 Graphical Presentation of Data 3.7 Regional Analysis 3.8 Related Topics Summary Problems References
4 Flood Routing 4.1 Hydrologic and Hydraulic Routing 4.2 Hydrologic River Routing 4.3 Hydrologic Reservoir Routing 4.4 Governing Equations for Hydraulic River Routing 4.5 Movement of a Flood Wave 4.6 Kinematic Wave Routing 4.7 Hydraulic River Routing Summary Problems References
5 Hydrologic Simulation Models 5.1 Introduction to Hydrologic Models 5.2 Steps in Watershed Modeling 5.3 Description of Major Hydrologic Models 5.4 HEC-HMS Flood Hydrograph Models 5.5 Application of HEC-HMS to Watersheds 5.6 HEC-HMS Watershed Analysis: Case Study Summary Problems References
6 Urban Hydrology 6.1 Characteristics of Urban Hydrology 6.2 Review of Physical Processes 6.3 Rainfall Analysis in Urban Basins 6.4 Methods for Quantity Analysis 6.5 Sewer System Hydraulics 6.6 Control Options 6.7 Operational Computer Models 6.8 Case Study Summary Problems References
7 Floodplain Hydraulics 7.1 Uniform Flow 7.2 Uniform Flow Computations 7.3 Specific Energy and Critical Flow 7.4 Occurrence of Critical Depth 7.5 Nonuniform Flow or Gradually Varied Flow 7.6 Gradually Varied Flow Equations 7.7 Classification of Water Surface Profiles 7.8 Hydraulic Jump 7.9 Introduction to the HEC-RAS Model 7.10 Theoretical Basis for HEC-RAS 7.11 Basic Data Requirements (Steady State) 7.12 Optional HEC-RAS Capabilities 7.13 Bridge Modeling in HEC-RAS 7.14 HEC-RAS Features Summary Problems References
8 Ground Water Hydrology 8.1 Introduction 8.2 Properties of Ground Water 8.3 Ground Water Movement 8.4 Flow Nets 8.5 General Flow Equations 8.6 Dupuit Equation 8.7 Streamlines and Equipotential Lines 8.8 Unsaturated Flow 8.9 Steady-State Well Hydraulics 8.10 Unsteady Well Hydraulics 8.11 Water Wells 8.12 Ground Water Modeling Techniques Summary Problems References
9 Design Applications in Hydrology 9.1 Introduction 9.2 Drainage Collection Systems 9.3 Design of Culverts 9.4 Detention Basins Used to Mitigate Project Impacts 9.5 Floodplain Management Design Issues Summary Problems References
10 GIS Applications in Hydrology 10.1 Introduction to GIS 10.2 General GIS Concepts 10.3 Digital Representation Hydrologic Parameters 10.4 Digital Representation of Topography 10.5 GIS-Based Hydrology and Hydraulics 10.6 Common GIS Software Programs Summary Online Resources References
11 Radar Rainfall Applications in Hydrology 11.1 Introduction 11.2 Radar Estimation of Rainfall 11.3 Nexrad (WSR-88D) Radar System 11.4 Gage Adjustment of Radar 11.5 Hydrologic Applications Summary References
12 Severe Storm Impacts and Flood Management 12.1 Introduction 12.2 Flood Management Issues and Basic Terminology 12.3 Structural and Nonstructural Methods of Flood Control 12.4 The Flood Control Paradox 12.5 Major Gulf Hurricanes: Katrina and Ike 12.6 Improved Strategies Toward Flood Management Summary References
13 Case Studies in Hydrologic Engineering: Water Resource Projects 13.1 Introduction 13.2 The City of San Antonio Deep in the Heart of Texas 13.3 The Colorado River Taming the Wild West 13.4 Across the Pond The River Thames 13.5 Global Climate Change and Water Resources References
Appendix A Symbols and Notation Appendix B Conversion Factors Appendix C Properties of Water Appendix D Normal Distribution Tables Appendix E Useful Hydrology-Related Internet Links