A content-based approach with integrated grammar, culture, and strategy-oriented reading and writing instruction, Identidades leads intermediate students in an exploration of the multi-faceted nature of the Hispanic world and its people. The second edition of Identidades builds on the strengths of the first, retaining and enhancing the core features within a flexible new organization and more manageable length to enhance the learning experience. Exciting new content includes new chapter themes, new readings, and a new culture-based video with in-text activities.
- Ten chapters organized into five thematic areas
- Two new chapters and ten new readings
- New video program with activities integrated into each chapter
- Interactive, student-centered approach
- Superior reading strategies and instructor annotations
- Emphasis on process-oriented writing
- Straightforward, level-appropriate grammar
- Systematic integration of the 5 Cs of the National Standards for Foreign Language Learning
About the Author
JUDITH LISKIN-GASPARRO earned her Ph.D. in Foreign Language Education and Second Language Acquisition from the University of Texas at Austin. She is currently Associate Professor and Director of the General Education Program in the Department of Spanish and Portuguese at the University of Iowa. She is also Co-Director of FLARE (Foreign Language Acquisition Research and Education), which operates an interdisciplinary doctoral program in Second Language Acquisition. Her research interests include discourse strategies of second language learners, language acquisition during study abroad, and the acquisition of narrative skill in a second language. She has published extensively on oral proficiency testing, language curriculum and program development, and second language acquisition. Since 1999 she has served as the Associate Editor for Reviews of the Modern Language Journal. In 1994, she was honored by the American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages and the Modern Language Journal with the Emma Marie Birkmaier Award for Doctoral Dissertation Research in Foreign Language Education. In 1999 she received ACTFL’s Florence Steiner Award for Leadership in Foreign Language Education. Dr. Liskin-Gasparro is co-author of the first level Spanish textbook Entradas, published by Heinle & Heinle.
PALOMA LAPUERTA graduated from the University of Salamanca, Spain and holds a Ph.D. from the University of Geneva, Switzerland. Currently, she is an Associate Professor at Central Connecticut State University and a faculty member of the Summer Institute for Teachers of Spanish at CCSU. She has 20 years of teaching experience at higher education institutions around the world, including Spain, Switzerland, South Africa, and the United States. She has taught Spanish language, culture, and literature at the University of Geneva, University of Salamanca, University of Natal, University of Michigan, Dartmouth College, and Middlebury College Spanish School in both Spain and the United States. She has been awarded several Connecticut Quality Partnerships to organize seminars for Connecticut Teachers of Spanish on the integration of culture in the language classroom. Dr. Lapuerta is co-author of the first level Spanish textbook Mosaicos, and the Spanish composition text La escritura paso a paso, both published by Pearson.
ELIZABETH GUZMÁN holds a BA in English from the University of Santiago, a Master’s degree in English as Second Language from West Virginia University, and she is close to completing her Ph.D. from the University of Pittsburgh. Currently she is an Assistant Professor at St. John’s University/College of St. Benedict in St. Joseph, MN, where she has been responsible for redesigning the core curriculum and coordinating the language program. She has extensive experience teaching Spanish and English (to foreigners), Spanish Linguistics, and Foreign Language Education at the university level both in Chile and the United States. She co-directed the Spanish language program at The University of Michigan (3 years) and directed the Spanish program at Yale University (5 years). For approximately 10 years, she taught and coordinated the elementary summer language program at Middlebury College, one of the most successful and renowned language immersion programs in the world. Professor Guzmán is co-author of the first level Spanish textbook Mosaicos, published by Pearson.
MATILDE OLIVELLA DE CASTELLS (deceased) received her Ph.D. from the University of Havana. She had over 25 years of teaching experience at Rutgers University and California State University, Los Angeles where she received the University’s Outstanding Professor Award and Merit Award. She was also the coordinator of second level Spanish at the Middlebury Spanish Summer Language School, a member of the Spanish Development Committee of the College Entrance Examination Board, and Chairperson of the Advanced Placement Committee. She had given presentations at the AATSP and ACTFL conventions and conducted numerous workshops at universities around the country. Professor Castells had authored and co-authored several Spanish texts, including La lengua española and the first level Spanish textbook Mosaicos, both from Pearson.
Table of Contents
1 ¿Quiénes somos y de dónde venimos?
2 Nuestra lengua
3 Las leyendas y las tradiciones
4 La cultura y el arte
5 Los deportes y las actividades de ocio
6 La comida
7 Las relaciones humanas
8 Cambios sociales y políticos
9 Nuestro entorno físico
10 Nuestro futuro
Peer-editing or self-assessment editorial checklist
Welcome to Identidades!
Identidades is a two-semester intermediate Spanish program that puts the Cultures, Connections, and Comparisons goals of the National Standards on virtually every page of the text and its ancillary components. Identidades provides a much-needed balance in intermediate Spanish programs by presenting and treating the cultures of the Hispanic world in ways that are both appealing and appropriate for the intellectual level of college students and by simultaneously maintaining reasonable expectations for the understanding and productive use of grammatical concepts and structures. Communicative and rich in cultural content, Identidades engages the whole student, supports the language-learning process, and prepares students for the more challenging courses beyond the second year.
Key features of the Identidades Program
- A culture-centered approach to language learning that engages students in analysis and research on historical, cultural, and artistic expressions of the Spanish-speaking world.
- Engaging and varied readings that draw on expository and literary texts from a variety of sources.
- An interactive, student-centered approach that provides many opportunities for students to collaborate in pair and group activities and thus improve their interpersonal skills in Spanish.
- A strategy- and process-oriented approach to reading and writing, whereby students learn to apply their well-developed cognitive skills to communication in a second language.
- A straightforward approach to grammar explanations, combined with carefully sequenced activities.
- Superiorintegration of the SCs of the National Standards for Foreign Language Learning.
- A comprehensive introduction to literary themes, genres, and authors that will prepare students for their first upper-division course in literature.
- Listening activities that expose students to a range of text types, voices, and regional varieties of Spanish as they develop insights that come from hearing individuals talk about their lives and work in a specific cultural and geographical context.
- Research-oriented writing activities that prepare students for courses beyond the second year.
Philosophy of Identidades
The title Identidades reflects the multi-faceted nature of the Hispanic world and its people and the central goal of this program: to bring students to a level of language acquisition in which they are able to explore and experience many of the historical, cultural, and artistic manifestations of the Spanish-speaking world. The program also aims to develop students' knowledge of the Spanish-speaking world. Students may begin the program with a narrow idea of what it means to be "Hispanic," but by the end of the program, they will understand that the Spanish-speaking world is made up of many races, ethnic groups, and cultures.
1. Expansion of cultural knowledge
Although still in need of systematic attention to language skill development, students in the second year also profit by using their language skills to learn about the Hispanic world. Topics that may have been presented in general terms in the first year are treated in greater depth. Cultural phenomena are presented in their historical contexts. This accomplishes two goals of the Identidades program: (a) to avoid stereotyping and overly global and simplistic contrasts between Hispanic cultures and those of the students, and (b) to support development of the skills of narration, description, comparison, and contrast. This approach highlights processes of change over time that are common to all cultures.
2. Development and transfer of cognitive skills
Much of what goes on in a second-year language course is not novel activity for college students. They read and interpret literary texts in their literature and composition courses; they learn to approach events from multiple perspectives in their history classes; and they look for logical sequences and relationships of cause and effect in their science courses. Through an approach that combines problem-solving, open-ended inquiry, and transfer of strategies that students use in other areas of their academic lives, the Identidades program makes possible the learning of significant content within the parameters of students' linguistic level.
3. Straightforward presentation of grammar
The scope, sequence, and approach to grammar in Identidades respond to the linguistic readiness of students at the intermediate level. The text explains the communicative functions of each structure, lays out the linguistic forms, and provides examples. Because students have already studied most of these structures in previous courses, the purpose of the explanations and examples is to refresh their basic understandings. The richness and variety of the activities that follow the explanations will strengthen students' conceptual understanding, as well as their receptive and productive use of the structures. Most of the activities require that students integrate their knowledge and their understanding of the structure to carry out meaningful tasks. A solid mastery of grammar at the intermediate level facilitates comprehension of printed and spoken texts and supports oral and written communication. Reasonable expectations for students at this level, given their stage in the process of second language acquisition, have informed (a) the selection of structures, (b) the explicit connections between communicative function and linguistic forms, (c) the recycling of key structures throughout the program, and (d) decisions about whether to focus on a structure primarily for reception or also for productive use. Students at this level can easily and fluently produce oral descriptions and narrations in the present. They can also produce descriptions, narrations, and explanations in writing, particularly when the design of the task provides guidance for them to organize their thoughts. Speaking in past time is more difficult for intermediate students; they can generally produce sentences or short strings of sentences but may not be able to develop a sequenced narration or comparison.
4. Systematic presentation of literature of the Spanish-speaking world
Each chapter in Identidades contains a Rincon literario with an excerpt from the work of a Spanish or Latin American author. Literature is a medium through which students may expand their conceptual framework of culture. Through these short excerpts, students create connections between the cultural themes and events that underlie the chapters and their literary manifestations. (See the Organization of the text, below, for more on the systematic rpresentation of literature.)
5. A cohesive and innovative integration of language and culture
The students who populate intermediate college Spanish programs are a heterogeneous group. Because they arrive at their second-year courses through a combination of high school and/or college preparation, the group may include students who have a strong linguistic base but little experience with free expression, those who have confidence in their speaking, listening, and writing skills but may be lacking in linguistic knowledge and accuracy, and many who are somewhere in between. The emphasis of Identidades on the development of literacy (reading and writing) and oral skills will serve the needs of all students, and the focus on culture that underlies the program will have universal appeal. The program emphasizes linguistic functions and structures that are within students' developmental rangecomparison, explanation, narration, description, and expression of opinionsand also approaches these functions in ways markedly different from the first year: paradigms and explanations are unelaborated and the chapters move immediately into open-ended activities.
6. Identidades and the National Standards
The philosophy of Identidades has been deeply informed by the Standards for Foreign Language Learning in the 21st Century, produced in the 1990s through a collaboration of the major language organizations in the United States. The Standards are organized into five areas, usually referred to as the S Cs: Communication, Cultures, Connections, Comparisons, and Communities.
Beyond the Communication goal, which is central to all language programs, Identidades is unique in its integration of the other National Standards. In the pair and group activities, students are rarely asked to take on a persona different from their own. This respect for students' identities encourages a contrastive and comparative approach in their exploration of culture and language that leads to a deeper understanding of both Hispanic cultures and their own.
The program is designed to foster a similar analytical approach to language. Strategically placed cultural and linguistic explanations call students' attention to elements of Spanish that they are likely to miss or overuse from their perspective as speakers of English. In addition, the reading strategies and tips, which draw students' attention to key ideas or unfamiliar words or phrases in the passages of each chapter, help students develop their reading comprehension skills in Spanish by learning to use techniques and skills that they use automatically when reading in their native language.
The Communities goal is implemented by means of guided mini-research projects in the A explorar section in each chapter, as well as through research activities that are integrated into several activities in each chapter. Through these Web-based activities, students participate virtually in the many cultures of the Spanish-speaking world, sharing information and insights with their classmates in class discussions and brief presentations. The goal is to combine the use of real-world texts with linguistically limited tasks and engaging cultural contexts to help students connect personally to places, people, and events in the Hispanic world.
Marginal annotations to the instructor in every chapter point out how specific activities in the Identidades program reflect one of the eleven standards in the National Standards document.
Organization of the text
The Identidades textbook consists of 12 chapters, the first 10 of which have an identical structure and balance of activities. Chapters 11 and 12, however, are differentand optional. They have been designed to prepare students for more challenging courses beyond the second year by focusing on literary works in four different genres: narrative prose, poetry, drama, and essay. Through the reading activities, as well as the interviews in the listening program with the author of one of the readings and a theater director, students will be guided to understand the literary selections in their artistic contexts. These chapters intend to (a) give students reading and writing activities to synthesize and apply what they have learned, and (b) serve as an introduction for the courses following the second year, where the emphasis is on culture, literature, and advanced grammar and composition.
Organization of Chapters 1-10
Each chapter is divided into three main sections: Primera seccion, Segunda seccion, and Ampliemos a investiguemos. A chapter opener listing the communicative goals, the thematic and cultural content, and the precise content of each section opens each chapter. A list of active vocabulary ends the chapters.
A Leer. This two-page advance organizer consists of photographs and other visual elements with brief explanations that introduce students to the general theme and specific content of the chapter. Marginal notes provide instructors with suggestions on how to draw students' attention to key elements, so that the function of the advance organizer can be fully exploited.
Preparacion. This section introduces students to the general topic of the reading selection through exercises aimed at activating their knowledge at several levels: (a) general background knowledge about the thematic area, (b) specific topical knowledge related to the content of the text, and (c) linguistic knowledge of vocabulary key to comprehension of the text.
Estrategias de lectura. These pre-reading activities direct students' attention to features of the text (e.g., title, headings, first sentence of each paragraph, key words, or proper nouns). Using such techniques as skimming and scanning, students familiarize themselves with the text before beginning to read it closely.
Lectura. The readings are designed to enhance students' reading skills in Spanish as well as their knowledge related to the chapter theme. The texts, many of which are intended for a native-speaker audience, are drawn or adapted from Web or print sources. Glosses, which are used sparingly, are presented in Spanish wherever possible.
Reading tips. Marginal notations are placed strategically throughout each reading text to help students maintain concentration, focus on the main ideas of each paragraph, and anticipate and solve linguistic difficulties. The tips are intended to counteract the tendency of many intermediate students to read for words, rather than for ideas, and to help them develop their reading fluency. Colored callouts, placed either at the beginning or end of a paragraph, indicate which marginal notation should be read, and when. Marginal notations placed at the beginning of a paragraph should be read prior to reading the paragraph. Those placed after should be read after reading the paragraph.
Comprension y ampliacion. Post-reading activities are designed to further comprehension of the text both locally and globally through vocabulary building, understanding textual content, making connections with related disciplines, and applying the ideas in the text to students' lives and cultural contexts.
Aclaracion y expansion. The philosophy that underlies the presentation of grammar in Identidades is that students, as adult language learners, benefit from straightforward explanations and examples, as well as from opportunities to use structures in controlled and open-ended activities that embed the targeted structures in meaningful communicative contexts. Coherence is maintained by contextualizing the example sentences and the activity content with the chapter theme.
The Segunda seccion follows the same pattern as the Primera section with one exception: Algo mas boxes appear only at the end of the Segunda seccion. The Algo mas sections present supplementary structures and other linguistic forms that fit thematically or grammatically with the chapter content. These sections focus on linguistic elements that may benefit from explicit or brief explanation and practice.
Ampliemos a investiguemos
The third major section of the chapter, Ampliemos e investiguemos, focuses on listening, writing, reading, and research activities to enable students to advance in their skills in these areas by applying the information and insights related to the chapter theme to new contexts and self-expression.
A escuchar. This section consists of a wide range of authentic texts centered on the theme of the chapter such as original interviews, songs, lectures, news, and conversations. Students gain confidence through exposure to a range of voices and regional varieties of Spanish, as well as the insight that comes from hearing individuals talk about their lives and work in a specific cultural and geographical context.
A escribir. This carefully designed section engages students in a process of analyzing texts and using them as models to produce their own texts, a teaching strategy used in English-language writing courses in many colleges and universities. These activities challenge students to connect the strategies they learn in their English writing courses with the Spanish-language context while keeping the language of their texts clear and comprehensible.
A explorar. This section guides students through a miniresearch project using Web sources that are maintained on the Identidades Companion Website. The mini-projects are designed so that students expand their knowledge and deepen their understanding of the history, art, public institutions, and important individuals of the Spanish-speaking world and perfect their presentation skills in Spanish. Students investigate topics of particular interest and then pool their findings with those of their classmates. The mini-projects are limited in thematic and linguistic complexity to fit the proficiency level of intermediate students and the time constraints of the academic calendar. The outcomes of the research projects may be presented to class orally or in writing, or they may be posted on the course Web site.
Rincon literario. This section presents a short literary selection that is thematically related to the chapter, preceded by biographical information on the author and followed by comprehension and interpretation questions. The goal of this section is that students experience a broad range of styles and thematic orientations.
Organization of Chapters 11 and 12
Chapters 11 and 12 differ from the others. There are only two sections: Primera section and Segunda section. In addition, chapters 11 and 12 focus on the four major literary genres: narrative prose, poetry, drama, and essay. Although chapters 11 and 12 maintain the basic approach and section goals of the previous ten chapters, they have a slightly different structure and length.
The Primera seccion and Segunda seccion of chapters 11 and 12 open with a focus on literary figures of the Spanish-speaking world. This is followed by a brief essay that features the rhetorical foundations of the particular genre presented. The same prereading sections are included: A leer, Preparacion, and Estrategias. These are followed by the literary excerpt, which supports students' comprehension with reading tips. The Comprension y ampliacion section follows the excerpt. A escuchar is located in the Primera seccion right after the reading. In both chapters 11 and 12 this section includes an authentic interview related to the literary selection. The grammar explanations in Aclaracion y expansion follow and the focus of the grammar shifts from production to complex grammatical structures that students can be expected to grasp mostly at a conceptual level and for comprehension. Rather than the full Ampliemos e investiguemos section, chapters 11 and 12 end simply with the A escribir section only.