courses more petrogenesis-orientated are im My main objective in writing this book has been to mediately confronted with a basic problem; the review the processes involved in present-day mag ma generation and their relationship to global average student does not have a strong enough tectonic processes. Clearly, these are fundamental background in geochemistry to understand the to our understanding of the petrogenesis of ancient finer points of most of the relevant publications in volcanic and plutonic sequences, the original tec scientific journals. It is virtually impossible to fmd tonic setting of which may have been obscured by suitable reading material for such students, as most subsequent deformation and metamorphism. authors of igneous petrology textbooks have de Until fairly recently, undergraduate courses in liberately steered clear of potentially controversial igneous petrology tended to follow rather classical petrogenetic models. Even the most recent texts lines, based on the classification of igneous rocks, place very little emphasis on the geochemistry of descriptive petrography, volcanic landforms, types magmas erupted in different tectonic settings, of igneous intrusions and regional petrology . despite extensive discussions of the processes re However, the geologist of the late 1980s requires, in sponsible for the chemical diversity of magmas.
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Table of ContentsOne Magmatism and global tectonic processes.- One Relation of present-day magmatism to global tectonic processes.- 1.1 Introduction.- 1.2 Characteristic magma series associated with specific tectonic settings.- Further reading.- Two Geochemkal characteristics of igneous rocks as petrogenetic indicators.- 2.1 Introduction.- 2.2 Chemical analysis of igneous rocks.- 2.3 Chemical variation diagrams.- 2.4 Geochemical characteristics of primary magmas.- 2.5 Isotopes as petrogenetic indicators.- 2.6 Geochemical criteria for the identification of the palaeotectonic setting of ancient volcanic sequences.- Further reading.- Three Partial melting processes in the Earth’s upper mantle.- 3.1 Introduction.- 3.2 The physical state of the upper mantle.- 3.3 Chemical composition and mineralogy of the upper mantle.- 3.4 Partial melting processes in the upper mantle.- 3.5 The basaltic magma spectrum in relation to partial melting processes.- 3.6 Segregation and ascent of magma.- Further reading.- Four Processes which modify the composition of primary magmas.- 4.1 Introduction.- 4.2 Convection and mixing in magma chambers.- 4.3 Fractional crystallization.- 4.4 Crustal contamination.- 4.5 Zone refining.- 4.6 Liquid immiscibility.- 4.7 Gaseous transfer processes.- Further reading.- Two Magmatism at constructive plate margins.- Five Mid-ocean ridges.- 5.1 Introduction.- 5.2 Simplified petrogenetic model.- 5.3 Nature of the oceanic crust.- 5.4 Structure of mid-ocean ridges.- 5.5 Heat flow and metamorphism.- 5.6 Convection systems at constructive plate margins.- 5.7 Partial melting processes.- 5.8 Magma storage and release.- 5.9 Petrography of mid-ocean ridge basalts.- 5.10 Chemical composition of erupted magmas.- 5.11 Detailed petrogenetic model.- Further reading.- Three Magmatism at destructive plate margins.- Six Island arcs.- 6.1 Introduction.- 6.2 Simplified petrogenetic model.- 6.3 Structure of island arcs.- 6.4 Earthquakes and magma genesis.- 6.5 Thermal structure and partial melting processes.- 6.6 Segregation, ascent and storage of magma.- 6.7 Characteristic magma series.- 6.8 Spatial and temporal variations in island-arc magmatism.- 6.9 Surface volcanic features.- 6.10 Petrography of island-arc volcanic rocks.- 6.11 Chemical composition of erupted magmas.- 6.12 Detailed petrogenetic model.- Further reading.- Seven Active continental margins.- 7.1 Introduction.- 7.2 Simplified petrogenetic model.- 7.3 The structure of active continental margins.- 7.4 Thermal structure and partial melting processes.- 7.5 Magma storage in the crust.- 7.6 Petrographic characteristics of the volcanic and plutonic rocks.- 7.7 Chemical composition of the magmas.- 7.8 Detailed petrogenetic model.- Further reading.- Eight Back-arc basins.- 8.1 Introduction.- 8.2 Simplified petrogenetic model.- 8.3 Petrography of the volcanic rocks.- 8.4 Chemical composition of the erupted magmas.- 8.5 Detailed petrogenetic model.- Further reading.- Four Magmatism within plates.- Nine Oceanic islands.- 9.1 Introduction.- 9.2 Simplified petrogenetic model.- 9.3 Crustal structure of oceanic islands.- 9.4 Partial melting processes.- 9.5 High-level magma storage.- 9.6 Petrography of oceanic-island volcanic rocks.- 9.7 Chemical composition of erupted magmas.- 9.8 Detailed petrogenetic model.- Further reading.- Ten Continental tholeiitic flood basalt provinces.- 10.1 Introduction.- 10.2 Simplified petrogenetic model.- 10.3 Crustal structure and magma storage reservoirs.- 10.4 Crustal contamination of magmas.- 10.5 Petrography of the volcanic rocks.- 10.6 Chemical composition of the erupted magmas.- 10.7 Detailed petrogenetic model.- Further reading.- Eleven Continental rift zone magmatism.- 11.1 Introduction.- 11.2 Simplified petrogenetic model.- 11.3 Crust and upper mantle structure.- 11.4 Petrography of the volcanic rocks.- 11.5 Chemical composition of the erupted magmas.- 11.6 Detailed petrogenetic model.- Further reading.- Twelve Potassic magmatism within continental plates.- 12.1 Introduction.- 12.2 Simplified petrogenetic model.- 12.3 Partial melting processes in the upper mantle.- 12.4 Petrographic characteristics of kimberlites and ultrapotassic rocks.- 12.5 Chemical composition of kimberlites and ultrapotassic rocks.- 12.6 Detailed petrogenetic model.- Further reading.- Approximate ranges of D values for the partitioning of trace elements between the common rock-forming minerals and liquids of basic-intermediate composition.