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A certain intimacy with one's ancestors was essential to achieving status in the classical world. By referring to the illustrious exploits and qualities of his forebears, a man could strengthen his position in society. If his origins lacked sufficient glory, he could construct a family tree and testify to its authenticity through the judicious use of portraits and legendary allusions. In this volume, fifth in the Aarhus Studies in Mediterranean Antiquity, eleven internationally recognised scholars analyse ancestral representation in ancient Greece, Etruria and Rome. While some contributions address the artistic, social and political significance of given portraits, others address broader themes: true and false forefathers in the portraits of Hellenistic rulers, the question of whether women were ancestors in republican Rome, and how the Roman non-elite used funerary statues to acquire an ancestor.