After an initial encounter with a pathogen, the adaptive immune system creates immune cells that remember the antigens on the pathogen and allow the body to rapidly mount a response during future encounters. Vaccines likewise generate immune memory, preventing the body from succumbing to potentially dangerous infections. Understanding the mechanistic basis of immune memory is therefore essential for designing effective vaccines.
Written and edited by experts in the field, this collection from Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology focuses on the critical questions currently debated in the field of immune memory and vaccination. Topics include the plasticity of memory CD4 T cells, the formation of germinal centers by memory B cells, the contributions of natural killer cells to immune memory, and the influence of commensal microbiota on immune responses. Several contributors respond to each question, providing a variety of fresh, concise perspectives on each topic.
Additional questions address the development and effectiveness of vaccines to various pathogens (e.g., dengue virus and Bordatella pertussis), as well as efforts to develop vaccines against cancer. This volume is therefore valuable for all immunologists, cell biologists, and medical scientists wishing to understand immunological memory, vaccines, and the implications for human health and disease.
Table of Contents
1. Do memory CD4 T cells keep their cell type programming: Plasticity versus fate commitment?
Shane Crotty, Federica Sallusto, Chen Dong, John O'Shea
2. Do memory B cells form secondary germinal centers?
Mark Shlomchik, Michael McHeyzer-Williams, Jason Cyster, Marc Jenkins
3. What are the primary limitations in B cell affinity maturation? How much affinity maturation can we drive with vaccination?
Michel Nussenzweig/Gabriel Victora, Garnett Kelsoe, Bart Haynes, Patrick Wilson, Kai Michael-Toellner
4. Is it possible to develop a "universal" influenza vaccine?
Jon Yewdell, Peter Palese, Adolfo Garcia Sastre, Jim Crowe, John Mascola, Barney Graham
5. What is the value of animal models in predicting vaccine efficacy in humans?
Dan Barouch, John Wherry, Emilio Emini, Mark Feinberg, Hana Golding, Stan Plotkin
6. Is a human CD8 T cell vaccine possible? If so, what would it take?
David Masopust, Louis Picker, Bob Seder, Andrew McMichael
7. Which dengue vaccine approach is the most promising? How concerned should we be about enhanced disease after vaccination?
Eva Harris, Scott Halstead, Gavin Screaton, Kanta Subbarao
8. Do the microbiota influence protective immunity to pathogens? Can this be exploited to improve vaccine efficacy?
Yasmine Belkaid, David Artis, Dan Littman, Andrew MacPherson
9. Is it possible to develop cancer vaccines to neo-antigens? What are the major challenges and how can these be overcome?
Phil Greenberg, Robert Schreiber, Olivera Finn, Steve Schoenberger, Ton Schumacher
10. Will systems biology deliver its promise and contribute to the development of new or improved vaccines?
Ron Germain, Bali Pulendran, Rino Rappouli, Mark Davis
11. What should be the global polio vaccine policy after "eradication" of the virus and when should this be implemented?
Walter Orenstein, Paul Offit, Vince Racaniello
12. Is there NK cell memory? Can this be harnessed by vaccination?
Uli von Adrian, Joe Sun/Lewis Lanier, David Raulet, Rolf Kiessling
13. What are the most powerful immunogen design vaccine strategies?
Ian Wilson, Peter Kwong, John Moore, Pamela Bjorkman, Bill Schief