ISBN-10:
013092914X
ISBN-13:
2900130929142
Pub. Date:
11/28/2003
Publisher:
Prentice Hall
Impresiones / Edition 1

Impresiones / Edition 1

by Rafael Salaberry

Hardcover

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 2900130929142
Publisher: Prentice Hall
Publication date: 11/28/2003
Edition description: New Edition
Pages: 560
Product dimensions: 6.00(w) x 1.25(h) x 9.00(d)

Read an Excerpt

Drawing on up-to-date research in second language acquisition, Impresiones is a complete language program that motivates students to take responsibility for their own learning by making them active participants in the learning process. Students learn to think critically about cultural, communicative, and grammatical aspects of the Spanish language as they discover the richness and diversity of the Spanish-speaking world and compare its cultures with their own.

Highlights of the Program Active learning

Instead of passively absorbing ready-made rules, then only subsequently moving to practice activities, students discover grammar rules and communicative functions on their own through carefully sequenced activities. For each major linguistic topic, students are first immersed in a communicative context, and then guided to focus and reflect on the forms being used. By the end of the process, they have inferred the appropriate rules for themselves and are prepared to use them in meaningful communication.

Linguistic and cultural diversity

Students learn to appreciate cultural diversity and to understand the many different ways in which culture shapes our attitudes and views of the world. They move beyond stereotypes to understand the fascinating richness of Hispanic cultures and gain awareness of the interesting varieties of the Spanish language.

The Impresiones program includes an original video, Las impresiones de Guadalupe, thoroughly integrated with the text itself, that has been carefully designed both to interest students and to reflect the pedagogical goals of the program as a whole. The events in each episode are related to the corresponding chapter's theme, and the carefully scripted—yet natural—language reflects the vocabulary and grammar that students will have learned up to that point in the course, as well as cultural and pragmatic topics treated in the text. Consistent with the program's emphasis on active learning, activities in the text encourage students to observe and reflect on what they see in the video to further expand their knowledge of Spanish.

Detailed, color-coded annotations

The annotations in black, simplify lesson planning by helping instructors navigate through the many supplemental resources that make up the Impresiones program. They allow instructors to see at a glance all materials on a given topic that can be used in the classroom or assigned as homework. The annotations in blue provide answers and offer guidance on using the student text effectively in the classroom.

How does Impresiones achieve its objectives?

Impresiones presents learners with themes and topics that contrast cultural perspectives and develop in students an appreciation of their own culture and the cultures of others. In addition, it systematically presents and explicitly analyzes cultural similarities and differences among the many regions of the Spanish-speaking world, including basic dialectal features.

Impresiones does more than develop students' cultural awareness and understanding of Spanish-speaking groups. Impresiones contrasts and blends the functional and social uses of Spanish with basic linguistic structures, resulting in a rich, dynamic, and successful learning experience. For this purpose, key grammar points are introduced in the context of functional uses of the language and later developed in integrated activities. Moreover, every chapter features both oral and written communication strategies that learners can put to immediate use in and out of class.

Chapter Organization Vocabulario en contexto

A series of chained tasks that promote the active and critical processing of the lexicon (picture-based thematic vocabulary for the chapter).

Intercambios comunicativos

An explicit analysis of the pragmatics of interaction with a reinforcement of vocabulary (listening and video activities).

Enfoque cultural

An analysis of specific Spanish-speaking regions (critical-thinking activities from the students' own cultural perspectives).

Gramatica en contexto

Focus on specific linguistic structures) within a communicative context.

Integracion comunicativa

An integrated storyline video, with pre-viewing, viewing, and post-viewing activities, follows the cultural experiences of a Mexican student who studies abroad in the United States.

Interacion comunicativa

An integration of structure, vocabulary, and function (with special emphasis on reading, writing, and audio activities).

Comparaoiones culturales

Selected original literary pieces from the regions highlighted in this section contextualize the analysis of specific grammar topics or content areas introduced in the chapter. Additionally, a section on dialectal variations serves to compare differences among Spanish-speaking groups.

Diferencias dialectales

A short description of well-known regional variations to show the richness of the Spanish language. Through brief directed listening activities, students experience different native speakers of Spanish.

Video: Las impresiones de Guadalupe

A integrated storyline video, with pre-viewing, viewing, and post-viewing activities, follows the cultural experiences of a Mexican student who studies abroad in the United States.

Conceptual Basis of Impresiones

Impresiones has been conceptualized as a new approach for the teaching of Spanish along three different lines: 1) the teaching and learning of culture, 2) the development of sociolinguistic skills, and 3) the teaching and learning of grammar.

Language-in-culture orientation

Impresiones integrates cultural information throughout the majority of sections of every chapter. Cultural similarities and differences are contrasted and explicitly analyzed to gain understanding of Spanish-speaking cultures and the way culture is represented in language. As a point of departure for the development of pedagogical activities, Impresiones uses the rationale that "teachers can provide learning activities appropriate to grade level that explore the process of stereotyping and the role that stereotypes play in forming and sustaining prejudice" (National Standards for Foreign Language Learning, pp. 48-49). This approach is embedded in the analysis of the relationships between practices and perspectives (Standard 2.1) and products and perspectives (Standard 2.2) of the Spanish cultures.

A unique feature of the book is that it contextualizes language form and language functions with topics from both the target language culture and the student's own cultural setting. This is done to (a) provide students with the vocabulary with which they can communicate and share with Spanish-speaking people their own cultural background and heritage, and (b) ease the transition of students toward understanding new perspectives on topics they may have already analyzed from within their own cultural perspectives.

An explicit focus on the variety of Spanish-speaking cultures

The division of cultural information by country follows the theoretical rationale proposed by several—especially Latin American—dialectologists (e.g., Lipski, 1994). On the other hand, macrodivisions of the Spanish-speaking world (e.g., Southern Cone, Afro-Hispanic culture, U.S.-influenced varieties) are also presented in the chapters that explicitly deal with such geopolitical distributions. In terms of the sequence of presentation of the countries, the first few chapters of Impresiones provide students with information about the countries that have had the most immediate influence in the United States through immigrant and native populations. Mexico, Puerto Rico, Spain, Cuba, and the Dominican Republic together are presented in Chapters 3, 4, 5, and 6 respectively. Chapters 1 and 2 focus on Hispanics in the United States.

An explicit focus on the sociocultural appropriateness of language form

The rapid demographic evolution of multiculturalism in the United States and the world requires a more explicit and comprehensive approach toward the teaching of pragmatics, culture, and dialectal differences. To reflect this, the tasks in Impresiones introduce a wide range of varieties of Spanish, promote the appropriate sociocultural use of Spanish through the manipulation of various combinations of interlocutors, topics, and purposes (e.g., formal and informal settings, interlocutors of different ages, gender, and backgrounds), and present linguistic structures in association with an analysis of the appropriate sociocultural uses of linguistic form (e.g., generalizability to other settings, probability of use, and relevance to learners' communicative needs). For instance, key dialectal differences are explicitly presented in as simple and clear a way as possible so that the beginning-level student can start to develop an awareness of language differences across different Spanish-speaking cultures.

A ration integration of meaning and form

The meaning versus form (or fluency versus accuracy) debate is no longer a discriminating factor among teaching approaches because current second language acquisition research shows that both meaning and form appear to be essential. In turn, Impresiones places an emphasis on when and how to focus students' attention on form and meaning. Furthermore, Impresiones tries to reach a balance between functional and structural accuracy to eventually help students achieve higher levels of linguistic complexity: It "pushes" learners to communicate and interact in ever-increasingly appropriate and complex ways. For instance, a learner who accurately conjugates verbs with the tu form and who speaks quite fluently may still be using the inappropriate form if the formal usted form is necessary. Throughout Impresiones, learners are progressively encouraged to focus on increasing the level of appropriateness (complexity) of Spanish even if at any given stage they are able to express themselves without major hesitations or pauses (high fluency) or if they avoid major mistakes by using a small repertoire of heavily practiced structures (high accuracy).

A learner-based approach to language learning

Impresiones engages students from the very beginning in the development of productive abilities as proposed by the Council on the National Standards for Foreign Language Learning: "Active use of the language is central to the learning process; therefore, learners must be involved in generating utterances for themselves. They learn by doing, by trying out language, and by modifying it to serve communicative needs" (p. 41).

A task-based approach to language learning

Impresiones asks students to engage in real communicative tasks by way of testing hypotheses about language form in line with the assumption of the National Standards that "students do not acquire communicative competence by learning the elements of the language system first" (p. 40). Indeed, one of the foundational principles for the design of Impresiones activities is the assumption that to achieve functional communicative abilities in a second language, communication requirements must be established first. In practice, linguistic structures that are not yet part of the learners' competence are first highlighted in communicative tasks, thereby providing students with a rationale for learning the target grammar elements. Tasks—as implemented in Impresiones—enable teachers to lead learners to:

  • communicate with limited resources,
  • become aware of apparent limitations in their knowledge about linguistic structures that are necessary to convey the message appropriately and accurately, and
  • look for alternatives to overcome such limitations.

The above-mentioned sequencing of tasks in Impresiones also increases the chances that learners will attempt to heighten the complexity of the linguistic means by which they communicate because the sequence:

  • focuses on the natural/meaningful relationship between communicative tasks and grammar practice,
  • includes pedagogical tasks with explicit pre-task objectives, on-task goals, and post-task objectives, and
  • presents students with the purpose of each task so that they know the activity will have a measurable and relevant outcome.

In practice, this means that, in general, activities focus students' attention on the structural properties of the language after they have analyzed the meaning of oral and written pieces aided by contextual information and task demands and objectives.

A psycholinguistic sequencing of task stages

Activities are comprised of several interconnected steps. Steps within activities build on one another through content-based transitions, and help learners achieve their communication goals. This task sequence approach is based on the analysis of teaching and learning tasks for both teachers and learners across four dimensions represented by the four I's (for mnemonic retrieval).

Learners first develop the motivation to participate in a task (involvement). Then they are led to a process of discovery through natural curiosity (inquiry). Later, a process of induction of structure follows until knowledge is actively incorporated. A corresponding cycle for teachers underlines the importance of formal instruction in this process.

A needs-based approach

Successful learner-centered approaches assume the learners' goals to be of central importance in motivating students to achieve the course objectives. Impresiones responds to the needs of a new population of students who take Spanish as a second language in colleges and universities for both basic instrumental reasons like job search and job improvement, and educational reasons such as cultural integration and cultural affiliation. In this respect, the topics of Impresiones have been selected in order to address the following demographic factors:

  • The rapidly growing Spanish-speaking population in the United States has an increasing economic, political, and cultural impact on the nation as a whole.
  • The variety of Spanish-speaking cultures is increasingly visible given the variety of backgrounds of Spanish-speaking immigrants.
  • There is an increasing number of non-traditional students (e.g., a more mature population) taking Spanish courses, a trend that is expected to continue and increase in the future.
Learning styles and learning strategies

Given the changing needs and objectives of an increasingly diverse student population, it has become more important to address the variety of learning styles and learning strategies through the development of learning tasks that address these needs. Throughout Impresiones, task objectives are related to the goals and themes of each chapter; they address the students' needs as they:

  • focus on both transactional and interactional purposes (conveying a message versus "face work" such as greetings, small talk), incorporate a wide range of genres (poetry, short stories, news reports),
  • promote the development of strategic competence (circumlocution, rephrasing), and include authentic and minimally adapted (spoken and written) texts, including natural data presented in audiotapes/videotapes.
Interpretation and implementation of the national standards

Impresiones promotes the development of the five C's advocated by the Council on the National Standards for Foreign Language Learning (i.e., Communication, Cultures, Connections, Comparisons, and Communities) by way of providing a valid interpretation and implementation of the standards. Impresiones achieves this goal by paying attention to the development of pragmatic knowledge, the development of critical knowledge (across all aspects of the language), the expansion of content knowledge about the different cultures that comprise the Spanish-speaking world, an explicit focus on the process of acquisition through the implementation of both inductive and deductive approaches to learning, and a focus on the context of learning in academic settings through classroom-based communicative tasks.

Rational integration through systematized recycling

Basic topics, themes, and grammar structures are covered in the first half of the program (Introduction through Chapter 7). The same topics are then addressed again at a higher level of conceptualization, and in different contexts, in the second half of the program (Chapters 8 to 14). The advantage of this organization of topics is that it provides reinforcement for students continuing on from the first half of the text, plus a better transition for students coming directly from high school or other programs to the second level. Additionally, the activities in Impresiones provide grammar and vocabulary presentations in a graded and integrated fashion, building upon the body of knowledge developed in previous chapters as they promote active, learner-centered analysis of Spanish.

The Complete Program

In-text Audio CD (0-13-048378-8)—The in-text audio contains all of the passages that accompany the listening activities from the student textbook. It also contains recordings of the end-of-chapter vocabulary.

Student Activities Manual (0-13-092916-6)—Paralleling the organization of the main text, the Student Activities Manual provides meaningful practice and review for students outside of class. This manual offers additional practice of each chapter's vocabulary and grammatical structures through form-based exercises, including sentence-building activities, completion exercises, fill-ins, and realia-based activities. Reading and writing skills are developed in a series of interesting and personalized activities, while speaking and listening skills are developed through the audio activities. In addition, the Manual includes video activities for the Impresiones de Guadalupe video.

Answer Key to Accompany the Student Activities Manual (0-13-048385-0)—The Answer Key provides the answers for the discrete point items in the Manual.

Audio CDs to Accompany the Student Activities Manual (0-13-048386-9)—The CDs contain all of the passages that accompany the listening activities in the Manual.

Las Impresiones de Guadalupe Student Video CD-ROM (0-13-048379-6)—The Student Video CD-ROM features the complete integrated video on an interactive CD-ROM along with additional comprehension-based pre- and post-viewing activities, and access to the complete script. With the Video CD-ROM, students have the flexibility to view the video clips and complete their activities on their own time.

Gramatica viva: Interactive Spanish Grammar CD-ROM (0-13-111796-3)—This interactive CD-ROM is designed for students to learn and practice grammar outside of class, so they are prepared for a highly interactive, communicative classroom experience. An instructional video on the CD-ROM delivers detailed grammar explanations and examples for 60 grammatical structures. The instruction is immediately followed by:

  • Oral drill practice with voice recording capability, allowing students to learn and practice their pronunciation
  • Written activities with immediate feedback to practice the grammar forms in context
  • An oral activity, in which students will be able to develop and practice their oral skills
  • A guided, open-ended writing activity to enable students to use the grammatical structures in increasingly demanding contexts

Annotated Instructor's Edition (0-13-093605-7)—This AIE is the first modern language title that will have two-color annotations organized into two types:

  • Those that provide information on activities from each of the supplements corresponding to a given item in the student text.
  • Those that provide detailed information, suggestions, and explanations on how to teach with the Impresiones program.

Marginal notations in the Annotated Instructor's Edition include information about the content of the activities, responses to convergent activities, teaching tips, and hints on effective classroom techniques. Additional notations include notes for expanding on in-class activities.

Instructor's Resource Manual (0-13-048370-2)—Author written, the IRM for Impresiones is unique and could be used as one of the assigned reading materials in a second-language methodology course or an intensive teacher training three-lay workshop.

  • Chapter 1 contains (a) a short questionnaire that instructors can use to assess their teaching style, (b) a review (in the form of a dialogue) of myths about teaching methodologies and (c) an outline of a teaching Portfolio (with useful guidelines to create it).
  • Chapter 2 provides annotated sample activities for each section of a chapter of Impresiones with an explanation of what students are doing in each case.
  • Chapter 3 contains a summary of learning strategies used in Impresiones: reading, writing, literature, listening, and speaking skills as well as culture and vocabulary strategies.
  • Chapter 4 provides teachers with a comprehensive analysis of what they need to know to teach Spanish even if they never taught a language class before. The chapter contains sections on (a) syllabus planning (including a sample syllabus), (b) lesson planning (including a complete series of sample lesson plans for nine classes covering all of Chapter 1 as well as a sample test for the entire chapter), (c) guidelines to teach grammar, (d) ideas for successfully managing classroom interaction, (e) tips on how to reflect and evaluate teaching practices, and (f) a useful guide to understand the expectations that teachers and students bring to Spanish class.
  • Chapter 5 gives suggestions on how to prepare one's own pedagogical activities with a variety of media (including the use of pictures, video, and graphic images such as cartoons).

The IRM concludes with several appendices, including a video guide with the complete video script. Additional appendices contain tables for scoring class participation, error correction, the audio script, etc.

Image Resource CD (0-13-048376-1)—All images (except photos) are provided on the Image Resource CD to enable professors to use the images in creating their own activities, adapt the images for testing, create unique transparencies, etc.

Print Testing Program (0-13-048381-8)—Carefully developed to reflect the methodology of the text, the testing program consists of paper exams.

CD Testing Program (0-13-048383-4)—The CD version of the testing program consists of Word files of the print testing program delivered to instructors on a CDROM to enable easy copying and customization of each exam.

Las impresiones de Guadalupe VHS Video Cassette (0-13-048382-6)—The integrated video program, Las impresiones de Guadalupe, accompanies the text through a series of 14 discrete chapter vignettes that average six minutes in length. The video is an original dramatic story line that provides a culturally accurate, rich, and authentic view of several native Spanish speakers interacting with each other in situations that are thematically related to chapters in the text. Pedagogical support for the video includes activities within the textbook, the Activities Manual, and on a Video CD-ROM. The story, through carefully scripted natural language, reflects the realistic experiences of a Mexican student majoring in broadcasting during her semester abroad at an American university. Guadalupe participates in a Hispanic broadcasting seminar and produces and hosts her own show in Spanish at the financially failing local college radio station. The unifying theme centers on the exposure to cultural diversity and interactions.

Online Supplements

Companion Website at www.prenhall.com/impresiones—Features interactive, automatically graded vocabulary and grammar practice self-tests, in-text audio, Student Activities Manual audio, and Web exploration activities that expose students to authentic culture. In addition, an interactive flash-card module helps students study vocabulary, while an interactive soccer game provides a fun way to review certain grammar structures. The site includes extensive links to language resources on the Web for both students and instructors.

Online Student Activities Manual (o-SAM) at www.prenhall.com/impresiones—An electronic version of the Student Activities Manual, linked to an easy-to-use gradebook, automatically scores machine-gradable activities and posts results to the instructor's online gradebook. The o-SAM contains all activities in the printed SAM, the accompanying audio, and all the content on the Companion Website.

Course Management—o-SAM content is also available in formats compatible with several widely used course management platforms (WebCT, Blackboard, CourseCompass).

Table of Contents

(NOTE: Each chapter includes Vocabulario en contexto, Intercambios comunicativos, Enfoque cultural, Gramática en contexto, Integraciòn comunicativa, Comparaciones culturales, Diferencias dialectales, Video: Las impresiones de Marisely, and En resumen sections.
1. Introducciòn al idioma español.
2. Primeros encuentros.
3. Las universidades y la educaciòn.
4. Las rutinas y las profesiones.
5. Las fiestas y las tradiciones.
6. Los pasatiempos y la conversaciòn.
7. Las artes y los deportes.
8. La familia y la sociedad.
9. Los viajes y la cultura.
10. La comida y la dieta.
11. Las compras y el consumismo.
12. La cultura y los medios de comunicaciòn.
13. La medicina y la salud.
14. El medio ambiente y la calidad de vida.

Preface

Drawing on up-to-date research in second language acquisition, Impresiones is a complete language program that motivates students to take responsibility for their own learning by making them active participants in the learning process. Students learn to think critically about cultural, communicative, and grammatical aspects of the Spanish language as they discover the richness and diversity of the Spanish-speaking world and compare its cultures with their own.

Highlights of the Program

Active learning

Instead of passively absorbing ready-made rules, then only subsequently moving to practice activities, students discover grammar rules and communicative functions on their own through carefully sequenced activities. For each major linguistic topic, students are first immersed in a communicative context, and then guided to focus and reflect on the forms being used. By the end of the process, they have inferred the appropriate rules for themselves and are prepared to use them in meaningful communication.

Linguistic and cultural diversity

Students learn to appreciate cultural diversity and to understand the many different ways in which culture shapes our attitudes and views of the world. They move beyond stereotypes to understand the fascinating richness of Hispanic cultures and gain awareness of the interesting varieties of the Spanish language.

The Impresiones program includes an original video, Las impresiones de Guadalupe, thoroughly integrated with the text itself, that has been carefully designed both to interest students and to reflect the pedagogical goals of the program as a whole. The events in each episode are related to the corresponding chapter's theme, and the carefully scripted—yet natural—language reflects the vocabulary and grammar that students will have learned up to that point in the course, as well as cultural and pragmatic topics treated in the text. Consistent with the program's emphasis on active learning, activities in the text encourage students to observe and reflect on what they see in the video to further expand their knowledge of Spanish.

Detailed, color-coded annotations

The annotations in black, simplify lesson planning by helping instructors navigate through the many supplemental resources that make up the Impresiones program. They allow instructors to see at a glance all materials on a given topic that can be used in the classroom or assigned as homework. The annotations in blue provide answers and offer guidance on using the student text effectively in the classroom.

How does Impresiones achieve its objectives?

Impresiones presents learners with themes and topics that contrast cultural perspectives and develop in students an appreciation of their own culture and the cultures of others. In addition, it systematically presents and explicitly analyzes cultural similarities and differences among the many regions of the Spanish-speaking world, including basic dialectal features.

Impresiones does more than develop students' cultural awareness and understanding of Spanish-speaking groups. Impresiones contrasts and blends the functional and social uses of Spanish with basic linguistic structures, resulting in a rich, dynamic, and successful learning experience. For this purpose, key grammar points are introduced in the context of functional uses of the language and later developed in integrated activities. Moreover, every chapter features both oral and written communication strategies that learners can put to immediate use in and out of class.

Chapter Organization

Vocabulario en contexto

A series of chained tasks that promote the active and critical processing of the lexicon (picture-based thematic vocabulary for the chapter).

Intercambios comunicativos

An explicit analysis of the pragmatics of interaction with a reinforcement of vocabulary (listening and video activities).

Enfoque cultural

An analysis of specific Spanish-speaking regions (critical-thinking activities from the students' own cultural perspectives).

Gramatica en contexto

Focus on specific linguistic structures) within a communicative context.

Integracion comunicativa

An integrated storyline video, with pre-viewing, viewing, and post-viewing activities, follows the cultural experiences of a Mexican student who studies abroad in the United States.

Interacion comunicativa

An integration of structure, vocabulary, and function (with special emphasis on reading, writing, and audio activities).

Comparaoiones culturales

Selected original literary pieces from the regions highlighted in this section contextualize the analysis of specific grammar topics or content areas introduced in the chapter. Additionally, a section on dialectal variations serves to compare differences among Spanish-speaking groups.

Diferencias dialectales

A short description of well-known regional variations to show the richness of the Spanish language. Through brief directed listening activities, students experience different native speakers of Spanish.

Video: Las impresiones de Guadalupe

A integrated storyline video, with pre-viewing, viewing, and post-viewing activities, follows the cultural experiences of a Mexican student who studies abroad in the United States.

Conceptual Basis of Impresiones

Impresiones has been conceptualized as a new approach for the teaching of Spanish along three different lines: 1) the teaching and learning of culture, 2) the development of sociolinguistic skills, and 3) the teaching and learning of grammar.

Language-in-culture orientation

Impresiones integrates cultural information throughout the majority of sections of every chapter. Cultural similarities and differences are contrasted and explicitly analyzed to gain understanding of Spanish-speaking cultures and the way culture is represented in language. As a point of departure for the development of pedagogical activities, Impresiones uses the rationale that "teachers can provide learning activities appropriate to grade level that explore the process of stereotyping and the role that stereotypes play in forming and sustaining prejudice" (National Standards for Foreign Language Learning, pp. 48-49). This approach is embedded in the analysis of the relationships between practices and perspectives (Standard 2.1) and products and perspectives (Standard 2.2) of the Spanish cultures.

A unique feature of the book is that it contextualizes language form and language functions with topics from both the target language culture and the student's own cultural setting. This is done to (a) provide students with the vocabulary with which they can communicate and share with Spanish-speaking people their own cultural background and heritage, and (b) ease the transition of students toward understanding new perspectives on topics they may have already analyzed from within their own cultural perspectives.

An explicit focus on the variety of Spanish-speaking cultures

The division of cultural information by country follows the theoretical rationale proposed by several—especially Latin American—dialectologists (e.g., Lipski, 1994). On the other hand, macrodivisions of the Spanish-speaking world (e.g., Southern Cone, Afro-Hispanic culture, U.S.-influenced varieties) are also presented in the chapters that explicitly deal with such geopolitical distributions. In terms of the sequence of presentation of the countries, the first few chapters of Impresiones provide students with information about the countries that have had the most immediate influence in the United States through immigrant and native populations. Mexico, Puerto Rico, Spain, Cuba, and the Dominican Republic together are presented in Chapters 3, 4, 5, and 6 respectively. Chapters 1 and 2 focus on Hispanics in the United States.

An explicit focus on the sociocultural appropriateness of language form

The rapid demographic evolution of multiculturalism in the United States and the world requires a more explicit and comprehensive approach toward the teaching of pragmatics, culture, and dialectal differences. To reflect this, the tasks in Impresiones introduce a wide range of varieties of Spanish, promote the appropriate sociocultural use of Spanish through the manipulation of various combinations of interlocutors, topics, and purposes (e.g., formal and informal settings, interlocutors of different ages, gender, and backgrounds), and present linguistic structures in association with an analysis of the appropriate sociocultural uses of linguistic form (e.g., generalizability to other settings, probability of use, and relevance to learners' communicative needs). For instance, key dialectal differences are explicitly presented in as simple and clear a way as possible so that the beginning-level student can start to develop an awareness of language differences across different Spanish-speaking cultures.

A ration integration of meaning and form

The meaning versus form (or fluency versus accuracy) debate is no longer a discriminating factor among teaching approaches because current second language acquisition research shows that both meaning and form appear to be essential. In turn, Impresiones places an emphasis on when and how to focus students' attention on form and meaning. Furthermore, Impresiones tries to reach a balance between functional and structural accuracy to eventually help students achieve higher levels of linguistic complexity: It "pushes" learners to communicate and interact in ever-increasingly appropriate and complex ways. For instance, a learner who accurately conjugates verbs with the tu form and who speaks quite fluently may still be using the inappropriate form if the formal usted form is necessary. Throughout Impresiones, learners are progressively encouraged to focus on increasing the level of appropriateness (complexity) of Spanish even if at any given stage they are able to express themselves without major hesitations or pauses (high fluency) or if they avoid major mistakes by using a small repertoire of heavily practiced structures (high accuracy).

A learner-based approach to language learning

Impresiones engages students from the very beginning in the development of productive abilities as proposed by the Council on the National Standards for Foreign Language Learning: "Active use of the language is central to the learning process; therefore, learners must be involved in generating utterances for themselves. They learn by doing, by trying out language, and by modifying it to serve communicative needs" (p. 41).

A task-based approach to language learning

Impresiones asks students to engage in real communicative tasks by way of testing hypotheses about language form in line with the assumption of the National Standards that "students do not acquire communicative competence by learning the elements of the language system first" (p. 40). Indeed, one of the foundational principles for the design of Impresiones activities is the assumption that to achieve functional communicative abilities in a second language, communication requirements must be established first. In practice, linguistic structures that are not yet part of the learners' competence are first highlighted in communicative tasks, thereby providing students with a rationale for learning the target grammar elements. Tasks—as implemented in Impresiones—enable teachers to lead learners to:

  • communicate with limited resources,
  • become aware of apparent limitations in their knowledge about linguistic structures that are necessary to convey the message appropriately and accurately, and
  • look for alternatives to overcome such limitations.

The above-mentioned sequencing of tasks in Impresiones also increases the chances that learners will attempt to heighten the complexity of the linguistic means by which they communicate because the sequence:

  • focuses on the natural/meaningful relationship between communicative tasks and grammar practice,
  • includes pedagogical tasks with explicit pre-task objectives, on-task goals, and post-task objectives, and
  • presents students with the purpose of each task so that they know the activity will have a measurable and relevant outcome.

In practice, this means that, in general, activities focus students' attention on the structural properties of the language after they have analyzed the meaning of oral and written pieces aided by contextual information and task demands and objectives.

A psycholinguistic sequencing of task stages

Activities are comprised of several interconnected steps. Steps within activities build on one another through content-based transitions, and help learners achieve their communication goals. This task sequence approach is based on the analysis of teaching and learning tasks for both teachers and learners across four dimensions represented by the four I's (for mnemonic retrieval).

Learners first develop the motivation to participate in a task (involvement). Then they are led to a process of discovery through natural curiosity (inquiry). Later, a process of induction of structure follows until knowledge is actively incorporated. A corresponding cycle for teachers underlines the importance of formal instruction in this process.

A needs-based approach

Successful learner-centered approaches assume the learners' goals to be of central importance in motivating students to achieve the course objectives. Impresiones responds to the needs of a new population of students who take Spanish as a second language in colleges and universities for both basic instrumental reasons like job search and job improvement, and educational reasons such as cultural integration and cultural affiliation. In this respect, the topics of Impresiones have been selected in order to address the following demographic factors:

  • The rapidly growing Spanish-speaking population in the United States has an increasing economic, political, and cultural impact on the nation as a whole.
  • The variety of Spanish-speaking cultures is increasingly visible given the variety of backgrounds of Spanish-speaking immigrants.
  • There is an increasing number of non-traditional students (e.g., a more mature population) taking Spanish courses, a trend that is expected to continue and increase in the future.

Learning styles and learning strategies

Given the changing needs and objectives of an increasingly diverse student population, it has become more important to address the variety of learning styles and learning strategies through the development of learning tasks that address these needs. Throughout Impresiones, task objectives are related to the goals and themes of each chapter; they address the students' needs as they:

  • focus on both transactional and interactional purposes (conveying a message versus "face work" such as greetings, small talk), incorporate a wide range of genres (poetry, short stories, news reports),
  • promote the development of strategic competence (circumlocution, rephrasing), and include authentic and minimally adapted (spoken and written) texts, including natural data presented in audiotapes/videotapes.

Interpretation and implementation of the national standards

Impresiones promotes the development of the five C's advocated by the Council on the National Standards for Foreign Language Learning (i.e., Communication, Cultures, Connections, Comparisons, and Communities) by way of providing a valid interpretation and implementation of the standards. Impresiones achieves this goal by paying attention to the development of pragmatic knowledge, the development of critical knowledge (across all aspects of the language), the expansion of content knowledge about the different cultures that comprise the Spanish-speaking world, an explicit focus on the process of acquisition through the implementation of both inductive and deductive approaches to learning, and a focus on the context of learning in academic settings through classroom-based communicative tasks.

Rational integration through systematized recycling

Basic topics, themes, and grammar structures are covered in the first half of the program (Introduction through Chapter 7). The same topics are then addressed again at a higher level of conceptualization, and in different contexts, in the second half of the program (Chapters 8 to 14). The advantage of this organization of topics is that it provides reinforcement for students continuing on from the first half of the text, plus a better transition for students coming directly from high school or other programs to the second level. Additionally, the activities in Impresiones provide grammar and vocabulary presentations in a graded and integrated fashion, building upon the body of knowledge developed in previous chapters as they promote active, learner-centered analysis of Spanish.

The Complete Program

In-text Audio CD (0-13-048378-8)—The in-text audio contains all of the passages that accompany the listening activities from the student textbook. It also contains recordings of the end-of-chapter vocabulary.

Student Activities Manual (0-13-092916-6)—Paralleling the organization of the main text, the Student Activities Manual provides meaningful practice and review for students outside of class. This manual offers additional practice of each chapter's vocabulary and grammatical structures through form-based exercises, including sentence-building activities, completion exercises, fill-ins, and realia-based activities. Reading and writing skills are developed in a series of interesting and personalized activities, while speaking and listening skills are developed through the audio activities. In addition, the Manual includes video activities for the Impresiones de Guadalupe video.

Answer Key to Accompany the Student Activities Manual (0-13-048385-0)—The Answer Key provides the answers for the discrete point items in the Manual.

Audio CDs to Accompany the Student Activities Manual (0-13-048386-9)—The CDs contain all of the passages that accompany the listening activities in the Manual.

Las Impresiones de Guadalupe Student Video CD-ROM (0-13-048379-6)—The Student Video CD-ROM features the complete integrated video on an interactive CD-ROM along with additional comprehension-based pre- and post-viewing activities, and access to the complete script. With the Video CD-ROM, students have the flexibility to view the video clips and complete their activities on their own time.

Gramatica viva: Interactive Spanish Grammar CD-ROM (0-13-111796-3)—This interactive CD-ROM is designed for students to learn and practice grammar outside of class, so they are prepared for a highly interactive, communicative classroom experience. An instructional video on the CD-ROM delivers detailed grammar explanations and examples for 60 grammatical structures. The instruction is immediately followed by:

  • Oral drill practice with voice recording capability, allowing students to learn and practice their pronunciation
  • Written activities with immediate feedback to practice the grammar forms in context
  • An oral activity, in which students will be able to develop and practice their oral skills
  • A guided, open-ended writing activity to enable students to use the grammatical structures in increasingly demanding contexts

Annotated Instructor's Edition (0-13-093605-7)—This AIE is the first modern language title that will have two-color annotations organized into two types:

  • Those that provide information on activities from each of the supplements corresponding to a given item in the student text.
  • Those that provide detailed information, suggestions, and explanations on how to teach with the Impresiones program.

Marginal notations in the Annotated Instructor's Edition include information about the content of the activities, responses to convergent activities, teaching tips, and hints on effective classroom techniques. Additional notations include notes for expanding on in-class activities.

Instructor's Resource Manual (0-13-048370-2)—Author written, the IRM for Impresiones is unique and could be used as one of the assigned reading materials in a second-language methodology course or an intensive teacher training three-lay workshop.

  • Chapter 1 contains (a) a short questionnaire that instructors can use to assess their teaching style, (b) a review (in the form of a dialogue) of myths about teaching methodologies and (c) an outline of a teaching Portfolio (with useful guidelines to create it).
  • Chapter 2 provides annotated sample activities for each section of a chapter of Impresiones with an explanation of what students are doing in each case.
  • Chapter 3 contains a summary of learning strategies used in Impresiones: reading, writing, literature, listening, and speaking skills as well as culture and vocabulary strategies.
  • Chapter 4 provides teachers with a comprehensive analysis of what they need to know to teach Spanish even if they never taught a language class before. The chapter contains sections on (a) syllabus planning (including a sample syllabus), (b) lesson planning (including a complete series of sample lesson plans for nine classes covering all of Chapter 1 as well as a sample test for the entire chapter), (c) guidelines to teach grammar, (d) ideas for successfully managing classroom interaction, (e) tips on how to reflect and evaluate teaching practices, and (f) a useful guide to understand the expectations that teachers and students bring to Spanish class.
  • Chapter 5 gives suggestions on how to prepare one's own pedagogical activities with a variety of media (including the use of pictures, video, and graphic images such as cartoons).

The IRM concludes with several appendices, including a video guide with the complete video script. Additional appendices contain tables for scoring class participation, error correction, the audio script, etc.

Image Resource CD (0-13-048376-1)—All images (except photos) are provided on the Image Resource CD to enable professors to use the images in creating their own activities, adapt the images for testing, create unique transparencies, etc.

Print Testing Program (0-13-048381-8)—Carefully developed to reflect the methodology of the text, the testing program consists of paper exams.

CD Testing Program (0-13-048383-4)—The CD version of the testing program consists of Word files of the print testing program delivered to instructors on a CDROM to enable easy copying and customization of each exam.

Las impresiones de Guadalupe VHS Video Cassette (0-13-048382-6)—The integrated video program, Las impresiones de Guadalupe, accompanies the text through a series of 14 discrete chapter vignettes that average six minutes in length. The video is an original dramatic story line that provides a culturally accurate, rich, and authentic view of several native Spanish speakers interacting with each other in situations that are thematically related to chapters in the text. Pedagogical support for the video includes activities within the textbook, the Activities Manual, and on a Video CD-ROM. The story, through carefully scripted natural language, reflects the realistic experiences of a Mexican student majoring in broadcasting during her semester abroad at an American university. Guadalupe participates in a Hispanic broadcasting seminar and produces and hosts her own show in Spanish at the financially failing local college radio station. The unifying theme centers on the exposure to cultural diversity and interactions.

Online Supplements

Companion Website at www.prenhall.com/impresiones —Features interactive, automatically graded vocabulary and grammar practice self-tests, in-text audio, Student Activities Manual audio, and Web exploration activities that expose students to authentic culture. In addition, an interactive flash-card module helps students study vocabulary, while an interactive soccer game provides a fun way to review certain grammar structures. The site includes extensive links to language resources on the Web for both students and instructors.

Online Student Activities Manual (o-SAM) at www.prenhall.com/impresiones —An electronic version of the Student Activities Manual, linked to an easy-to-use gradebook, automatically scores machine-gradable activities and posts results to the instructor's online gradebook. The o-SAM contains all activities in the printed SAM, the accompanying audio, and all the content on the Companion Website.

Course Management—o-SAM content is also available in formats compatible with several widely used course management platforms (WebCT, Blackboard, CourseCompass).

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