Industrial Ecology and the Automobile / Edition 1

Industrial Ecology and the Automobile / Edition 1

by Thomas E. Graedel, Braden R. Allenby
5.0 1
ISBN-10:
013607409X
ISBN-13:
9780136074090
Pub. Date:
07/01/1997
Publisher:
Prentice Hall

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Overview

Industrial Ecology and the Automobile / Edition 1

FEATURES:

  • Shows that an industrial system must be viewed not in isolation from its surrounding systems, but in concert with them.
  • Outlines a systems view in which one seeks to optimize the total materials cycle — from materials to components and whole products, through obsolescence and disposal.
    • Focuses on resources, energy, and capital as factors to be optimized.
  • Explores various experiences encountered by the automobile industry in designing an automobile with the environment in mind. Considers:
    • What choices are desirable?
    • Which decisions work?
    • Which are difficult to implement?
    • Where is more research needed?
  • Places automobiles in the context of broad societal structures — economics, psychology, culture.
  • Provides historical perspectives on the evolution of the automobile and the evolution of the automotive infrastructure. (Chs. 4, 5) Considers:
    • Road network development, maintenance and repair.
    • Petroleum exploration, recovery, and delivery network.
    • The automobile as a facilitator of urban sprawl.
  • Discusses the many steps and factors to be considered in designing for environment:
    • Choosing materials. (Ch. 6)
    • Energy consumption. (Ch. 7)
    • Environmental impacts during manufacture. (Ch. 8)
    • Environmental interactions during product use. (Ch. 9)
    • Design for recycling. (Ch. 10)
  • Surveys global trends affecting the automobile, the transportationinfrastructure, and the society of the next quarter-century.
  • Contains Matrix Evaluation Guidelines and Checklists. (Appendix A)

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780136074090
Publisher: Prentice Hall
Publication date: 07/01/1997
Pages: 243
Product dimensions: 7.07(w) x 9.26(h) x 0.60(d)

Table of Contents

PREFACE xi
PART I: AUTOMOBILES AND SOCIETAL STRUCTURES 1(46)
1. HUMANITY ON THE MOVE
1(7)
Suggested Reading
6(1)
Exercises
7(1)
2. INDUSTRIAL ECOLOGY
8(18)
2.1 The Master Equation
8(11)
2.1.1 Population
12(2)
2.1.2 Per Capita Wealth
14(2)
2.1.3 Environmental Impact Per Unit of Production
16(3)
2.2 Definition of Industrial Ecology
19(4)
2.2.1 Industrial Ecology Model Systems
20(3)
2.2.2 Perspectives on Industrial Ecology
23(1)
Suggested Reading
23(1)
Exercises
23(3)
3. CULTURE, PSYCHOLOGY, AND THE AUTOMOBILE
26(11)
3.1 The Automobile as Cultural Icon
26(3)
3.2 Ownership, Use, and Population Dispersion
29(5)
3.3 Implications for Industrial Ecology
34(2)
Suggested Reading
36(1)
Exercises
36(1)
4. AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY AS A SYSTEM
37(10)
4.1 Concepts of Systems
37(2)
4.1.1 Simple and Complex Systems
38(1)
4.1.2 Evolution of Systems
39(1)
4.2 The Automotive Technology System
39(4)
4.3 Evolving the Automotive Technology System
43(2)
Suggested Reading
45(1)
Exercises
45(2)
PART II: HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVES 47(30)
5. THE EVOLUTION OF THE AUTOMOBILE
47(15)
5.1 From Horses to Automobiles
47(2)
5.2 Automotive Assembly Techniques
49(1)
5.3 The Development of Automotive Components and Systems
50(8)
5.3.1 Chassis, Frames, and Engines
50(1)
5.3.2 Fuels
50(2)
5.3.3 Tires
52(2)
5.3.4 Brakes
54(1)
5.3.5 Cooling Systems
54(1)
5.3.6 Lubrication
55(1)
5.3.7 Electrical Power
55(1)
5.3.8 Body Panels
55(1)
5.3.9 Bumpers and Body Trim
56(1)
5.3.10 Paint
56(1)
5.3.11 Electronic Monitoring of Vehicle Performance
56(1)
5.3.12 Emission Control Systems
57(1)
5.3.13 Air Bags
58(1)
5.4 Use of Materials
58(1)
5.5 The Automobile as a Modern Industrial Product
59(1)
Suggested Reading
60(1)
Exercises
60(2)
6. THE EVOLUTION OF THE AUTOMOTIVE INFRASTRUCTURE
62(15)
6.1 Infrastructure as a Focus
62(2)
6.2 Development of the World Road Network
64(4)
6.3 Bridge Design and Construction
68(2)
6.4 The Automotive Sales Network
70(1)
6.5 The Automotive Fuel Delivery Network
70(1)
6.6 The Automotive Maintenance and Repair Network
71(1)
6.7 Land Development Patterns
72(2)
6.8 Interlocking Infrastructures
74(2)
Suggested Reading
76(1)
Exercises
76(1)
PART III: DESIGN FOR ENVIRONMENT 77(116)
7. CHOOSING MATERIALS
77(16)
7.1 Guidelines for Choosing Materials
77(1)
7.2 The Life Cycle of an Automobile
78(3)
7.3 Materials in a Typical Automobile
81(3)
7.4 Materials Flow for a Typical Automobile
84(5)
7.5 Materials in the Transportation Infrastructure
89(3)
Suggested Reading
92(1)
Exercises
92(1)
8. ENVIRONMENTAL INTERACTIONS DURING MANUFACTURE
93(16)
8.1 Making the Automobile, Then and Now
93(2)
8.2 Manufacturing Processes for Automobiles
95(6)
8.2.1 Sand Casting
95(1)
8.2.2 Die Casting
95(2)
8.2.3 Metal Forming
97(2)
8.2.4 Injection Molding
99(1)
8.2.5 Welding and Brazing
99(1)
8.2.6 Metal Plating
99(1)
8.2.7 Painting
100(1)
8.2.8 Trimming and Smoothing
100(1)
8.2.9 Metal Cleaning
101(1)
8.3 Greening the Automobile Manufacturing Process
101(1)
8.4 Manufacturing Processes for the Automotive Infrastructure
101(6)
8.4.1 Site Preparation
102(1)
8.4.2 Minerals Manufacture
103(1)
8.4.3 Asphalt Pavement Manufacture
103(1)
8.4.4 Cement Manufacture
103(3)
8.4.5 Metals Manufacture
106(1)
8.4.6 Concrete Pavement Manufacture
107(1)
8.5 Greening the Automotive Infrastructure Manufacturing Process
107(1)
Suggested Reading
107(1)
Exercises
108(1)
9. ENERGY CONSUMPTION
109(16)
9.1 The Petroleum Infrastructure
109(2)
9.2 Energy Consumption in Automobile Manufacture
111(3)
9.3 In-service Energy Consumption of the Individual Automobile
114(1)
9.4 Global Automotive Energy Consumption
115(1)
9.5 Automobile Energy Options
116(5)
9.5.1 Alternative carbon-based fuels
116(1)
9.5.2 Electric vehicles
117(2)
9.5.3 Hybrid-powered vehicles
119(1)
9.5.4 Fuel cell-powered vehicles
120(1)
9.6 Energy Consumption in Automotive Infrastructure Manufacture
121(1)
9.7 Summary
122(1)
Suggested Reading
123(1)
Exercises
124(1)
10. ENVIRONMENTAL INTERACTIONS DURING PRODUCT USE
125(22)
10.1 The Employment of Materials
125(1)
10.2 Solid Residues from Automobile Use
126(1)
10.3 Liquid Residues from Automobile Use
127(2)
10.4 Gaseous Residues from Automobile Use
129(2)
10.5 Environmental Impacts from Non-design Use
131(1)
10.5.1 Malfunctioning of Vehicles
131(1)
10.5.2 Non-Optimum Vehicle Operation
132(1)
10.6 In-use Infrastructure Impacts
132(3)
10.6.1 Airborne Particle Generation
132(1)
10.6.2 Road and Highway Maintenance
133(1)
10.6.3 Storage of Motor Fuels
134(1)
10.7 Global Climate Change and the Automobile
135(2)
10.8 Photochemical Smog and the Automobile
137(2)
10.9 Stratospheric Ozone and the Automobile
139(1)
10.10 Acid Rain and the Automobile
140(2)
10.11 Mammalian Toxicology and the Automobile
142(1)
10.12 Visibility and the Automobile
142(1)
10.13 Design for Environment Considerations at the Product Use Stage
143(1)
Suggested Reading
144(1)
Exercises
144(3)
11. DESIGN FOR RECYCLING
147(15)
11.1 The Automobile Recycling Sequence
147(1)
11.2 Recycling Today's Junk Cars
148(1)
11.3 Economic Aspects of Automobile Recycling
149(2)
11.4 Recycling Today's Automotive Infrastructure
151(2)
11.5 Design for Recycling
153(5)
11.5.1 Minimize the Use of Materials
155(1)
11.5.2 Minimize Materials Diversity
155(1)
11.5.3 Choose Desirable Materials
155(1)
11.5.4 Make It Modular
155(1)
11.5.5 Eliminate Unnecessary Complexity
156(1)
11.5.6 Make It Efficient to Disassemble
156(1)
11.5.7 Make the Materials Easy to Recover
157(1)
11.6 Future Recycling Possibilities
158(2)
Suggested Reading
160(1)
Exercises
161(1)
12. HOW GREEN IS THE AUTOMOBILE AND ITS INFRASTRUCTURE?
162(31)
12.1 Life Cycle Assessment
162(2)
12.2 The IVL/Volvo EPS System for Life-Cycle Assessment
164(6)
12.3 Streamlined Product Assessment
170(2)
12.4 Assessing Generic Automobiles of Yesterday and Today
172(3)
12.5 The Weighted Matrix
175(3)
12.6 The Doubly-Weighted Matrix
178(4)
12.7 Assessing the Roadway Infrastructure of Yesterday and Today
182(6)
12.8 Summary
188(3)
Suggested Reading
191(1)
Exercises
192(1)
PART IV: FUTURE PROSPECTS 193(26)
13. THE FUTURE OF THE AUTOMOBILE AND ITS INFRASTRUCTURE
193(24)
13.1 Global Trends Affecting the Automobile
193(11)
13.1.1 Trends in System Evolution and Integration
193(1)
13.1.2 Trends in the Structure of Demand
194(1)
13.1.3 Cultural Trends
195(1)
13.1.4 Technology and Resources Trends
196(1)
13.1.5 Environmental Trends
197(7)
13.2 The Personal Transportation Vehicle of the Future
204(5)
13.2.1 Goals for New Vehicle Designs
204(1)
13.2.2 Characteristics of Future Vehicles
204(5)
13.3 The Transportation Infrastructure of the Future
209(4)
13.2.1 Goals for Future Transportation Infrastructure
209(2)
13.2.2 Characteristics of Future Transportation Infrastructure
211(2)
13.4 Summarizing the Future Vision
213(1)
13.5 Moving from Here to There
214(1)
Suggested Reading
215(1)
Exercises
216(1)
14. EPILOGUE
217(2)
APPENDIX A: Environmentally-Responsible Product Matrix 219(17)
APPENDIX B: Conversion Factors and Units of Measurement 236(2)
INDEX 238

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