Inorganic Flexible Optoelectronics: Materials and Applications

Inorganic Flexible Optoelectronics: Materials and Applications

by Zhenqiang Ma, Dong Liu

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Overview

Comprehensively covering inorganic flexible optoelectronics and their applications

This highly application-oriented book provides an overview of the vibrant research field of inorganic flexible optoelectronics ? from materials to applications ? covering bulk materials as well as nanowires, thin films, nanomembranes for application in light emitting diodes, photodetectors, phototransistors, and solar cells.

Edited and written by world-leading experts in the field, Inorganic Flexible Optoelectronics: Materials and Applications begins by covering flexible inorganic light emitting diodes enabled by new materials and designs, and provides examples of their use in neuroscience research. It then looks at flexible light-emitting diodes based on inorganic semiconductor nanostructures ? from thin films to nanowires. Next, the book examines flexible photodetectors with nanomembranes and nanowires; 2-D material based photodetectors on flexible substrates; and IV group materials based solar cells and their flexible photovoltaic technologies. Following that, it presents readers with a section on thin-film III-V single junction and multijunction solar cells and demonstrates their integration onto heterogeneous substrates. Finally, the book finishes with in-depth coverage of novel materials based flexible solar cells.

-A must-have book that provides an unprecedented overview of the state of the art in flexible optoelectronics
-Supplies in-depth information for new and already active researchers in the field of optoelectronics
-Lays down the undiluted knowledge on inorganic flexible optoelectronics ? from materials to devices
-Focuses on materials and devices for high-performance applications such as light-emitting diodes, solar cells, and photodetectors

Inorganic Flexible Optoelectronics: Materials and Applications appeals to materials scientists, electronics engineers, electrical engineers, inorganic chemists, and solid state physicists.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9783527812981
Publisher: Wiley
Publication date: 04/29/2019
Sold by: Barnes & Noble
Format: NOOK Book
Pages: 430
File size: 25 MB
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About the Author

Zhenqiang (Jack) Ma, PhD, is Lynn H. Matthias Professor in Engineering and Vilas Distinguished Achievement Professor in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA. He has received numerous awards, including the 2008 Presidential Early Career Awards, the DARPA Young Faculty Award, and the H. I. Romnes Fellowship.

Dong Liu, PhD, is post-doctoral fellow in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA. She is specialized in the characterization of optical components, including lasers diodes, light-emitting diodes, photodetectors, modulators, and passive components.

Table of Contents

Preface xi

1 Flexible Inorganic Light Emitting Diodes Enabled by New Materials and Designs, With Examples of Their Use in Neuroscience Research 1
Hao Zhang, Philipp Gutruf, and John A. Rogers

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Flexible Micro-Inorganic LEDs (μ-ILEDs) 2

1.3 Flexible Quantum Dot LEDs (QLEDs) 7

1.4 Flexible Perovskite LEDs (PeLEDs) 16

1.5 Flexible 2D Materials-Based LEDs 20

1.6 Opportunities for Flexible Optoelectronic Systems in Neuroscience Research 24

1.6.1 Miniaturized Flexible LEDs and Detectors for Injectable Neural Probes 25

1.6.2 Wireless, Flexible Optoelectronic Systems for Genetically Modified Recording and Stimulation 28

1.6.3 Wireless, Battery-Free Optogenetic Stimulation Devices for Use in the

Peripheral Nervous System 32

1.7 Conclusion 33

References 35

2 Flexible Light-Emitting Diodes Based on Inorganic Semiconductor Nanostructures: From Thin Films to Nanowires 41
Nan Guan and Maria Tchernycheva

2.1 Introduction 41

2.2 Flexible LEDs Based on Thin-Film Transfer 43

2.2.1 Conventional Approaches for Lift-Off and Transfer of Thin Crystalline Films 43

2.2.2 Thin Film Mechanical Transfer Using van der Waals Epitaxy on 2D Materials 47

2.3 Nanowire LEDs and Their Potential Advantages 50

2.4 Flexible LEDs Based on Inorganic Bottom-Up Nanowires 55

2.4.1 LEDs Using a Direct Nanowire Growth on Flexible Substrates 55

2.4.1.1 ZnO Nanowire-Based Flexible LEDs 55

2.4.1.2 Nitride Flexible LEDs on Metal Foils 57

2.4.2 In-plane Transferred Nanowire LEDs 59

2.4.3 Vertically Transferred Nanowire LEDs 60

2.4.4 Novel Approaches for Nanostructure Lift-Off Using van der Waals Epitaxy 65

2.5 Conclusions 68

References 70

3 Flexible Photodetectors with Nanomembranes and Nanowires 79
Munho Kim, Jeongpil Park, Weidong Zhou, and Zhenqiang Ma

3.1 Introduction 79

3.2 Flexible Photodetectors 82

3.3 Performance Parameters 82

3.3.1 Responsivity 82

3.3.2 Detectivity 83

3.3.3 Photoconductive Gain (G) 84

3.3.4 Sensitivity (S) 84

3.3.5 Response Time 84

3.3.6 Ion/Ioff Current Ratio 84

3.4 Fabrication of Donor Substrates for Transferrable NMs 84

3.4.1 Smart-Cut® Technique 85

3.4.2 Epitaxial Growth Technique 86

3.5 Transfer Printing of Single Crystalline Semiconductor NMs 86

3.6 Semiconductor NM-Based Flexible Photodetectors 88

3.6.1 Si NM-Based Flexible Photodetectors 88

3.6.2 Ge NM-Based Flexible Photodetectors 94

3.6.3 III–V NM-Based Flexible Photodetectors 98

3.7 Fabrication of NW-Based Flexible Detectors 100

3.7.1 Synthesis of Single Crystal Si NWs 100

3.7.2 Assembly of NW-TFTs 101

3.8 Fabrication of Flexible Photodetectors Based on AgNWs/CdS NWs 101

3.9 Results and Discussion 103

3.9.1 IV Curve Under Different Incident Light Densities 103

3.9.2 IT Plot Under ON/OFF Switching of Light Source 104

3.9.3 Bending Performance 105

3.9.4 Response and Recovery Time 106

3.9.5 IV Measurement Under Light and Dark Conditions 106

3.9.6 Sensitivity 108

3.9.7 UV Absorption of CdSe, P3HT, and Hybrid Photodetector 109

3.9.8 Responsivity 109

3.10 Conclusions and Outlook 111

References 112

4 2-D Material-Based Photodetectors on Flexible Substrates 117
Qin Lu, Wei Liu, and Xiaomu Wang

4.1 Introduction 117

4.2 Performance Metrics of Photodetectors 118

4.3 Working Mechanisms of 2D Photodetectors 120

4.3.1 Photovoltaic Effect 121

4.3.2 Photo-thermoelectric Effect 121

4.3.3 Bolometer Effect 123

4.3.4 Plasma-wave-Assisted Terahertz Detection 123

4.3.5 Photogating Effect 124

4.4 2D Photodetectors on Flexible Substrates 125

4.4.1 Photovoltaic Effect 125

4.4.2 Photothermal Effect 129

4.4.3 Plasma-wave-Assisted THz Detector 129

4.4.4 Photogating Detectors 135

4.5 Outlook and Perspectives 135

References 136

5 IV Group Materials-Based Solar Cells and Their Flexible Photovoltaic Technologies 143
Ying Chen, Ye Jiang, Yin Huang, and Xue Feng

5.1 Introduction 143

5.2 IV Group Materials-Based Solar Cells 144

5.2.1 Silicon-Based Solar Cells 144

5.2.1.1 Crystalline Silicon-Based Solar Cells 145

5.2.1.2 Amorphous Silicon-Based Solar Cells 149

5.2.2 Germanium-Based Solar Cells 151

5.2.3 Carbon-Based Solar Cells 153

5.3 Flexible Solar Cells Technology with Group IV Materials 155

5.3.1 Bottom-Up Method 155

5.3.1.1 Layer Transfer Method 156

5.3.1.2 SOI Method 156

5.3.2 Top-Down Method 157

5.4 Mechanics Analysis 161

5.4.1 Experimental Study on the Failure Modes 162

5.4.2 Theoretical Analysis of Shear Lag Model 163

5.4.3 Theoretical Mode Based on Fracture Mechanics 166

5.5 Applications 167

5.6 Conclusions 169

References 170

6 Thin-Film III–V Single Junction and Multijunction Solar Cells and Their Integration onto Heterogeneous Substrates 177
He Ding and Xing Sheng

6.1 Introduction 177

6.2 III–V Solar cells 178

6.2.1 Single Junction Solar Cells 178

6.2.1.1 GaAs 178

6.2.1.2 InP 179

6.2.1.3 InGaP 179

6.2.2 Double Junction Cells 180

6.2.2.1 InGaP/GaAs 180

6.2.3 Triple Junction Cells 182

6.2.3.1 InGaP/GaAs/Ge 182

6.2.3.2 InGaP/GaAs/InGaAs 182

6.2.3.3 InGaP/GaAs/InGaAsNSb 183

6.3 Thin-Film III–V Solar Cells on Flexible Substrates 183

6.3.1 Mechanical Spalling 184

6.3.2 Epitaxial Lift-Off 186

6.3.3 Mechanical Designs 190

6.3.4 Microcells with Luminescent Solar Concentrators 191

6.4 Applications 193

6.5 Future Generations 197

6.5.1 More Junctions 197

6.5.2 Mechanical Stack 197

6.5.3 Spectral Splitting 200

6.5.4 Photon Recycling 200

6.6 Conclusion 202

References 203

7 Novel Materials-Based Flexible Solar Cells 209
Dong Liu, Kwangeun Kim, Jisoo Kim, Jiarui Gong, Tzu-Hsuan Chang, and Zhenqiang Ma

7.1 Flexible Perovskites Solar Cells 209

7.1.1 Introduction 209

7.1.2 Preparation of Perovskites Materials 209

7.1.2.1 Solution Process Deposition Approaches 209

7.1.2.2 Vapor-Assisted Solution Deposition Approaches 211

7.1.2.3 Chemical Vapor Deposition Approaches 213

7.1.3 Flexible Perovskite Solar Cell 214

7.1.3.1 Sample Preparation 214

7.1.3.2 Performance Analysis 215

7.1.4 Stability Issues 221

7.1.5 Summary 223

7.2 Flexible CdTe/CdS Solar Cells 224

7.2.1 Introduction 224

7.2.2 Flexible CdTe/CdS Solar Cells on Metal Foil 224

7.2.2.1 Sample Preparation 224

7.2.2.2 Performance Analysis 225

7.2.3 Flexible CdTe/CdS Solar Cells on Polymer Film 227

7.2.3.1 Sample Preparation 227

7.2.3.2 Performance Analysis 228

7.2.4 Flexible CdTe/CdS Nanopillar Solar Cells 229

7.2.4.1 Sample Preparation 229

7.2.4.2 Performance Analysis 230

7.2.5 Flexible CdTe/CdS Solar Cells on Thin Glass 231

7.2.5.1 Sample Preparation 231

7.2.5.2 Performance Analysis 233

7.2.6 Outlook 237

7.3 Infrared Colloidal Quantum Dots Solar Cell 237

7.3.1 Introduction 237

7.3.2 Infrared PbS Quantum Dots Solar Cell 239

7.3.3 Surface Passivation and Air Stability 239

7.3.4 Conclusion 243

References 245

Index 255

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