ISBN-10:
1629582557
ISBN-13:
9781629582559
Pub. Date:
03/31/2016
Publisher:
Taylor & Francis
Inside Cultures: A New Introduction to Cultural Anthropology / Edition 2

Inside Cultures: A New Introduction to Cultural Anthropology / Edition 2

by William Balee

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Overview

Inside Cultures: A New Introduction to Cultural Anthropology / Edition 2

This concise, contemporary, and inexpensive option for instructors of cultural anthropology breaks away from the traditional structure of introductory textbooks. Emphasizing the interaction between humans and their environment, the tension between human universals and cultural variation, and the impacts of colonialism on traditional cultures, Inside Cultures shows students how cultural anthropology can help us understand the complex, globalized world around us. This second edition:

  • includes brand new material on a variety of subjects, including genomic studies, race and racism, cross-cultural issues of gender identity, terrorism and ethnography, and business anthropology;
  • presents updated and enhanced discussions of medical anthropology, European colonialism and disease, the Atlantic slave trade, and much more;
  • offers personal stories of the author’s fieldwork in Amazonia, sidebars illustrating fascinating cases of cultures in action, and other pedagogical elements such as timelines;
  • is written is clear, supple prose that delights readers while informing them

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781629582559
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Publication date: 03/31/2016
Edition description: New Edition
Pages: 340
Product dimensions: 6.90(w) x 9.90(h) x 1.00(d)

About the Author

William Balée is Professor of Anthropology at Tulane University. He has taught cultural anthropology at Tulane since 1991. He received a Ph.D. (1984) degrees in anthropology from Columbia University. His doctoral dissertation was based on fieldwork he carried out among the Tupi-speaking Ka'apor Indians of the eastern Brazilian Amazon. He has continued to do fieldwork among the Ka'apor ever since, as well as among other indigenous lowland South American societies elsewhere in Brazil and in the tropical and subtropical forest regions of Bolivia and Argentina. He is the author of Footprints of the Forest: Ka'apor Ethnobotany: The Historical Ecology of Plant Utilization by an Amazonian People (1994), which won the Mary Klinger Award from the Society for Economic Botany. His other books include Resource Management in Amazonia: Indigenous and Folk Strategies (co-edited with D.A. Posey, 1989), Advances in Historical Ecology (edited, 1998), Time and Complexity in Historical Ecology: Studies in the Neotropical Lowlands (co-edited with C.L. Erickson, 2006), and A Brief Introduction to Historical Ecology (forthcoming in 2016, Routledge). He co-edits the New Frontiers in Historical Ecology Series for Routledge.

Table of Contents

Preface to the Second Edition 13

Preface to the First Edition 15

Chapter 1 The Study of Us 19

Overview 19

Cultural Anthropology and General Anthropology 20

The Species Known as "Us" 20

The Four Fields 22

Cultural Anthropology 22

Ethnography and Participant Observation 23

Ethnology 28

Ethnohistory 28

Enculturation and Cultural Relativism 31

Physical Anthropology 32

Anthropological Archaeology 38

Linguistic Anthropology 40

Holism and the Four Fields 42

Culture and Change 43

Anthropology and Related Disciplines 44

Summary 45

Chapter 2 Sociocultural Universal 47

Overview 47

The Capacity for Culture 48

Cumulative Culture 48

The Capacity for Language 50

Animal Communication 50

Attributes of Language 51

Selected Universals 56

Sociality 56

Concepts of Human Relatedness 58

Transmission of Culture: Enculturation and Diffusion 60

Religion and Art 61

Rules Governing Behavior 64

The Notion of Taboo 64

Ethnocentrism 66

Sex and Gender 67

Age Categories 70

Economy and Exchange 70

Reciprocity 70

Thinking about and Classifying the Environment 72

Basic Color Terms 72

Names for Flora and Fauna 73

Summary 74

Chapter 3 Cultural Variation 77

Overview 77

Variation in Key Cultural Institutions 77

Naming Practices 78

Kinds of Names 79

Rites of Passage 80

Birth Rites 81

Rites of Initiation 81

Sodalities 84

Taboos 84

Food Taboos 85

Contact and Verbal Taboos 86

Enculturation 86

Ethnocentrism 87

Race and Racism 89

Gender 92

Religion 95

Animism and Totemism 95

Organizing Behavior and Belief 96

Cosmologies and Explanations of the Unknown 99

Economic Organization 100

Redistribution 101

Taxation 101

Classification 102

Summary 103

Chapter 4 Where Anthropology Comes From 105

Overview 105

The Eighteenth Century 105

The Enlightenment in Europe and North America 107

The Nineteenth Century 109

Charles Darwin (1809-1882) 109

Lewis Henry Morgan (1818-1881) 110

Karl Marx (1818-1883) 112

Museums 113

The Early Twentieth Century 114

Franz Boas (1858-1942) and the Boasian Research Program 114

Salvage Ethnography 118

Patterns and Configurations of Culture 118

Culture and Personality 120

The Problem of Reductionism 121

Community Studies 122

Social Anthropology in Europe 123

An Exception to Economic Man 123

The Organization of Primitive Society 125

Structural-Functionalism 126

Summary 127

Chapter 5 Contemporary Theory and Method 129

Overview 129

Modernism 130

Cultural Evolution in a New Guise 130

Social and Cultural Anthropology 131

Social Structure and Totemism 132

Ecological and Materialist Theories 135

Postmodernism 137

Culture as Text 138

Power and Discourse 139

Anthropological Sciences versus Humanist Trends 139

Methods in Cultural Anthropology 140

Participation Observation Revisited 140

Arrival Scenes 141

Observations and Interviews 143

Ethnographic Writing 145

The Ethnographic Toolkit 145

Demographic Sampling 145

Studying the Past: Documentary Analysis 146

Studying the Past: Oral History 146

Visual Anthropology 147

Studying the Use of Time 148

Free Listing 149

Summary 152

Chapter 6 Social Organisation 155

Overview 155

One Species, Two Sexes 155

The Sexual Division of Labor 157

Gender and Marriage 158

How and Why People Get Married 159

Usual Marriage Forms 159

Contracting of Marriage 160

Bridewealth 160

Brideservice 161

Dowry 161

Postmarital Residence 162

Descent Rules 163

The Atom of Kinship 167

A Minimal Society Constructed from Kinship 168

The Classification of Relatives 170

Hawaiian and Sudanese Kinship Systems 171

Eskimo Kinship System 173

The Kindred 174

Summary 175

Chapter 7 Politics and Power 177

Overview 177

The Segmentary Model of Society 177

Social and Political Differentiation 180

Egalitarianism 180

Egalitarianism and Artificial Scarcities 181

Ranking 182

Stratification 183

Theories of the State 183

Minimal Complexity 184

Complexification 185

Hydraulic Theory 186

Multilinear Evolution 190

Environmental Circumscription 190

Complexity and Ethnicity 191

Centralization of Authority 192

Ethnic Diversity in States 193

Summary 195

Chapter 8 Ecology, Landscape, and Culture 197

Overview 197

Environmental Impacts of Humans and Their Ancestors 197

Pleistocene Overkill? 199

The Impact of Agriculture on Landscapes 201

The Impact of Hunter-Gatherers on Landscapes 203

Hunter-Gatherers: Simple and Complex 204

Simple Hunter-Gatherers 204

Complex Hunter-Gatherers 205

Agrarian Society 207

Extensive Agriculture 209

The Tropics 209

Temperate North America 209

Forest Islands of West Africa 211

Intensive Agriculture 211

Nomadic Pastoralism 213

Industrial Agriculture 213

Summary 214

Chapter 9 Colonialism and the World System 215

Overview 215

What Is Colonialism? 215

The World System 216

The Expansion of Europe 217

Europe and the Americas Encounter Each Other 218

The Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade 220

Millenarianism and New Ethnic Identities 221

Colonialism in Africa and Australia 225

The Rise of Money and Capital Markets 226

Money and Empire 228

Ethnic Identity 228

Ethnic Politics and the State 231

Summary 232

Chapter 10 Collapse and Change 235

Overview 235

Explanations for Collapse 236

Overshoot 236

Revolt and Rebellion 236

Climate Change 237

Conquest and Colonization 238

A Multivariate View of Collapse 238

Collapses of Civilization 238

Foragers and Farmers 243

Do Foragers Exist? 243

Loss of Agriculture 246

Summary 249

Chapter 11 Applications of Cultural Anthropology 251

Overview 251

Applied Anthropology 251

New Methods, New Research 253

Who Benefits? 254

Anthropology and the Military 256

Cultural Anthropology in World War II 256

Counterinsurgency Efforts during the Cold War 256

Embedding Anthropologists and the Human Terrain System 257

Ethnography at a Distance (Again) and the Study of Terrorism 258

What is more Anthropological, Occupy or Business? 262

Prospects for Applied Anthropology in a Globalized World 264

Medical Applications 264

Food Security and Overnutrition 267

Demystifying Ethnicity and Ethnotourism 268

Aiding Cooperatives 270

Summary 272

Chapter 12 Globalization and Indigeneity 273

Overview 273

Globalization 273

Earlier Kinds of Globalization? 274

The Twenty-First Century 276

Follow the Money 277

Globalization and Cultural Anthropology 281

Indigeneity 283

Resurgence 284

Challenges to the Concept of Indigeneity 285

Indigeneity, Globalization, and Language Loss 287

Indigeneity and Landscapes 288

Cultural Anthropology as Transduction 291

Summary 292

Chapter 13 Concluding Remarks 293

Glossary 297

References 303

Index 327

About the Author 339

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