Institutions and Sustainability

Institutions and Sustainability

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Overview

The institutional perspective on the management of natural resources in the light of the interdisciplinary debate on sustainability is the focus of the agricultural and resource economist Konrad Hagedorn. Institutions and Sustainability reflects the latest trends in combining institutions and sustainability, summarises new conceptual developments in environmental economics and outlines new approaches towards the analysis of governance of natural resources.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781402097430
Publisher: Springer-Verlag New York, LLC
Publication date: 03/28/2009
Pages: 408
Product dimensions: 9.21(w) x 6.14(h) x 0.84(d)

Table of Contents

List of Contributors xvii

1 Institutions and Sustainability: Introduction and Overview Martina Padmanabhan Volker Beckmann 1

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Konrad Hagedorn's Contributions to Institutional Analysis 2

1.2.1 The politics of agricultural and environmental relations 2

1.2.2 Developing institutions to govern sustainability 4

1.2.3 Managing common pool resources 6

1.2.4 The future of institutional analysis 8

1.3 The Contributed Papers 10

1.3.1 Political economy of economic development and agricultural policy 10

1.3.2 Institutions, governance and sustainability 13

1.3.3 Property rights, collective action and natural resources 15

1.3.4 Challenges to institutional analysis towards sustainability 17

1.4 Looking Ahead Towards Sustainable Futures 19

References 19

Part I Political Economy of Economic Development and Agricultural Policy

2 The Political Economy of Agricultural Reform in Transition Countries Scott Rozelle Johan F.M. Swinnen 27

2.1 Introduction 27

2.2 Why did the Communist Party Reform in China, but not in the Soviet Union? 30

2.3 Causes of Differences in Grassroots Support 31

2.4 Experimentation and Reforms 34

2.5 Why Were Agricultural Reforms Implemented Gradually in China, but Simultaneously in Many CEE and the CIS States? 35

2.6 What Are the Causes for the Differences in Land and Farm Reform Strategies? 37

2.7 Concluding Comments 39

References 40

3 Make Law, Not War? On the Political Economy of Violence and Appropriation Benedikt Korf 43

3.1 Hobbes and the Political Economy of Violence 43

3.2 The Economics of Violence: How Order Emerges from Predation 45

3.3 The Anthropology of Violence 49

3.4 Ethnographies ofViolence and Order 51

3.5 Conclusion 57

Acknowledgments 58

References 58

4 A Marathon Rather than a Sprint: The Reform of the Farmers' Pension System in Germany and its Impacts Peter Mehl 61

4.1 Introduction 61

4.2 Reform in the 1980s: Proposals and Resistance 63

4.2.1 The first attempt at reform 63

4.2.2 Redefinition of the reform problem (1984-1987) 64

4.2.3 The Second attempt at reform (1987-1990) 65

4.3 The Agricultural Social Security Reform Law (ASRG) 66

4.3.1 The decision-making process and its rationale 66

4.3.2 Goals and main features of the reform law 67

4.4 Effects of the Reform 71

4.4.1 Effect on social security 71

4.4.2 Stabilisation effects on costs and contributions 74

4.4.3 Distribution effects 77

4.5 Reform Evaluation and Perspectives 78

References 79

5 Complex Policy Choices Regarding Agricultural Externalities: Efficiency, Equity and Acceptability Clem Tisdell 83

5.1 Introduction 84

5.2 Types of Agricultural Externalities 85

5.3 Complications Arising from Thresholds in the Economic Effects of Externalities 87

5.3.1 A Paretian relevant externality 88

5.3.2 An infra-marginal externality which is Paretian relevant for policy and which complicates social decisions 88

5.3.3 Some externalities are Paretian irrelevant 91

5.3.4 Further complications 92

5.4 Adverse Selection as an Unfavourable Externality and Possible Threshold Effects 92

5.5 Environmental Externalities and Sustainability 94

5.6 Equity, Efficiency and Agricultural Externalities 95

5.7 Transaction Costs Involved in Public Regulation of Externalities 98

5.8 The Political Acceptability of Economic Policies 100

5.9 Property Rights in Agricultural Genetic Material and Externalities 102

5.10 Concluding Comments 104

Acknowledgments 105

References 105

Part II Institutions, Governance and Sustainability

6 Multi-level Governance and Natural Resource Management: The Challenges of Complexity, Diversity, and Uncertainty William Blomquist 109

6.1 Introduction 109

6.2 Current Conceptions of Natural Resource Systems 110

6.3 Complexity and Uncertainty in Adaptive Systems 112

6.3.1 Differing rates of change 112

6.3.2 Scale differences and near decomposability 113

6.3.3 Disturbance processes 113

6.4 Implications for the Approach to Management 114

6.5 Implications for the Design of Institutional Arrangements 114

6.5.1 Recognition of scale diversity 115

6.5.2 Reducing error proneness and promoting learning 116

6.5.3 Recognizing the capabilities and limitations of human beings 117

6.5.4 Multiple management goal 118

6.5.5 Recognizing diversity of human communities and interests 118

6.6 A Closer Look at Institutional Options 120

6.6.1 Type I and Type II organizations 120

6.6.2 Public economies 121

6.6.3 Integrative and segregative institutions 122

6.7 Concluding Remarks: Institutional Diversity and Methodological Diversity 123

Acknowledgments 124

References 124

7 Constraints on Rural Governance in the European Union: A Role for Co-operative Associations? Markus Hanisch 127

7.1 Introduction 127

7.2 The Multi-Level Governance Concept 129

7.3 Theoretical Foundations 131

7.3.1 The Samuelsonian preference-shirking dilemma 131

7.3.2 Tiebout's spatial economy and the shopping tour metaphor 131

7.3.3 Voice and loyalty as direct articulations of preferences 132

7.3.4 Some preliminary conclusions 134

7.4 Structural Problems of Rural Areas in the EU-27 134

7.4.1 Population density 134

7.4.2 Unemployment and rural migration 135

7.4.3 Weak service sectors and lower household income 135

7.4.4 Lower educational standards 136

7.4.5 Budget crises, ageing and low tax revenues 136

7.4.6 Lack of authority to levy taxes 136

7.4.7 Disparities between metropolitan and rural areas 137

7.5 Empowerment: Strengthening Self-Organizing Capacities of Rural Communities, but How? 139

7.6 Governance without Government in Rural Areas 141

7.6.1 Foundations 141

7.6.2 A stylized historical model: collective rural entrepreneurship 143

7.6.3 Democratic governance and membership as surrogates for competitive pricing 145

7.6.4 The rise and decline of co-operative associations 146

7.7 Conclusions 149

References 150

8 Making Environmental Administration More Effective: A Contribution from New Institutional Economics Regina Birner Heidi Wittmer 153

8.1 Introduction 153

8.2 A Conceptual Framework for Analyzing MDAs 154

8.2.1 Mission and functions 155

8.2.2 Characteristics of MDAs 156

8.3 Functions and Activities of Environmental MDAs 159

8.4 Designing Environmental MDAs: The Contribution of the New Institutional Economics 161

8.5 Analyzing the Governance Structures of Environmental MDAs 163

8.5.1 Level of integration 163

8.5.2 Level of autonomy 165

8.5.3 Level of centralization/decentralization 167

8.5.4 Interaction with private sector and civil society 170

8.6 Discussion and Conclusions 171

References 172

9 Public Good Markets: The Possible Role of Hybrid Governance Structures in Institutions for Sustainability Guido Van Huylenbroeck Anne Vuylsteke Wim Verbeke 175

9.1 Introduction 175

9.2 The Market Concept Revisited 176

9.3 Hybrid Governance Structures 180

9.4 Extension to Public Good Markets 182

9.5 Conclusion 188

References 188

Part III Property Rights, Collective Action and Natural Resources

10 A Century of Institutions and Ecology in East Africa's Rangelands: Linking Institutional Robustness with the Ecological Resilience of Kenya's Maasailand Esther Mwangi Elinor Ostrom 195

10.1 Introduction 195

10.2 The Ecological Side of an SES 198

10.3 Governance of the SES prior to 1890: A Probable Balance 200

10.4 Governance of the SES During the Colonial Era: Institutions and Ecology in Jeopardy 203

10.5 Governing the SES in the Post-Colonial Period: The Introduction of Group and Individual Ranches 207

10.6 Discussion 211

10.7 Conclusion 214

Acknowledgments 216

References 216

11 The Downgrading Effect of Abuse of Power on Trust and Collective Action in Bulgaria's Irrigation Sector Insa Theesfeld 223

11.1 Introduction 223

11.2 Downward Cascade Between Opportunistic Behavior and Trust 225

11.3 Methods and Research Site 227

11.4 Incongruity of Rules, Information Asymmetry and Abuse of Power 229

11.4.1 Incongruity of formal and effective rules in the irrigation sector 231

11.4.2 Abuse of power in the irrigation sector 234

11.5 Decreasing Trust and Reputation 236

11.5.1 Distrust in formal actors 236

11.5.2 Bad reputation 237

11.6 Conclusions 239

References 241

12 Payment for Environmental Services: Interactions with Property Rights and Collective Action Brent Swallow Ruth Meinzen-Dick 243

12.1 Introduction 243

12.2 Environmental Services, Land use and Smallholder Farmers 246

12.3 A Framework of Function and Welfare Effects of PES 249

12.4 Institutions and the Function of PES Mechanisms 252

12.4.1 Property rights and PES 252

12.4.2 Collective action and PES 255

12.4.3 PES and the potential for poverty reduction 257

12.5 Characterization of Environmental Services 259

12.6 Conclusions 261

Acknowledgments 263

References 263

13 An Institutional Economics Analysis of Land Use Contracting: The Case of the Netherlands Nico B.P. Polman Louis G.H. Slangen 267

13.1 Introduction 267

13.2 Land Lease Contracts in the Netherlands 269

13.3 Contract Choice for Land Leasing 275

13.3.1 Specific investments 277

13.3.2 Uncertainty and incompleteness 277

13.3.3 Frequency 279

13.4 Empirical Model and Data 280

13.5 Results 283

13.6 Summary and Conclusions 287

References 289

Part IV Challenges of Institutional Analysis for Sustainability

14 Sustainability, Institutions and Behavior Arild Vatn 293

14.1 Introduction 293

14.2 The Sustainability Problem 295

14.2.1 Weak and strong sustainability 295

14.2.2 Separation or integration? 296

14.3 Institutions and Rationality 299

14.3.1 There is not only selfishness 299

14.3.2 Interpretations based on maximization of individual utility 301

14.3.3 The institutions-as-rationality-contexts (IRC) hypothesis 302

14.3.4 Empirical support for the institutions-as-rationality-contexts (IRC) hypothesis 303

14.4 Resource Regimes for Sustainability 306

14.5 Conclusion 309

Acknowledgments 310

References 310

15 Institutional Change and Ecological Economics: The Role of Mental Models and Sufficient Reason Achim Schlüet;ter 315

15.1 Introduction 315

15.2 Cognition Within Institutional Economics and Its Relevance for Ecological Economics 318

15.3 Cognition, Mental Models and Sufficient Reason 320

15.4 Mental Models and Sufficient Reason: What is Different? 324

15.5 Methodological Implications: Investigating Mental Models and Sufficient Reason 328

15.6 Conclusions 334

Acknowledgments 335

References 336

16 Analysing Institutions: What Method to Apply? Volker Beckmann Martina Padmanabhan 341

16.1 Introduction 341

16.2 The Tool-Set of Empirical Institutional Economics 343

16.2.1 Case study analysis 343

16.2.2 Econometric analysis 344

16.2.3 Experimental economics 345

16.2.4 Agent-based modelling 346

16.3 Levels of Analysis and Research Questions in Institutional Economics 348

16.3.1 Levels of social analysis 348

16.3.2 Research questions in institutional analysis 350

16.4 Critical Issues in Selecting Methods of Institutional Analysis 353

16.4.1 The question of time 353

16.4.2 Observability, measurability and data availability 357

16.4.3 The role of actors and human behaviour 361

16.5 Conclusions 363

Acknowledgments 366

References 366

Index 373

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