Integral, or structural, foams are one of the most remarkable materials that have been developed over the last fifteen years. As with all rapidly growing fields, the terminology seems to have grown even faster. Thus there are two names for the material structure itself. In the United States and in Japan the term for these plastics is Structural Foams, whereas in Europe and the USSR the term used is usually Integral Foams. We have adhered to the European term in the text and hope our colleagues will bear with us. Integral foams have a specific structure: a cellular core that gradually turns into a solid skin. The skin gives the part its form and stiffness, while the cellular core contributes to the very high strength-to-weight values of the material. These are higher than those of some unfoamed plastics and metals. The sandwich-like structure with its unique mechanical properties was prompted by nature. Wood and bone are strong and light-weight natural materials having a cellular structure. Since the sandwich-like structure of the integral foams resembles that of natural wood, the foams are often referred to as artifical wood or plastic wood, thereby emphasizing not only the formal structural similarity of these materials, but also one of the main functional applications of integral foams - replacement of wooden articles in various fields of engineering and construction.
|Publisher:||Springer Berlin Heidelberg|
|Edition description:||Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1986|
|Product dimensions:||0.00(w) x 0.00(h) x 0.03(d)|
Table of Contents1 General Description of Integral (Structural) Foams.- 2 Starting Materials.- 3 Injection Molding: General.- 4 Injection Molding: Low Pressure Process.- 5 Injection Molding: High Pressure Process.- 6 Injection Molding: Gas Counter Pressure Process.- 7 Injection Molding: Two Component Process.- 8 Reaction Injection Molding Process.- 9 Extrusion.- 10 Rotational Molding and Other Processes.- 11 Secondary Processing.- 12 Comparison and Selection of Integral Foam Processes.- 13 Integral Foam Based on Polyurethanes.- 14 Integral Foam Based on Polystyrene.- 15 Integral Foam Based on Poly(vinyl chloride).- 16 Integral Foam Based on Polyolefins.- 17 Integral Foam Based on ABS-Copolymers.- 18 Integral Foam Based on Polyphenylene Oxide.- 19 Integral Foam Based on Polycarbonates.- 20 Other Types of Integral Foams.- 21 Calculation of Strength and Other Properties.- 22 Design Concepts.- 23 Current and Future Trends.- Firms, Firm-Processes and Grades Index.