ISBN-10:
3540666621
ISBN-13:
9783540666622
Pub. Date:
07/15/2009
Publisher:
Springer-Verlag New York, LLC
Integrated Silicon Optoelectronics

Integrated Silicon Optoelectronics

by Horst K. Zimmermann, H. Zimmermann

Hardcover

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9783540666622
Publisher: Springer-Verlag New York, LLC
Publication date: 07/15/2009
Series: Series in Photonics
Edition description: New Edition
Pages: 354
Product dimensions: 0.81(w) x 6.14(h) x 9.21(d)

Table of Contents

List of Symbols xv

1 Basics of Optical Emission and Absorption 1

1.1 Properties of Light 1

1.2 Energy Bands of Semiconductor Materials 3

1.3 Optical Absorption of Semiconductor Materials 4

1.4 Photogeneration 6

1.5 External Quantum Efficiency and Responsivity 7

2 Theory 11

2.1 Semiconductor Equations 11

2.2 Important Models for Photodetectors 15

2.2.1 Carrier Drift 15

2.2.2 Carrier Diffusion 19

2.2.3 Internal Quantum Efficiency 23

2.2.4 Equivalent Circuit of a Photodiode 24

3 Silicon Technologies and Integrated Photodetectors 29

3.1 Bipolar Processes 29

3.2 Integrated Detectors in Standard Bipolar Technology 32

3.2.1 Photodiodes 32

3.2.2 Phototransistors 34

3.3 Integrated Detectors in Modified Bipolar Technology 35

3.3.1 UV Sensor 35

3.3.2 PIN Photodiode Integration 36

3.3.3 Color Sensor 39

3.4 CMOS Processes 40

3.4.1 One-Well Processes 40

3.4.2 Twin-Well Processes 41

3.5 CMOS-Integrated Detectors 42

3.5.1 Integrated Detectors in Standard CMOS Processes 42

3.5.2 Spatially-Modulated-Light Detector 49

3.5.3 PIN Photodiode Integration 51

3.5.4 Finger Photodiodes 75

3.5.5 Avalanche Photodiodes 84

3.5.6 Bipolar Phototransistors 90

3.5.7 Field-Effect Phototransistors 94

3.5.8 Photonic Mixer Device 98

3.5.9 Particle Detector 99

3.5.10 Charge-Coupled-Device Image Sensors 100

3.5.11 Active-Pixel Sensors 104

3.5.12 Schottky Photodiodes 114

3.5.13 MSM-Photodetectors 122

3.5.14 Polycrystalline Photodiode 127

3.5.15 Amorphous-Silicon Detectors 128

3.6 BiCMOS Processes 134

3.7 BiCMOS-Integrated Detectors 140

4 Optoelectronic Devices in Thin Crystalline Silicon Films 155

4.1 Photodiodes in SOI 156

4.2Phototransistors in SOI 164

4.3 Optical Modulators in SOI 166

4.4 Silicon on Sapphire 169

4.5 Polyimide Bonding 171

5 Silicon Power Devices 173

5.1 Light-Activated Thyristors 173

5.2 Light-Activated Triac 176

6 SiGe Photodetectors 179

6.1 Heteroepitaxial Growth 179

6.2 Absorption Coefficient of SiGe Alloys 180

6.3 Ge-on-Si Photodetector 181

6.4 SiGeC 193

6.5 SiGe Waveguide Photodetector 195

6.6 Long-Wavelength Infrared SiGe Photo conductor 197

6.7 SiGe/Si PIN Hetero-Bipolar-Transistor Integration 201

6.8 SiGe Phototransistors 203

7 Detectors Based on Resonant Cavity 205

7.1 Principle of Resonant Cavity Enhanced Detectors 205

7.2 Example of a Resonant Cavity Enhanced Silicon Detector 208

8 III-V Semiconductor Materials on Silicon 213

8.1 Heteroepitaxial Growth 213

8.2 Flip-chip Hybridization Technique 219

8.3 Bonding 225

8.3.1 Directly Bonded Photodetectors 227

8.3.2 Directly Bonded Light Emitters 232

8.3.3 Indirect Bonding 236

9 Silicon Light Emitters 237

9.1 PN Junctions 237

9.2 Quantum-Size Silicon 239

9.3 SiGe and SiGeC 246

9.4 Rare-Earth Doped Devices 247

9.5 Semiconducting Silicides 251

9.6 Organic Polymers on Silicon 252

9.7 Liquid Crystals 254

10 Integrated Optics 257

10.1 Waveguides 257

10.1.1 Total Reflection 257

10.1.2 Losses 258

10.1.3 Waveguides for Visible and Infrared Light 259

10.1.4 Waveguides for Infrared Light 264

10.2 Waveguide Grating Couplers 267

10.3 Photonic Bandgap Filter and Waveguide 268

10.4 Optical Amplifier 272

10.5 Examples of Integrated Optical Systems 274

10.5.1 Optical Interconnects 274

10.5.2 Optical Transceiver 280

10.5.3 Micro-Spectrometer 281

10.5.4 Optical Pressure Sensor 282

10.5.5 Optical Distance Sensor 283

10.5.6 Optical Pickup Devices 284

10.5.7 Microsystem for Fluorescence Analysis 286

10.5.8 Optical Switches 287

11 Design of Integrated Circuits 289

11.1 Circuit Simulators and Transistor Models 289

11.2 Layout and Verification Tools 294

11.3 Design of OEICs 295

11.4 Transimpedance Amplifier 298

12 Examples of Optoelectronic Integrated Circuits 307

12.1 Digital CMOS Circuits 307

12.1.1 Synchronous Circuits 307

12.1.2 Asynchronous Circuits 311

12.2 Digital BiCMOS Circuits 313

12.3 Laser Driver Circuits 314

12.4 Analog Circuits 317

12.4.1 Bipolar Circuits 317

12.4.2 CMOS Imagers 320

12.4.3 CMOS Circuits for Optical Storage Systems 324

12.4.4 BiCMOS Circuits for Optical Storage Systems 330

12.4.5 Fiber Receivers 338

12.5 Summary 352

References 355

Index 379

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