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Houghton Mifflin Company College Division
Integrating Technology for Meaningful Learning / Edition 3

Integrating Technology for Meaningful Learning / Edition 3

by Mark Grabe, Cindy Grabe


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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780618042913
Publisher: Houghton Mifflin Company College Division
Publication date: 08/28/2000
Edition description: Older Edition
Pages: 473
Product dimensions: 8.00(w) x 9.12(h) x 0.68(d)

About the Author

Mark Grabe is professor in the psychology department and the instructional design and technology program at the University of North Dakota. He earned his Ph.D. in psychology in 1975 at Iowa State University. He has been developing instructional software for approximately 17 years in support of his own research activities. His present projects include evaluating how students make use of online study tools in large lecture introductory classes and helping the University of North Dakota implement a Department of Education Preparing Tomorrow's Teachers to Use Technology (PT3) grant.

Cindy Grabe is employed by the Grand Forks school district as a technology facilitator. Her position requires her to provide training to district teachers, administrators, and staff members, collaborate on curriculum projects, and conduct demonstration activities with students. She is involved in providing continuing educational experiences for teachers in area schools, and she teaches courses for undergraduate pre-service teachers at the University of North Dakota. She was recently awarded a three-year U.S. Department of Education Grant entitled Engaging Students in Historical Inquiry."

Table of Contents

Preface     xxi
A Teaching and Learning Framework for Integrating Technology in Classrooms     1
Key Themes and Issues for Using Technology in Your Classroom     3
Orientation     3
Uses of Technology: An Introduction to Key Themes     4
Physics: Probes and Projects     4
Knowing Nature: Technology as a Tool for the Personal Journey of Learning     7
E-portfolios: Reflection and Evaluation in the Middle-School Methods Class     9
Themes of Technology Use in the Classroom     11
Technology Integrated into Content-Area Instruction     11
Focus: Creative Tension: What Multiple Parties Want from Digital Portfolios     12
A Tools Approach     13
An Active Role for Students     13
A Facilitative Role for the Teacher     14
An Integrated or Multidisciplinary Approach     14
Standards and Performance-Based Assessment     14
Cooperative Learning     14
Spotlight on Assessment: Relating Learning and Assessment     15
Technology in Today's Classroom     16
Students' Access to Technology     16
What Students Do with Computers     17
Resources and Equity     18
Technology and School Reform     19
Key Elements for Twenty-first-Century Learning     19
Restructuring Schools     21
National Standards: Goals for Learning and Expectations for Technology     22
What Are Standards?     22
Standards and Reform     24
Standards for Learning with Technology     24
Standards and Educational Equity     25
Changing the Way Technology Is Used in Schools     25
Focus: ISTE Technology Standards     26
Focus: How Standards May Be Shaping What You Learn about the Application of Technology     27
Three Perspectives on Technology and School Reform     29
"Influence of Computer and Internet Use on Teachers' Pedagogical Practices"     29
"High Access and Low Use...: Explaining an Apparent Paradox"     30
"The Interplay of Teacher Beliefs, Social Dynamics, and Institutional Culture"     30
Teacher Preparation     31
Teacher Training     31
Teacher Attitudes     32
The Activity-Based Model of Technology Use     32
Focus: The National Educational Technology Plan     33
Early Use of Activity-Based Approaches     34
Today's Use of Activity-Based Approaches and Technology     35
Summary      35
Reflecting on Chapter 1     36
Activities     36
Key Terms     36
Resources to Expand Your Knowledge Base     36
Meaningful Learning in an Information Age     38
Orientation     38
Cognitive Models of School Learning     39
Fundamental Properties of Mental Activity     39
Memory Stores     40
Short-Term Memory     40
Long-Term Memory     42
Processes: Mental Tools for Doing the Work of Thinking and Learning     46
Metacognition     47
Metacognitive Knowledge     47
Metacognitive Control Functions     48
Using Technology to Improve Metacognitive Skills     49
Mental Activity: A Recap     50
Conceptual Models of School Learning     51
Meaningful Learning     51
Reception versus Discovery     52
Characterizing Typical Learning Activities     52
When to Use Discovery Techniques     54
Constructivism     54
Spotlight on Assessment: Performance Assessment     55
Reviewing the Common Themes     56
Focus: Are We Abandoning Truth?     57
From Theory to Practice: Teaching, Learning, and the Role of Technology     57
Authentic Activities     58
Inert Knowledge     58
Authentic Activities and Technology     59
Higher-Order Thinking and Transfer     60
Ways to Teach Higher-Order Thinking     62
Transfer: The Low Road and the High Road     63
The Social Context of Learning     64
Focus: Using the Internet for Authentic Activities     65
Cognitive Apprenticeship     65
Cooperative Learning     66
Learning Communities     68
Project-Based Learning     68
Focus: Lev Vygotsky     69
Previewing Technology Options That May Expand How You Think about Student Learning     70
Computer Tools and Thinking Behavior     70
Activities and Projects for Your Classroom: Ideas for Content-Area Projects     71
Hypermedia Projects     71
Research about Learning with Technology     72
Summary     73
Reflecting on Chapter 2     74
Activities     74
Key Terms     74
Resources to Expand Your Knowledge Base     75
Learning How to Integrate Technology with Your Teaching     77
Using Tools: Word Processors, Databases, Spreadsheets, and Data Probes     79
Orientation     79
Productivity Tools in the Work of Teachers and Students     79
The Tools Approach     80
Word Processing     81
Characteristics of Word Processing Programs     82
Text Input     82
Storage and Retrieval     82
Formatting     82
Activities and Projects for Your Classroom: Word Processing Activities for All Grade Levels     83
Editing     84
Special Tools     84
Document Design Capabilities     85
The Value of Word Processing Features     85
Writers, Writing, and Word Processing     86
Focus: Learning Word Processing Features     87
The Writing Process Approach     88
Keyboarding     89
Spotlight on Assessment: Electronic Portfolios     90
Focus: Using Inspiration to Brainstorm     92
Spreadsheets     94
Focus: Publication on the Internet     95
Emerging Technology: Inexpensive "Keyboard" Computers     95
Comparing Winter Temperatures: A Spreadsheet Project     97
Activities and Projects for Your Classroom: Spreadsheet Activities     98
Focus: Using a Spreadsheet to Help Understand the Solution to an Algebraic Equation     100
Databases     101
Developing a Database     102
Investigating Wildflowers: A Database Project     103
Reflections on Spreadsheet and Database Programs     105
Data Collection Devices     106
Examples of Data Collection     107
Using Data Collection to Encourage Higher-Order Thinking     108
Focus: Using a Data Logger to Measure Stress     110
Emerging Technology: GPS and GIS: Interpreting Data in Relationship to Place     112
Geocaching: Encouraging Local Explorations Using GPS     113
Summary     114
Reflecting on Chapter 3     115
Activities     115
Key Terms     115
Resources to Expand Your Knowledge Base     116
Using Instructional Software and Multimedia for Content-Area Learning     118
Orientation     118
"Sniffy, the Virtual Rat": An Example of Learning from the Computer     119
Computer-Based Instruction     121
The Process of Instruction     122
Categories of Instructional Software     123
Tutorials     123
How Tutorials Function     123
Evaluating Tutorials     125
Simulations     125
Operation: Frog-An Example of a Simulation     127
Attributes of Simulations, Learning, and Transfer     128
Advantages of Simulations     129
Drill and Practice     130
Applications of Drill-and-Practice Software     132
Focus of Drill and Practice     133
Educational Games     133
Examples of Educational Games     134
Classroom Uses of Games     137
Exploratory Environments     137
Characteristics of Exploratory Environments     138
Hypermedia Environments     138
Effectiveness of Exploratory Environments     142
Multimedia and Hypermedia in the Delivery of Computer-Assisted Instruction     144
What Are Multimedia, Hypermedia, and Hypertext?     144
What Are CD-ROM and DVD?     145
CD-ROM Technology     145
DVD Technology     146
Other Forms of Multimedia Found in Classrooms     147
Talking Books     147
Multimedia References     149
Learning from Multimedia Instructional Resources     150
Emerging Technology: The Evolution of Multimedia Encyclopedias     151
Strengths and Weaknesses of Multimedia and Hypermedia     152
Advantages of Multiple Formats and Alternative Perspectives     152
Concerns about Multimedia in Classrooms     154
The Evaluation of Computer-Assisted Instruction     157
Summary of Research on CAI     157
Interpreting Contradictory Research Findings: The Arguments about CAI Effectiveness     158
Evaluating Software     160
Evaluation Forms     160
Constructivism and Cooperative Learning with Instructional Software     163
Keeping Current: Locating Appropriate Software     164
Summary     166
Reflecting on Chapter 4     167
Activities     167
Key Terms     167
Resources to Expand Your Knowledge Base     168
The Internet as a Tool for Communication     170
Orientation     170
What Is the Internet?     170
What Roles Can the Internet Play in Education?     173
Internet Tools for Communication     174
Internet Tools for Inquiry     174
Internet Tools for Construction     174
Learning by Communicating     174
E-mail     174
Focus: Making the Connection     175
Mailing Lists     179
Conferences     179
Focus: Joining a List Maintained by a Server     180
Keeping Current: Finding Useful Mailing Lists     181
Chat and Instant Messaging     181
Videoconferencing     182
Telecomputing Activity Structures     184
Advantages and Disadvantages of Computer-Mediated Communication     185
Focus: Capitalizing on Volunteerism through Telementoring     186
CMC's Impact on Discussion     187
Potential Problems with CMC     188
Focus: Netiquette Guidelines     189
Facilitating Online Discussion     191
Your Technical Role     191
Your Social Role     192
Your Managerial Role     192
Your Pedagogical Role     195
Focus: Key Issues for Online Discussions     197
Gaining Experience     197
Summary     198
Reflecting on Chapter 5     199
Activities     199
Key Terms     199
Resources to Expand Your Knowledge Base     200
The Internet as a Tool for Inquiry     201
Orientation     201
A Classroom Example of an Authentic Inquiry Task      202
The World Wide Web and Web Exploration Tools     204
Focus: Internet Addresses     205
Web Browsers     205
Keeping Track of Online Resources     207
Making Bookmarks More Informative     207
Exporting Bookmarks     208
Locating Information on the Web: Browsing versus Searching     209
An Example of Browsing     210
Types of Search Services     210
Search Engine and Directory Combinations     211
Index Search Engines     211
Meta-Index Searches     212
Which Type of Search Engine Should I Use?     212
Conducting a Search     212
Using the Web in Your Classroom     213
Categories of Web Resources     216
Online Tutorials     217
Instructional Resources     217
Primary Sources     217
Focus: Doing History: Supporting History Teachers in Promoting Historical Inquiry     218
Keeping Current: Subscription Information Services     222
Strategies for Using Primary Sources on the Web     222
The Big Six     222
Focus: Issues in Classroom Use of Web Resources     223
Focus: Information Literacy Standards      225
The Big Six and the Internet     225
Information Seeking on the Internet     225
Locating and Accessing Internet Resources     226
Using Internet Information     227
Focus: Citing Internet Sources     228
Evaluating Web Information     228
Editorial Review and Screening of Internet Resources     229
Searching a Database of Reviewed Sites     229
Using Resources Identified by an Educational Portal     229
Digitized Primary Sources from Reputable Institutions     229
Making Your Own Decisions     230
Who Is the Author?     230
Is There an Organizational Sponsor?     231
Additional Evaluation Criteria     231
Using the Web for Active Learning     232
Obtaining Current Weather Data: An Internet Project     232
Scaffolding Web Exploration     233
The Snow Goose Crisis: A WebQuest Example     235
Background     235
Instructional Tasks     236
WebQuest Presentation     236
Conclusion: New Challenges for Teachers     237
Summary     238
Reflecting on Chapter 6     239
Activities     239
Key Terms      240
Resources to Expand Your Knowledge Base     240
Using Multimedia Tools     242
Orientation     242
Who Wants to Be a Millionaire?     242
A System for Classifying Student Multimedia Projects     244
Embellished Documents     244
Linear Multimedia Presentations or Slide Shows     245
Hypermedia     246
Thinking Beyond What Your Projects Will Look Like     246
Activities and Projects for Your Classroom: Slide Show Activities     247
Software Tools for Creating Multimedia Projects     248
Creating Embellished Documents with Word Processing Programs     248
Creating Multimedia Slide Shows     250
KidPix Slideshow     250
Presentation Software     252
Example of a Classroom Presentation     257
Multimedia Authoring Environments for Hypermedia     258
eZediaMX     260
Elements of the eZediaMX System     260
Is PowerPoint a Multimedia Authoring Environment?     264
Emerging Technology: eZediaQTI     265
Other Multimedia Authoring Environments     267
Summary     268
Reflecting on Chapter 7     269
Activities      269
Key Terms     269
Resources to Expand Your Knowledge Base     270
Learning to Work with Images, Sound, and Video     271
Orientation     271
The Case of the Missing Gerbil     271
Tools for Creating and Manipulating Images     273
Paint and Draw Programs     274
Creating Original Images     274
Modifying Existing Images     274
Saving Images That Can Be Used by Application Programs     275
Organizing and Saving Large Image Collections     275
Comparing Paint and Draw Programs     275
Using Graphics Tools in a Writing Assignment     279
Focus: Screen Capture     280
Understanding Graphics File Formats     282
Tools for Capturing Still Images     284
Focus: Graphics for the Web     285
Flatbed Scanners     286
Digital Cameras     287
Still Images from Video     288
Activities and Projects for Your Classroom: Video Images to Capture     289
Locating Image Sources     289
Coloring Books     290
World Wide Web     290
Student Art     291
Clip Art Collections      291
Organizing Your Image Collection     291
iPhoto     292
Working with Video     295
Digital Camcorders     295
Video Production     296
Planning Phase     296
Collecting Primary Sources and Generating Interpretive Products     296
Editing     297
Focus: Camcorder Tips     300
Activities and Projects for Your Classroom: Video Productions     301
Clay Animation: Creating Video by Sequencing Images of Clay Characters     302
Capturing and Storing Sounds for Multimedia Projects     305
Emerging Technology: Background Music     307
Emerging Technology: Digital Audio Recording and Podcasts     308
Learning with Sound and Graphics Tools     309
Summary     310
Reflecting on Chapter 8     311
Activities     311
Key Terms     311
Resources to Expand Your Knowledge Base     312
Learning from Student Projects: Knowledge as Design and the Design of Hypermedia     314
Orientation     314
"Is This the Way It Is?": Creating a Geography Project for an Authentic Audience     314
Knowledge as Design     316
Looking at Student-Authored Hypermedia      317
Principles of Hypermedia Design: The Process of Developing Software     317
Content Organization     318
Experiencing Content in a Variety of Ways     318
Organizational Structure     319
Graphic Design     321
Screen Layout     321
Text Presentation and Writing Style     323
User Interface and Navigation     324
Menus and Maps     324
Buttons     325
Student Cooperation: Fundamentals for Design Teams     326
Going Beyond Factual Information     327
Group Investigation     327
Hypercomposition Design Model     328
Activities and Projects for Your Classroom: Planets     329
Planning     330
Transforming and Translating     330
Collecting Information     330
Spotlight on Assessment Evaluating Projects     331
Generating Knowledge     335
Evaluating and Revising     335
Focus: Experimenting with Different Structures and Linking Systems     336
Focus: Alternative: A Filmmaking Model     337
The Teacher's Role in the Design Process     338
Works of Mind     338
Apprenticeship Method     339
Project Quality     340
Student Projects, Standards, and Restructuring     340
Student Projects on the Web     342
Basic Features and Skills     343
Alternative Ways to Construct Web Pages     345
Word Processing Programs     346
Web Authoring Software for Students     346
Emerging Technology: Blogs and Blogging     347
General-Purpose Web Authoring Software     349
Design Tips for Web Pages     349
Navigation System     350
Page Layout     350
Use of Graphics and Video     351
Text Presentation     352
Learning through Design: The Canada Project     353
Overview and Project Goals     353
Project Specifics     354
Evaluation and Outcomes     357
Summary     358
Reflecting on Chapter 9     359
Activities     359
Key Terms     360
Resources to Expand Your Knowledge Base     360
Looking at Issues for the Present and Future     363
Responsible Use of Technology     365
Orientation     365
Equity of Educational Opportunity      365
Equity and SES     366
Educational Testing Service (ETS) Mathematics Study     369
Role of Educators' Perceptions     370
Equity and the Classroom Teacher     371
Equity and Gender     371
Focus: The E-rate as a Solution for Disadvantaged Schools     373
Equity and Student Ability     375
Adapting Technology for Equal Access     375
Adaptations for Mobility Impairments     376
Adaptations for Visual Impairments     376
Adaptive Web Page Design     376
Emerging Technology: Adaptations for Visually Impaired Web Users     378
Copyright Law and Respect for Intellectual Property     378
Education and Copyright: Issues and Problems     378
Copyright Law     380
Establishing a Copyright     380
Rights, Licenses, and Permissions     381
Copying Computer Software     382
Fair Use     382
Focus: Obtaining Permission to Copy     388
Using Student Work on Web Sites     389
Rules of Thumb: Suggested Answers for the Copyright Questions     389
Protecting Students from Inappropriate Material and Experiences     390
Potential Dangers and Reasonable Protection      390
Focus: Digital Cheating     391
Balancing Freedom and Protection     392
Safe Areas of the Internet     393
Filtering     394
Firewall     394
Stand-Alone Filtering Software     394
Safety Guidelines, Acceptable-Use Policies, and Supervision     396
Safety Guidelines     396
Acceptable-Use Policies     396
Supervision     397
Focus: Rules for the Safe and Appropriate Use of the Internet     398
Summary     399
Reflecting on Chapter 10     399
Activities     399
Key Terms     400
Resources to Expand Your Knowledge Base     400
Glossary     403
References     410
Index     421

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