Interference of Atomic States

Interference of Atomic States

Paperback(Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1993)

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In this monograph we describe an important and relatively new class of phenomena in the field of high-resolution atomic spectroscopy: the interference effects manifest in the angular distribution and polarization of spontaneous radiation and absorption by atoms. Although the quantum-theoretical descrip­ tion of these interference effects is quite subtle, it turns out - as so often in quantum mechanics - that a simple classical or semi-classical description offers much insight and can even explain quantitative features. In this presentation, however, we attempt to give the full story. Beginning with the simple semi­ classical description, we then present the quantum-mechanical analysis based on the density-matrix formalism and the statistical tensor. The remaining two chapters discuss experimental observations and data analysis. A great variety of effects have now been observed and can be used to obtain highly accu­ rate information about hyperfine structure, atomic constants, interaction con­ stants, etc. The authors have assumed only a basic knowledge of quantum mechanics and electromagnetism, thus making the book accessible to those beginning a graduate studies program. It is also aimed at practising spectroscopists and all researchers for whom atomic spectroscopy is an important tool - for these readers it will hopefully offer some new solutions and ideas for furthering their research. February 1993 E. B. Alexandrov M. P. Chaika G. I. Khvostenko Contents 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 2. Classical Description of Interference Phenomena in Radiation 2. 1 The Classical Oscillator Model of Atomic Emission . .

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9783642844447
Publisher: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Publication date: 12/25/2011
Series: Springer Series on Atomic, Optical, and Plasma Physics , #7
Edition description: Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1993
Pages: 250
Product dimensions: 6.10(w) x 9.25(h) x 0.02(d)

Table of Contents

1. Introduction.- 2. Classical Description of Interference Phenomena in Radiation.- 2.1 The Classical Oscillator Model of Atomic Emission.- 2.2 A Classical Oscillator in a Magnetic Field.- 2.3 Emission from an Oscillator in a Magnetic Field.- 2.4 Emission from an Ensemble of Oscillators.- 2.5 Beats in Intensity.- 2.6 The Hanle Effect.- 2.7 Combination of Hanle Effect and Quantum Beats.- 2.8 Beat Resonances.- 2.9 Parametric Resonance.- 2.10 Conclusion.- 3. Quantum Mechanical Description of Interference Phenomena.- 3.1 The Density Matrix.- 3.2 Derivation of the Density Matrix of Ensembles of Excited States from the Wave Equation.- 3.3 The Equation of Motion of the Density Matrix.- 3.4 Spontaneous Emission.- 3.5 Limits of the Density Matrix Apparatus. The Scattering Matrix.- 3.6 Interference Signals.- 3.7 The Radiation Pattern and Polarization for Transitions Between Eigenstates of the Angular Momentum Operator.- 3.8 Influence of Interference Between States on the Polarization of Spontaneous Radiation.- 3.9 Redistribution of Radiated Energy Due to the Interference of Quantum States.- 3.10 Some Results from the Formalism of Irreducible Tensor Operators.- 3.11 Radiation Polarization in the Statistical Tensor Formalism Comparison of the Conclusions of Quantum Mechanical and Classical Approaches.- 3.12 Biaxial Alignment.- 3.13 Level Anti-crossings.- 3.14 Interference Phenomena in Magnetic Resonance.- 3.15 Application of Interference Signals.- 4. Experimental Observation of Interference Signals.- 4.1 Basic Experimental Scheme.- 4.2 Ensembles of Particles.- 4.3 Techniques for Inducing Coherence.- 4.4 Observation of Interference Phenomena.- 4.5 Hanle Effect in Atoms in the Ground State.- 4.6 Manifestation of the Interference of States in Collisions.- 4.7 Quantum Beats upon Pulse Excitation.- 4.8 Coherent Resonances.- 4.9 Other Resonances.- 4.10 Self-Alignment of Atomic States in a Plasma.- 4.11 Hidden Alignment.- 4.12 Self-Orientation.- 4.13 Interference of Atomic States in Astrophysics.- 4.14 Cascaded Transitions.- 4.15 Diffusion of Radiation.- 4.16 Influence of the Laboratory Magnetic Field on the Hanle Signal Shape. False Hanle Signals.- 4.17 Spectral Content of the Exciting Light and Absorption Line Profile.- 4.18 Faraday Rotation.- 4.19 Hanle Effect Due to Excitation That Is Random with Time.- 4.20 Polarization of Atomic Fluorescence in a Flame.- 4.21 Detection of the Polarization Moments by Radioactivity.- 4.22 Use of the Polarization Moments for Improving the Accuracy of Nonlinear Spectroscopic Techniques.- 4.23 Conclusion.- 5. Calculation of Interference Signals.- 5.1 An Atom in a Magnetic Field.- 5.2 The Hyperfine Structure.- 5.3 The Magnetic Dipole Interaction Constant.- 5.4 Quadrupole Interaction Between a Nucleus and an Electron Shell.- 5.5 Transition Matrix Elements of the Electric Dipole Moment.- 5.6 Eigenpolarizations of Transitions.- 5.7 Matrix Elements of the Dipole Transition Between States with Hyperfine Structure.- 5.8 The Stark Effect.- 5.9 Atoms with Nonzero Nuclear Spin in External Fields.- 5.10 Perturbation Operators and Their Matrix Elements.- 5.11 The Zeeman Effect in Atoms with Hyperfine Structure.- 5.12 The Paschen—Back Effect.- 5.13 Hyperfine Splitting in a Weak Magnetic Field.- 5.14 The Stark Effect in Atoms with Hyperfine Structure in a Weak Electric Field.- 5.15 The Stark Effect in Atoms with Hyperfine Structure in Intermediate Fields.- 5.16 Splitting of Atomic Levels with Hyperfine Structure in a Strong Electric Field.- 5.17 Behaviour of Atoms in Combined Fields.- References.

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