Over 1 billion people lack access to safe water while 2.6 billion people lack adequate sanitation. Inadequate availability of safe drinking water and sanitation has given rise to various diseases, where water acts as a medium for the diseases. Water-associated infectious diseases claim up to 3.2 million lives each year, approximately 6 per cent of all deaths globally. The global burden of disease reveals inadequate availability of water, sanitation and hygiene as one of the major risk factors for global ecological deaths.
About the Author
Anjal Prakash is the Executive Director at Saci WATERs, South Asia Consortium for
Interdisciplinary Water Resources Studies based at Hyderabad in Southern India.
He is also the Project Director of ‘Water Security in Peri-Urban South Asia,’
a project funded by IDRC. He has worked extensively on the issues of groundwater management, gender, natural resource management, and water supply and sanitation.
Having an advanced degree from Tata Institute of Social Sciences (TISS), Mumbai,
India, and Ph D in Social and Environmental Sciences from Wageningen University,
the Netherlands, Dr Prakash has been working in the area of policy research, advocacy,
capacity building, knowledge development, networking and implementation of large-scale environmental development projects. Before joining Saci WATERs, Dr Prakash worked with the policy team of Water Aid India, New Delhi, where he handled research and implementation of projects related to Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM).
Dr Prakash is the author of The Dark Zone: Groundwater Irrigation, Politics and
Social Power in North Gujarat, published by Orient Longman. His recent edited books are Interlacing Water and Health: Case Studies from South Asia (2012) by
SAGE Publications and Water Resources Policies in South Asia (2013) by Routledge.
He is presently co-editing books on case studies of IWRM and Peri-Urban Water
Security Issues to be published by Routledge and Oxford University Press, respectively.
V S Saravanan is Senior Researcher at the Center for Development Research (ZEF), University of Bonn, Germany. He specializes in understanding the linkages between urbanisation/globalisation, agriculture and human health in the fast growing economies of developing countries through the sector of water resources management. He has interdisciplinary qualifications from prestigious universities in India, United Kingdom and Australia. He draws on theories of integrated water resources management, new institutionalism in social science (rational-choice, organisational, historical and natural resource institutionalism) and systems approach to analyse risk from global environmental change on water resources and its implications on human health. His favourite topics for research include analyzing power dynamics, policy processes, and spatial scales for water management, which he draws from his research experiences in South Asia and Central Asia.
Jayati Chourey is Senior Fellow (Education and Networking) with Saci WATERs Secunderabad, India. She is also responsible for coordinating the Saci WATERs–Cap Net Network (SCa N). She holds a Ph D in Ecosystem-based Water Resources Management from Indian Institute of Forest Management, Bhopal (Forest Research Institute University, Dehradun), India. The focus areas of her activities are water, ecosystems, health and livelihoods. She has been an Environment Equity and Justice Partnership (EEJP) Fellow, supported by Ford Foundation, during 2005–06. She has worked with ENVID Group, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam, India, for Ecological and Economics Research Network (EERN) coordinated by Indian Institute of Science (IISc), Bangalore, India. She is associated with various environmental and social development forums.
Table of Contents
Series Editor's Note ix
List of Tables xi
List of Figures xvii
List of Maps xix
List of Abbreviations xxi
Part I Backdrop
1 Interlacing Water and Health in South Asia: The Problématique Anjal Prakash Saravanan V.S. Jayati Chourey 3
2 Good Evidences, Bad Linkages: A Review of Water and Health in South Asia Jayati Chourey Anjal Prakash 21
3 Water, Health and Poverty in South Asia: Examining the Interface in India Amita Shah Sajitha O.G. 49
Part II Water Supply, Sanitation and Human Health
4 Madhya Pradesh's Complex Challenges: Undernutrition and Infectious Diseases Biraj Swain 73
5 Inequalities in Access to Safe Drinking Water, Sanitation and Childhood Undernutrition in India William Joe Udaya Shankar Mishra 94
6 Access to Safe Water and Health: Mortality, Morbidity and Malnutrition in Nepal Annette L. Fitzpatrick Meera Kansakar Jason Soh Pam Elardo Kevin C. Fitzpatrick Dibya R. Kansakar 115
7 Disease Burden Linked to Incomplete Water and Sanitation Coverage in Orissa, India Aidan A. Cronin Srihari Dutta 137
Part III Intensification of Agriculture, Water and Health
8 Arsenic Contamination, Toxicity and Health Effects: Cases from India and Bangladesh Nalini Sankararamakrishnan Leela Iyengar 159
9 Arsenic Pollution and Reproductive Health: A Case Study of Murshidabad District in West Bengal Mohua Guha Kamla Gupta 180
10 Water Quality and Human Health in Mewat: Challenges and Innovative Solutions Lalit Mohan Sharma Aravinda Satyavada Archana Chowdhury 200
Part IV Rapid Industrialisation, Water and Health
11 Wastewater Use in Vegetable Production and Its Health Impacts: A Case of Faisalabad, Pakistan Abedullah Shahzad Kouser Faisal Abbas 233
12 Role of Farmers in Protecting Groundwater in Lower Bhavani River Basin of Tamil Nadu, India Sacchidananda Mukherjee 258
13 Industrial Water Pollution and Health Implications: Emerging Issues from Tiruppur, Textile Town of South India Prakash Nelliyat 287
13 Impact of Mining on Water and Human Health: A Case Study of Baitarani River Ecosystem in Orissa Sarmistha Pattanaik 311
Part V Increasing Urbanisation and Water and Health
15 Wastewater in Sri Lanka: Implications on Human Health Mohamed Mujithaba Mohamed Najim Indika Harshani Rajapakshe 335
16 Neglected Frontiers: Peri-urban Water Use and Human Health in the National Capital Region, India Vishal Narain 360
17 Results of Unplanned Programmes: Drinking Water and Sanitation System in Bhaktapur, Nepal Prachanda Pradhan 381
Part VI Natural Disasters, Water and Health
18 Inter-relation between Water, Health and Livelihood in Disasters Papreen Nahar Fariba Alamgir Andrew E. Collins Nibedita Ray-Bennett Abbas Bhuiya 405
19 Health Disasters: Tsunami-induced Public Health Crisis in India Nibanupudi Hart Krishna Parnasri Ray Choudhury 425
About the Editors and Contributors 445