Interlanguage Refusals: A Cross-cultural Study of Japanese-English

Interlanguage Refusals: A Cross-cultural Study of Japanese-English

by Noel Houck, Susan M. Gass

Hardcover

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Overview

Language acquisition is a human endeavor par excellence. As children, all human beings learn to understand and speak at least one language: their mother tongue. It is a process that seems to take place without any obvious effort. Second language learning, particularly among adults, causes more difficulty. The purpose of this series is to compile a collection of high-quality monographs on language acquisition. The series serves the needs of everyone who wants to know more about the problem of language acquisition in general and/or about language acquisition in specific contexts.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9783110163865
Publisher: De Gruyter
Publication date: 05/03/1999
Series: Studies on Language Acquisition [SOLA] Series , #15
Pages: 274
Product dimensions: 6.14(w) x 9.21(h) x 0.69(d)
Age Range: 18 Years

Table of Contents

Acknowledgementsv
1.The study of refusals1
1.Introduction1
2.Refusals2
3.Possible refusal trajectories3
4.Categorizing refusal responses7
4.1.Identifying refusal features7
4.2.Classification systems10
5.Studies of refusals15
2.Issues of methodology21
1.Introduction21
2.Data collection23
2.1.Discourse completion tests26
2.2.Role play28
2.3.Other methodology comparisons30
3.Video data34
4.Data-base34
5.Analysis of interactional aspects -- Effect of open role play36
5.1.Quantitative analysis37
5.2.Qualitative analysis: Classifying the data38
6.Analysis of nonverbal aspects -- Effect of video43
6.1.Nonverbal messages44
6.2.Physical context46
6.3.Directionality and intensity of attention47
6.4.Affect49
6.5.Disadvantages50
7.Conclusion51
3.Episodes55
1.Introduction55
2.The episode56
3.A complete refusal sequence59
4.Analysis66
4.1.Quantitative analysis67
4.2.Qualitative analysis68
5.Interpretation78
6.Conclusion79
4.Non-native management of back channels in English refusals81
1.Introduction81
2.Back channels82
3.Head movement86
4.Japanese and English nonverbal indicators91
5.Issues of methodology93
6.Analysis93
6.1.Ability94
6.2.Distribution: High frequency contexts97
6.3.Distribution: A low frequency context98
6.4.Problems101
7.Conclusion106
5.Nonverbal behavior in non-native English refusals107
1.Introduction107
2.Nonverbal behavior108
2.1.Strategic uses of nonverbal behavior109
2.2.Cross-cultural differences in nonverbal behavior110
3.The data112
4.Comparison of non-native speakers' nonverbal behavior118
4.1.Rie's nonverbal behavior119
4.2.Ryo's nonverbal behavior120
4.3.Mie's nonverbal behavior121
5.Comparison of nonverbal activity of the three non-native speakers128
6.Conclusion129
6.Pragmatic communication strategies131
1.Introduction131
1.1.Communication strategies132
1.2.Pragmatic communication strategies135
2.Questions139
3.General results139
3.1.Question one: Outcomes139
3.2.Question two: Refusal orientation140
3.3.Question three: Strategies143
4.Japanese pragmatic communication strategies143
4.1.Bluntness144
4.2.Indications of linguistic or sociocultural inadequacy146
4.3.Use of the L1149
4.4.Sequential shifts in goal, semantic formula, or content150
4.5.Nonverbal expressions of affect154
5.Conclusion154
7.Searching for common ground157
1.Conversational expectations157
2.Refusal structure163
3.Getting the interaction back "on track"163
3.1.Requests for reasons165
3.2.Unacceptable moves166
3.3.Establishing propositions "in play"167
4.Conclusion171
8.Language use and language learning173
1.Introduction173
2.Second language acquisition, negotiation of meaning and negative evidence174
2.1.Interaction hypothesis176
2.2.Language knowledge180
2.3.Specific kinds of evidence183
2.4.Availability of evidence186
3.Attention and noticing188
4.Interlanguage pragmatics196
4.1.The development of pragmatic knowledge196
4.2.Negotiation of meaning200
5.Conclusion201
9.Epilogue203
Appendices
Appendix I207
Appendix II209
Appendix III211
Notes217
References227
Subject index247
Author index261

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