International Law / Edition 1

International Law / Edition 1

by Vaughan Lowe
Pub. Date:
Oxford University Press, USA


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International Law / Edition 1

In the established tradition of the Clarendon Law Series, International Law is both an introduction to the subject and a critical consideration of its central themes and debates. Of all legal subjects, international law is at once the most closely connected to related disciplines such as economics and politics, and arguably the least understood, even by lawyers. For the past two decades it has been the focus of intense analysis and comment by legal philosophers, international relations specialists, linguists, professional lawyers, historians, economists, and political scientists, as well as those who study, teach, and practice the discipline. This book explains how through the organizing concepts of territory, sovereignty, and jurisdiction international law seeks to establish a set of principles by which the authority to make and enforce policies is distributed among States.

The opening chapters of the book explain how international law underpins the international political and economic system by establishing the basic principle of the independence of States, and their right to choose their own political, economic, and cultural systems. Subsequent chapters focus on the principles that limit independence and freedom of choice; in particular, the principles of international human rights law and the frameworks for addressing global and economic issues. Two final chapters look at the international law principles applicable to the use of force and action against 'terrorism', and at the processes for the prevention and settlement of international disputes.

About the Author:
Vaughan Lowe is Chichele Professor of Public International Law, and a Fellow of All Souls College,University of Oxford

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780199268849
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
Publication date: 10/26/2007
Series: Clarendon Law Series
Edition description: New Edition
Pages: 250
Product dimensions: 8.40(w) x 5.40(h) x 0.80(d)

Table of Contents

Abbreviations     xi
Table of Cases     xiii
Table of International Conventions and Treaties     xvii
Introduction and Overview: The Ambit of International Law     1
Aim of the book     1
The scope and nature of international law     5
The changing scope of international law     11
The emergence of international organizations     13
The emergence of new international actors     14
Why do people comply with international law?     18
Why should people comply with international law?     24
How international law is invoked and applied     28
The domestic analogy     29
How International Law is Made     34
Customary international law     36
The component elements of customary international law     36
Opinio juris: acceptance of a practice as law     38
The time element     41
What counts as State practice     42
Collections of State practice     46
How rules are discerned     47
Some aspects of opinio juris     50
Local and regional custom     53
Persistent objection     55
Jus cogens     58
Institutions     60
How customary law changes     61
Treaties     64
Making treaties     65
Reservations to treaties     68
Treaty interpretation     73
Invalid treaties     74
Release from treaty obligations     77
Amending treaties     80
Treaties and customary international law     81
Treaty collections     86
Other sources of law     87
General principles of law     87
Unilateral acts of States     88
The role of international organizations in law-making     90
International law and non-legal sources of norms     97
The Principles of the International Legal System     100
The prohibition on the threat or use of force     101
The duty to settle disputes peacefully     104
The duty of non-intervention     104
The duty to co-operate     110
The principle of equal rights and self-determination of peoples     113
The principle of sovereign equality of States     114
The principle of good faith     116
The nature of the Declaration on Principles of International Law     118
State responsibility      119
Implementing State responsibility     122
Personality and the scope of application of international law     122
International law in domestic courts     125
International law in international tribunals     127
Diplomatic protection of nationals     132
International law outside tribunals     134
States     136
Introduction: territories, borders, and States     136
State territory     138
Intertemporal law and the modes of acquiring territory     140
Prescription     144
Occupied territories, decolonization, and uti possidetis     146
Governing without sovereignty     148
Borders and frontiers     150
The State     153
The population     153
Nationality     154
Statelessness     155
The territory     156
The government     156
Independence: the capacity to enter into relations with the other States     157
Legitimacy     159
Recognition: where principle and expediency meet     160
Recognition and Statehood in domestic law     166
State succession     169
Inside the State      170
State jurisdiction     170
Jurisdiction over territory     172
Maritime jurisdiction     173
Jurisdiction over nationals     174
Protective jurisdiction     176
Universal jurisdiction     177
Other extra-territorial extensions of jurisdiction     179
Treaty-based jurisdiction     180
Competing and conflicting jurisdiction     181
Extradition and legal co-operation     181
Resolving jurisdictional conflicts     183
Enforcing jurisdiction     184
Immunities     184
Other limitations on the exercise of a State's jurisdiction     186
The Global Economy     188
Introduction     188
The creation of the Bretton Woods system, the GATT, and the Havana Conference     192
The World Bank     194
The IDA and the IFC     196
Foreign investments, the ICSID, and MIGA     197
The IMF and the international monetary system     205
The international trading system     215
The GATT and the WTO     217
Commodity and energy agreements     227
Regional economic arrangements     230
Final observations      232
The Global Environment     234
The environment and the limitations of law     234
Alternative approaches     239
Transboundary harm     240
Trusteeship and the community resources approach     243
Changing attitudes to the environment     250
The Stockholm Declaration 1972     251
UNCED, the Rio Declaration, and Agenda 21, 1992     256
Techniques     258
Prohibitions     259
Setting targets     259
Information and informed consent     260
Environmental impact assessment     261
Licensing     261
Monitoring and reporting     262
Safe procedures and cleaning up     262
Liability     262
The broader view     263
The Use of Force     264
Introduction     264
The use of force in international law     267
The Charter system     270
Uses of force authorized by the United Nations     271
Self-defence     275
Humanitarian intervention     280
The law of armed conflict     282
War and crime     287
Postscript      290
Index     291

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