Geographically, historically and culturally Vietnam was profoundly influenced by Chinese culture due to more than 1,000 years under Chinese rule. Chinese influence was less important in Vietnam from 1884 to 1945 after the French occupied Cochinchina and established their protectorate in Tonkin and Annam. By the end of the 19th century almost all the Vietnamese resistance forces were defeated by the French. The Vietnamese revolutionaries looked for different paths of national liberation, and thought of foreign aid. Phan Boi Chau and Cuong De admired the Japanese reforms. He founded Phong Trao Dong Du (Journey to the East Movement). Phan Chu Trinh loved Western democracy and modernization in exhorting non- violence (ahimsa). He was the soul of the Modernization Movement. Nguyen Tat Thanh (Ho Chi Minh) leaned toward the Comintern. He founded Vietnam Thanh Nien Cach Mang Dong Chi Hoi (Vietnam Revolutionary Youth Association) in 1925, and Dang Cong San Viet Nam (Vietnam Communist Party) in 1930. He played an important role in the Vietnamese revolutions in the 20th century. Nguyen Thai Hoc headed Viet Nam Quoc Dan Dang (Vietnam Kuomintang), and adopted San Min Chu I (Three People’s Principles) promoted by Sun Yat- sen. Bui Quang Chieu founded Dang Lap Hien (Constitutionalist Party), cherishing Phap- Viet De Hue (Franco- Vietnamese Cooperation). Ta Thu Thau, Phan Van Hum, Ho Huu Tuong chose Trotskyism known as the Fourth International. Ngo Dinh Diem was a mandarin. Nguyen Van Thieu and Nguyen Cao Ky were military men. They all were trained and educated by the French before being backed by Washington to become leaders of the Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam). International Politico- Cultural Influences on Vietnam in the 20th Century was the summary of the influences of the Big Five and Japan on Vietnam in the 20th century. It showed the readers how important foreign aid was in Vietnam, how Vietnam was modified by foreign aid, and how complicated the Vietnam problems were for not digesting different political doctrines and cultures smoothly.
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