Introduction To 3g Mobile Communications 2nd Edition

Introduction To 3g Mobile Communications 2nd Edition

by Juha Korhonen


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This revised edition of an Artech House bestseller provides an up-to-date introduction to third-generation (3G) mobile communication system principles, concepts, and applications. The book clearly presents the basics of UMTS systems in one comprehensive volume, without the use of advanced mathematics. The second edition includes an even more thorough treatment of potential 3G applications and descriptions of new, emerging technologies such as 3G System Release 5, HSDPA, and Multimedia Broadcast/Multicast Service (MBMS). It also features discussions on both 3GPP and 3GPP2 evolution paths, the specification process, and future 3G upgrades. Introduction to 3G Mobile Communications, Second Edition provides a complete overview of UMTS systems, information on the latest 3G technology standards, a review of the wideband CDMA air interface, network architecture details, and guidance in network planning and management. Other key topics include new concepts in the UMTS network, 3G system signaling procedures, 3G services and applications, modulation and coding, and standardization organizations and industry groups. An exhaustive list of references, including key Web site addresses, is provided in every chapter to help readers gain access to further information.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781580535076
Publisher: Artech House, Incorporated
Publication date: 01/31/2003
Series: Mobile Communications Series
Edition description: 2ND
Pages: 568
Product dimensions: 7.00(w) x 10.00(h) x 1.25(d)

About the Author

Juha Korhonen is a research engineer at TTPCom Ltd., UK. He holds an M.Sc. in data communications and a Licenciate degree in technology from the Lappeenranta University of Technology, Finland.

Read an Excerpt

Chapter 8: Network

8.1 General Discussion

A one-sentence description of the 3GPP concept might be: "A CDMA packet-based air interface combined with a GSM + GPRS core network." ITU's 3G concept, known as IMT-2000, includes several other accepted technologies for 3G systems. However, the referenced WCDMA + GSM combination will be the most widely used. The simple reason for this is the fact that among the second-generation mobile cellular networks, GSM is by far the most widely used technology. All of the significant 3G proposals for IMT-2000 are those that successfully protect the investments in their 2G legacy networks in a 3G world. The 3GPP work strives to protect the GSM investments and bring the markets into 3G. The present-day operators will not want to invest in new networks if they can iarecyclely their existing GSM networks. Most big network manufacturers and operators are actively supporting this approach. So for these operators this 3G solution is a good deal, because they can continue to use their upgraded GSM networks. In many cases the radio access network can be updated to conform to the 3G requirements. The mobile phone users however are not so lucky, as they will need new phones that are capable of accessing WCDMA base stations. Most probably, these phones will have to be dual-system GSM + WCDMA phones at first, since the UTRAN radio access network coverage will be quite limited at service launch. The UTRAN may only provide coverage in urban hot-spots in the beginning, as the old GSM networks will be used to provide wide-area service.

The IMT-2000 network is divided into two logical concepts, the core network (CN) and the generic radio access network (GRAN). The noble idea behind this arrangement is that the GRAN will be capable of connecting, perhaps simultaneously, to several different core networks, such as GSM, B-ISDN + IN, or a packet data network. The GRAN could be implemented, for example, as a GSM BSS, DECT, LAN, CATV, or Hiperlan2, network. 3GPP has also specified a new dedicated UMTS radio access network (RAN) called the UTRAN (UMTS Terrestrial RAN). An important requirement for the GRAN implementations is that they conform to the Iu interface specifications. Note however that the 3GPP Release 99 specifications only contain provisions for the GSM-MAP (including GPRS) and the ANSI-41 core networks.

In GSM terms, the GRAN contains the base station subsystem; that is, the BTS and the BSC. In the 3GPP specifications, the generic GRAN concept is translated into a concrete UTRAN network in which the base transceiver station (BTS) has the curious name Node B. The new name for the base station controller (BSC) is the radio network controller (RNC).

Between the GRAN and the core network we find the Iu interface, and between the GRAN and the UE we see the Uu interface (radio interface). See Figure 8.1.

8.2 Evolution from GSM

It must be noted that a GSM phase 2+ network provides a smooth transition path to UMTS, especially if the operator also operates a GPRS network. GSM networks have been updated little by little to include more and more features. Table 8.1 (from [31]) shows how well the future GSM 2.5G network will comply with the UMTS requirements.

As we can see in Table 8.1, a GSM network with all the add-ons very closely mimics a UMTS network. The only difference is the more flexible and capable UMTS air interface, which can handle different bearer types at the same time. Real-time services are confined to dedicated connections whereas non-real-time low bandwidth services can quite easily use shared communication channels, which can more easily be changed dynamically.

UMTS can also achieve higher bit rates, but it must be noted that the differences between UMTS and 2.5 GSM are not so large from the user point of view. A GSM with all the 2.5G upgrades could achieve close to 200 Kbps user data rates. In theory (and in the marketing talk) GSM could approach 384 Kbps rates. If a UTRAN network wants to exceed this speed, it has to use very low spreading factors, and allocate the resources of a base station mostly to one user. When a GSM base station offers close to 200 Kbps speeds to one user, it only uses one of its frequency carriers; there are probably several other carriers still available for other users. But a typical WCDMA base station has only one downlink frequency carrier, and if one user is provided with a downlink connection of over 2 Mbps, then other users are left with nothing. In practice the situation is not so bad, since high-speed traffic is typically bursty and not continuous, and thus several users can have high data rates momentarily. There are also techniques to enhance the UTRAN's downlink capacity further, like sectorization, smart antennas, and addi- tional scrambling codes.

We can see that a GSM + GPRS combination provides a very good foundation for the UMTS core network building process. The biggest operator investment will clearly be building out the radio access network. We are excluding the operator license fees here, as they are not technology related to the network's implementation. Some of the latest GSM base stations are, however, said to be upgradeable to UTRAN standards.

Note that the easy accommodation of GSM for the UMTS requirements may also be a problem for new UMTS operators, since the existing GSM (non-UMTS) operators can provide almost the same services without the extra UMTS investments. The competition will be hard for the new UTMS operators in the early phases, and it is especially hard for the new UMTS operators, which do not have an existing 2G network. It is very expensive for them to build out wide area coverage 3G networks, while they don't have any income from existing networks. Furthermore, in many countries the operating licenses are very expensive. The combined cost burden from the licensing fees, interest and network construction can push a new green-field operator into a very unfavorable position. Telecommunication authorities may have to do some creative thinking to find ways to help these companies. One way to ease the situation would be to force the current 2G network operators to lease their networks to new 3G operators, so that they can provide wider coverage for their customers from the beginning. There are already successful examples of this concept in the GSM world. New GSM-1800 operators have been able to provide wider coverage by leas- ing GSM-900 capacity from existing operators in some countries. Note that these old operators are competitors for the new networks, so the telecommunication authority must be very careful in their decisions so that free competition is not obstructed more than absolutely necessary.

8.3 UMTS Network Structure

Figure 8.2 depicts the UMTS architecture at the very highest level. This chapter concentrates on both the core network (CN) and the UTRAN. Section 8.4 discusses the CN, and section 8.5 handles the UTRAN. The interfaces between the UE and the UTRAN (Uu interface) and between the UTRAN and the CN (Iu) are open multivendor interfaces. Note that most of the first seven chapters of this book are dedicated to the Uu interface, with its WCDMA technology....

Table of Contents

1.1History of Mobile Cellular Systems1
1.2Overview of 3G8
1.3Proposals for 3G Standard10
1.63G Evolution Paths23
2Principles of CDMA25
2.1Radio-Channel Access Schemes25
2.2Spread Spectrum28
2.3RAKE Receiver32
2.4Power Control32
2.6Multiuser Detection47
3WCDMA Air Interface: Physical Layer49
3.3Spreading and Scrambling Codes81
3.5Transport Formats92
3.6Data Through Layer 197
4Modulation Techniques and Spread Spectrum101
4.1Spreading Techniques101
4.2Data Modulation104
5Spreading Codes111
5.1Orthogonal Codes112
5.2PN Codes114
5.3Synchronization Codes117
5.4Autocorrelation and Cross-Correlation118
5.5Intercell Interference119
6Channel Coding121
6.1Coding Processes121
6.2Coding Theory122
6.3Block Codes123
6.4Convolutional Codes125
6.5Turbo Codes127
6.6Channel Coding in UTRAN129
7Wideband CDMA Air Interface: Protocol Stack131
7.1General Points131
7.2Control Plane133
7.6RRC Protocol States183
7.7Location Management in UTRAN187
7.8Core Network Protocols in the Air Interface190
7.9User Plane196
7.10Packet Data Convergence Protocol196
7.11Broadcast/Multicast Control198
7.12Data Protocols200
7.13Dual-System Protocol Stack in UE201
8.1General Discussion203
8.2Evolution from GSM204
8.3UMTS Network Structure206
8.4Core Network208
8.5UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network213
8.6GSM Radio Access Network216
8.8Network Protocols233
8.9UMTS Network Evolution--Release 5243
9Network Planning251
9.1Importance of Network Planning251
9.2Differences Between TDMA and CDMA251
9.3Network Planning Terminology255
9.4Network Planning Process256
9.5Network Planning in WCDMA262
9.6Admission Control272
9.7Congestion Control276
10Network Management279
10.1Telecommunication-Management Architecture279
10.4Service Providers Versus Operators298
11.1RRC Connection Procedures303
11.2Radio Bearer Procedures306
11.3Data Transmission323
11.5Random Access Procedure340
12New Concepts in the UMTS Network343
12.1Location Services343
12.2High-Speed Downlink Packet Access355
12.3Multimedia Broadcast/Multicast Service358
12.4Multimedia Messaging Service361
12.7Gateway Location Register374
12.8Optimal Routing378
12.9Adaptive Multirate Codec381
12.10Support of Localized Service Area384
12.11Smart Antennas386
133G Services395
13.1Service Categories395
13.3Bearer Services397
13.4Supplementary Services399
13.5Service Capabilities399
13.6QoS Classes402
143G Applications407
14.1Justification for 3G407
14.2Path into the Market409
14.3Applications As Competition Tools410
14.4Application Technologies411
14.6Traffic Characteristics of 3G Applications422
14.8Examples of 3G Applications427
15The Future441
15.1New Spectrum441
15.33G Upgrades459
15.4Downlink Bottleneck461
15.54G Vision472
16.1Specification Process480
16.33GPP Specifications484
Appendix ACellular User Statistics487
Appendix B3GPP Specifications491
Appendix CUseful Web Addresses509
Appendix DNokia Communicator513
Appendix EStandardization Organizations and Industry Groups515
About the Author523

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